1.Leriche, R. Über Chirurgischen Eingriff bei Parkinson's scher Krankheit. Neurologische Zeitblaetter 1912; 13: 1093–6.
2.Putnam, T. Relief from unilateral paralysis agitans by section of the pyramidal tract. Arch Neurol 1938; 40: 1049–50.
3.Krack, P, Pollak, P, Limousin, P, et al. Subthalamic nucleus or internal pallidal stimulation in young onset Parkinson's disease. Brain 1998; 121: 451–7.
4.Marsden, C, Parkes, JD, Quinn, N. Fluctuations of disability in Parkinson's disease: clinical aspects. In: Marsden, CD, Fahn, S, eds. Movement Disorders. London: Butterworths; 1982; 96–122.
5.Laitinen, LV, Bergenheim, AT, Hariz, MI. Ventroposterolateral pallidotomy can abolish all parkinsonian symptoms. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1992; 58: 14–21.
6.Shannon, KM, Penn, RD, Kroin, JS, et al. Stereotactic pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Efficacy and adverse effects at 6 months in 26 patients. Neurology 1998; 50: 434–8.
7.Intemann, PM, Masterman, D, Subramanian, I, et al. Staged bilateral pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson disease. J Neurosurg 2001; 94: 437–44.
8.Siegfried, J, Lippitz, B. Bilateral chronic electrostimulation of ventroposterolateral pallidum: a new therapeutic approach for alleviating all parkinsonian symptoms. Neurosurgery 1994; 35: 1126–9; discussion 1129–30.
9.Kumar, R, Lang, AE, Rodriguez-Oroz, MC, et al. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus pars interna in advanced Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2000; 55 (Suppl. 6): S34–9.
10.Dostrovsky, JO, Hutchison, WD, Lozano, AM. The globus pallidus, deep brain stimulation, and Parkinson's disease. Neuroscientist 2002; 8: 284–90.
11.Merello, M, Starkstein, S, Nouzeilles, MI, Kuzis, G, Leiguarda, R. Bilateral pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson's disease induced corticobulbar syndrome and psychic akinesia avoidable by globus pallidus lesion combined with contralateral stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001; 71: 611–4.
12.Alexander, GE, DeLong, MR, Strick, PL. Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci 1986; 9: 357–81.
13.Albin, RL, Young, AB, Penney, JB. The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends Neurosci 1989; 12: 366–75.
14.Alexander, GE, Crutcher, MD, DeLong, MR. Basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits: parallel substrates for motor, oculomotor, “prefrontal” and “limbic” functions. Prog Brain Res 1990; 85: 119–46.
15.Grafton, ST, DeLong, M. Tracing the brain's circuitry with functional imaging. Nat Med 1997; 3: 602–3.
16.Anderson, ME, Postupna, N, Ruffo, M. Effects of high-frequency stimulation in the internal globus pallidus on the activity of thalamic neurons in the awake monkey. J Neurophysiol 2003; 89: 1150–60.
17.McIntyre, CC, Savasta, M, Kerkerian-Le Goff, L, Vitek, JL. Uncovering the mechanism(s) of action of deep brain stimulation: activation, inhibition, or both. Clin Neurophysiol 2004; 115: 1239–48.
18.Brown, P, Oliviero, A, Mazzone, P, et al. Dopamine dependency of oscillations between subthalamic nucleus and pallidum in Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 1033–8.
19.Brown, P, Mazzone, P, Oliviero, A, et al. Effects of stimulation of the subthalamic area on oscillatory pallidal activity in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol 2004; 188: 480–90.
20.Miocinovic, S, Somayajula, S, Chitnis, S, Vitek, JL. History, applications, and mechanisms of deep brain stimulation. JAMA Neurol 2013; 70: 163–71.
21.Okun, MS. Deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 1529–38.
22.Rodriguez, RL, Fernandez, HH, Haq, I, Okun, MS. Pearls in patient selection for deep brain stimulation. Neurologist 2007; 13: 253–60.
23.Gross, RE, Krack, P, Rodriguez-Oroz, MC, Rezai, AR, Benabid, AL. Electrophysiological mapping for the implantation of deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease and tremor. Mov Disord 2006; 21 (Suppl. 14): S259–83.
24.Cersosimo, MG, Raina, GB, Benarroch, EE, et al. Micro lesion effect of the globus pallidus internus and outcome with deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson disease and dystonia. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1488–93.
25.Duker, AP, Espay, AJ. Surgical treatment of Parkinson disease: past, present, and future. Neurol Clin 2013; 31: 799–808.
26.Rodriguez-Oroz, MC, Obeso, JA, Lang, AE, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a multicentre study with 4 years follow-up. Brain 2005; 128: 2240–9.
27.Rodrigues, JP, Walters, SE, Watson, P, Stell, R, Mastaglia, FL. Globus pallidus stimulation improves both motor and nonmotor aspects of quality of life in advanced Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1866–70.
28.Loher, TJ, Burgunder, JM, Weber, S, Sommerhalder, R, Krauss, JK. Effect of chronic pallidal deep brain stimulation on off period dystonia and sensory symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73: 395–9.
29.Weaver, FM, Follett, KA, Stern, M, et al. Randomized trial of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease: thirty-six-month outcomes. Neurology 2012; 79: 55–65.
30.Deep-Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Study Group. Deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the pars interna of the globus pallidus in Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 956–63.
31.Weaver, FM, Follett, K, Stern, M, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation vs best medical therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009; 301: 63–73.
32.Anderson, VC, Burchiel, KJ, Hogarth, P, Favre, J, Hammerstad, JP. Pallidal vs subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2005; 62: 554–60.
33.Follett, KA, Weaver, FM, Stern, M, et al. Pallidal versus subthalamic deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 2077–91.
34.Odekerken, VJ, van Laar, T, Staal, MJ, et al. Subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus bilateral deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease (NSTAPS study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2013; 12: 37–44.
35.Rothlind, JC, Cockshott, RW, Starr, PA, Marks, WJ Jr. Neuropsychological performance following staged bilateral pallidal or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2007; 13: 68–79.
36.Okun, MS, Fernandez, HH, Wu, SS, et al. Cognition and mood in Parkinson's disease in subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation: the COMPARE trial. Ann Neurol 2009; 65: 586–95.
37.Zahodne, LB, Okun, MS, Foote, KD, et al. Greater improvement in quality of life following unilateral deep brain stimulation surgery in the globus pallidus as compared to the subthalamic nucleus. J Neurol 2009; 256: 1321–9.
38.Rocchi, L, Carlson-Kuhta, P, Chiari, L, et al. Effects of deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus on step initiation in Parkinson disease: laboratory investigation. J Neurosurg 2012; 117: 1141–9.
39.Oyama, G, Foote, KD, Jacobson, CE 4th, et al. GPi and STN deep brain stimulation can suppress dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012; 18: 814–18.
40.Moro, E, Lozano, AM, Pollak, P, et al. Long-term results of a multicenter study on subthalamic and pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Movement Dis 2010; 25: 578–86.
41.Rouaud, T, Dondaine, T, Drapier, S, et al. Pallidal stimulation in advanced Parkinson's patients with contraindications for subthalamic stimulation. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 1839–46.
42.Liu, Y, Li, W, Tan, C, et al. Meta-analysis comparing deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus to treat advanced Parkinson disease. J Neurosurg 2014; 121: 709–18.
43.Taba, HA, Wu, SS, Foote, KD, et al. A closer look at unilateral versus bilateral deep brain stimulation: results of the National Institutes of Health COMPARE cohort. J Neurosurg 2010; 113: 1224–9.
44.Trepanier, LL, Kumar, R, Lozano, AM, Lang, AE, Saint-Cyr, JA. Neuropsychological outcome of GPi pallidotomy and GPi or STN deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Brain Cogn 2000; 42: 324–47.
45.Rothlind, JC, York, MK, Carlson, K, et al. Neuropsychological changes following deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease: comparisons of treatment at pallidal and subthalamic targets versus best medical therapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014; 86: 622–9.