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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: April 2014

Section 4 - Nutritional Support for Specific Conditions and Pathologies

Further reading

AlsbjoernB, GilbertP, HartmannB, et al. Guidelines for the management of partial-thickness burns in general hospital or community setting: recommendations of a European working party. Burns 2007;33:155–160.
DaviesJWL, LiljedahlS. Metabolic consequences of an extensive burn. In: PolkHC, StoneHH (eds) Contemporary Burn Management. Boston: Little, Brown and Company; 1971:151.69.
DayT, DeanP, AdamsMC, et al. Nutritional requirements of the burned child: the Curreri Junior Formula. Proc Am Burn Assoc 1986;18:86.
For deG, JenningsM, AndrassyRI. Serum albumin (oncotic pressure) correlates with enteric feeding tolerance in the pediatric surgical patient. J Pediatr Surg 1987;22:597–600.
HerndonDN, WolfSE, ChinkesDL, WolfeRR. Reversal of catabolism by beta-blockade after severe burns. New Engl J Med 2001;345:1223–1229.
HildrethMA, HerndonDN, DesaiMH, BroemelingLD. Current treatment reduces calories required to maintain weight in pediatric patients with burns. J Burn Care Rehabilitation 1990;11:405–409.
PasulkaPS, WachtelTL. Nutritional considerations for the burned patient. Surg Clin North Am 1987;67:109–131.

Further reading

BrattonSL, ChestnutRM, GhajarJ, et al. Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. XII. Nutrition. J Neurotrauma 2007;24 (Suppl 1):S77–82.
CookAM, PeppardA, MagnusonB. Nutrition considerations in traumatic brain injury. Nutr Clin Pract 2008;23:608–620.
CoxSA, WeissSM, PosuniakEA, et al. Energy expenditure after spinal cord injury: an evaluation of stable rehabilitating patients. J Trauma 1985;25(5):419–423.
DickersonRN. Hyponatremia in neurosurgical patients: syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone or cerebral salt wasting syndrome?Hospital Pharmacy 2002;37:1336–1341.
DickersonRN, SwiggartCE, MorganLM, et al. Safety and efficacy of a graduated intravenous insulin infusion protocol in critically ill trauma patients receiving specialized nutritional support. Nutrition 2008;24:536–545.
DickersonRN, MitchellJN, MorganLM, et al. Disparate response to metoclopramide therapy for gastric feeding intolerance in trauma patients with and without traumatic brain injury. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33:646–655.
DickersonRN, PittsSL, MaishGO, 3rd, et al. A reappraisal of nitrogen requirements for patients with critical illness and trauma. J Trauma 2012;73:549–557.
HadleyMN. Nutritional support after spinal cord injury. Neurosurgery 2002;50(Suppl 3):S81–84.
LindseyKA, BrownRO, MaishGO 3rd, CroceMA, MinardG, DickersonRN. Influence of traumatic brain injury on potassium and phosphorus homeostasis in critically ill multiple trauma patients. Nutrition 2010;26:784–790.
RufK, MagnusonB, HattonJ, CookAM. Nutrition in neurologic impairment. In: MuellerCM (ed) The A.S.P.E.N. Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum, 2nd ed. Silver Spring: American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition; 2012: 363–376.
StiensSA, BergmanSB, GoetzLL. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction after spinal cord injury: clinical evaluation and rehabilitative management. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78(3 Suppl):S86–102.

Further reading

ArfonsLM, LazarusHM. Total parenteral nutrition and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: an expensive placebo?Bone Marrow Transplant 2005;36:281–288.
HeylandDK, DhaliwalR, DroverJW, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. J Parenter Enter Nutr 2003;27:355–373.
McClaveSW, MartindaleRG, VanekVW, et al. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 2009;33:277–316.
MuscaritoliM, GriecoG, CapriaS, et al. Nutritional and metabolic support in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:183–190.
NeradJ, RomeynM, SilvermanE, et al. General nutrition management in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36(Suppl):S52–62.
NitenbergG, RaynardB. Nutritional support of the cancer patient: issues and dilemmas. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2000;34:137–168.
SanchezAJ, Aranda-MichelJ. Nutrition for the liver transplant patient. Liver Transplant 2006;12:1310–1316.
ThompsonJL, DuffyJ. Nutrition support challenges in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Nutr Clin Pract 2008;5:533–546.
Van den BergheG, WilmerA, MilantsI, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in mixed medical/surgical intensive care units. Benefit versus harm. Diabetes 2006;55:3151–3159.
ZieglerR. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving bone marrow transplantation and high dose chemotherapy. J Nutr 2001;131:S2578–S2584.

Further reading

BaldwinC, SpiroA, AhernR, EmeryPW. Oral nutritional interventions in malnourished patients with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2012;104:371–385.
BozzettiF, GavazziC, MiceliR, et al. Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in malnourished, gastrointestinal cancer patients: a randomized, clinical trial. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2000;24:7–14.
BrardL, WeitzenS, Strubel-LaganSL, et al. The effect of total parenteral nutrition on the survival of terminally ill ovarian cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol 2006;103:176–180.
CharuhasPM, FosbergKL, BruemmerB, et al. A double-blind randomized trial comparing outpatient parenteral nutrition with intravenous hydration: effect on resumption of oral intake after marrow transplantation. J Parenter Enteral Nutri 1997;21:157–161.
DewysWD, BeggC, LavinPT, et al. Prognostic effect of weight loss prior to chemotherapy in cancer patients. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Am J Med 1980;69:491–497.
FanST, LoCM, LaiEC, et al. Perioperative nutritional support in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1547–1552.
HalfdanarsonTR, ThordardottirE, WestCP, JatoiA. Does dietary counseling improve quality of life in cancer patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Support Oncol 2008;6:234–237.
HodaD, JatoiA, BurnesJ, et al. Should patients with advanced, incurable cancers ever be sent home with total parenteral nutrition? A single institution’s 20-year experience. Cancer 2005;103:863–868.
American College of Physicians. Parenteral nutrition in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Ann Intern Med 1989;110:734–736.
The Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Cooperative Study Group. Perioperative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. 1991;325:525–532.
WeisdorfSA, LysneJ, WindD, et al. Positive effect of prophylactic total parenteral nutrition on long-term outcome of bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 1987;43:833–838.

Further reading

BozzettiF, BragaM, GianottiL, GavazziC, MarianiL. Postoperative enteral versus parenteral nutrition in malnourished patients with gastrointestinal cancer: a randomised multicentre trial. Lancet 2001;358:1487–1492.
CerantolaY, HubnerM, GrassF, DemartinesN, SchaferM. Immunonutrition in gastrointestinal surgery. Br J Surg 2011;98:37–48.
DroverJW, CahillNE, KutsogiannisJ, et al. Nutrition therapy for the critically ill surgical patient: we need to do better! J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2010;34:644–652.
HeylandDK, DhaliwalR, DroverJW, GramlichL, DodekP. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2003;27:355–373.
HoKM, DobbGJ, WebbSA. A comparison of early gastric and post-pyloric feeding in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 2006;32:639–649.
KreymannKG, BergerMM, DeutzNE, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Intensive care. Clin Nutr 2006;25:210–223.
MarikPE, ZalogaGP. Gastric versus post-pyloric feeding: a systematic review. Crit Care 2003;7:R46–51.
MarkidesGA, AlkhaffafB, VickersJ. Nutritional access routes following oesophagectomy – a systematic review. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011;65:565–573.
MooreFA, FelicianoDV, AndrassyRJ, et al. Early enteral feeding, compared with parenteral, reduces postoperative septic complications: the results of a meta-analysis. Ann Surg 1992;216:172–183.
OslandE, YunusRM, KhanS, MemonMA. Early versus traditional postoperative feeding in patients undergoing resectional gastrointestinal surgery: a meta-analysis. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:473–487.

Further reading

BergerM, ShenkinA, RevellyJP, et al. Copper, selenium, zinc, and thiamine balances during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:410–416.
CanoN, FiaccadoriE, TesinskyP, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Adult renal failure. Clin Nutr 2006;25:295–310.
ChioléroR, BergerMM. Nutritional support during renal replacement therapy. Contrib Nephrol 2007;156:267–274.
DrumlW. Nutritional management of acute renal failure. J Ren Nutr 2005;15:63–70.
DunganK, BraithwaiteSS, PreiserJC. Stress hyperglycemia. Lancet 2009;373:1798–1807.
LeblancM, GarredLJ, CardinalJ, et al. Catabolism in critical illness: estimation from urea nitrogen appearance and creatinine production during continuous renal replacement therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 1998;32:444–453.
LeverveXM, CanoNJ. Nutritional management in acute illness and acute kidney insufficiency. Contrib Nephrol 2007;156:112–118.
SchneeweissB, GraningerW, StockenhuberF, et al. Energy metabolism in acute and chronic renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:596–601.
UchinoS, BellomoR, RoncoC. Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy in the ICU: impact on electrolyte and acid-base balance. Intensive Care Med 2001;27:1037–1043.
WiesenP, Van OvermeireL, DelanayeP, et al. Nutrition disorders during acute renal failure and renal replacement therapy. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:217–222.

Further reading

Al-OmranM, AlBalawiZH, TashkandiMF, et al. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition for acute pancreatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;1:CD002837.
Als-NeilsenB, KortezRL, GluudLL, et al. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;2:CD001939.
CórdobaJ, López-HellínJ, PlanasM, et al. Normal protein diet for episodic hepatic encephalopathy: results of a randomized study. J Hepatol 2004;41:38–43.
GianottiL, MeierR, LoboDN, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on parenteral nutrition: pancreas. Clin Nutr 2009;28:428–435.
McclaveSA, ChangW, DhaliwalR, et al. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review of the literature. J Parenter and Enteral Nutr 2006;2:143–156.
McGeeRG, BakenA, WileyK. Probiotics for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev 2011;11:CD008716.
MeierR, OckengaJ, PertkiewiczM, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on enteral nutrition: pancreas. Clin Nutr 2006;25:275–284.
PetrovMS, CorreiaMITD, WindsorJA. Naso-gastric tube feeding in predicted severe acute pancreatitis. A systematic review of the literature to determine safety and tolerance. J Pancreas 2008;9(4):440–448.
PlauthM, CabréE, RiggoO, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on enteral nutrition: liver disease. Clin Nutr 2006;25:285–294.

Further reading

CasaerMP, MesottenD, HermansG, et al. Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults. New Engl J Med 2011;365(6):506–517.
DavisJS, AnsteyNM. Is plasma arginine concentration decreased in patients with sepsis? A systematic review and meta-analysis*. Crit Care Med 2011;39(2):380–385.
FreundH, AtamianS, HolroydeJ, FischerJE. Plasma amino acids as predictors of the severity and outcome of sepsis. Ann Surg 1979;190(5):571–576.
GianottiL, AlexanderJW, GennariR, PylesT, BabcockGF. Oral glutamine decreases bacterial translocation and improves survival in experimental gut-origin sepsis. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1995;19(1):69–74.
HeylandDK, NovakF, DroverJW, et al. Should immunonutrition become routine in critically ill patients? A systematic review of the evidence. JAMA 2001;286(8):944–953.
HoKM, DobbGJ, WebbSAR. A comparison of early gastric and post-pyloric feeding in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 2006;32(5):639–649.
KaoCC, BandiV, GuntupalliKK, et al. Arginine, citrulline and nitric oxide metabolism in sepsis. Clin Sci 2009;117(1):23–30.
KreymannKG, BergerMM, DeutzNEP, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Intensive care. Clin Nutr 2006;25(2):210–223.
LongCL, SchillerWR, BlakemoreWS, et al. Muscle protein catabolism in the septic patient as measured by 3-methylhistidine excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30(8):1349–1352.
MarikPE, ZalogaGP. Early enteral nutrition in acutely ill patients: a systematic review. Crit Care Med 2001;29(12):2264–2270.
McClaveSA, MartindaleRG, VanekVW, et al. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33(3):277–316.
NovakF, HeylandDK, AvenellA, DroverJW, SuX. Glutamine supplementation in serious illness: a systematic review of the evidence. Crit Care Med 2002;30(9):2022–2029.
Pontes-ArrudaA, MartinsLF, de LimaSM, et al. Enteral nutrition with eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the early treatment of sepsis: results from a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled study: the INTERSEPT study. Crit Care 2011;15(3):R144.
ShawJH, WildboreM, WolfeRR. Whole body protein kinetics in severely septic patients. The response to glucose infusion and total parenteral nutrition. Ann Surg 1987;205(3):288–294.
SingerP, BergerMM, Van den BergheG, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Intensive care. Clin Nutr 2009;28(4):387–400.
VilletS, ChioleroRL, BollmannMD, et al. Negative impact of hypocaloric feeding and energy balance on clinical outcome in ICU patients. Clin Nutr 2005;24(4):502–509.

Further reading

AllenJG, ArnaoutakisGJ, WeissES, et al. The impact of recipient body mass index on survival after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29:1026–1033.
CasaerMP, MesottenD, HermansGW, et al. Early versus late parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults. N Engl J Med 2011;365:506–517.
HeylandDK, CahillN, DayAG. Optimal amount of calories for critically ill patients: depends on how you slice the cake!Crit Care Med 2011;39:2619–2626.
KhalidI, DoshiP, DiGiovineB. Early enteral nutrition and outcomes of critically ill patients treated with vasopressors and mechanical ventilation. Am J Crit Care 2010;19:261–268.
KondrupJ, RasmussenH, HambergO, StangaZ. Nutritional risk screening: a new method based on analysis of controlled clinical trials. Clin Nutr 2002;22:321–336.
MartindaleRG, McClaveSA, VanekVW, et al. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition: Executive Summary. Crit Care Med 2009;37:1757–1761.
MoritokiEGI, FinferS, BellomoR. Glycemic control in the ICU. Chest 2011;140: 212–220.
RussoMJ, HongKN, DaviesRR, et al. The effect of body mass index on survival following heart transplantation: do outcomes support consensus guidelines?Ann Surg 2010;251:144–152.
SingerP, BergerM, Van den BergheG, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Intensive Care. Clin Nutr 2009;28:387–400.
SingerP, AnbarR, CohenJ, et al. The tight calorie control study (TICACOS): a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study of nutritional support in critically ill patients. Int Care Med 2011;37:601–609.
VilletS, ChioleroRL, BollmanMD et al. Negative impact of hypocaloric feeding and energy balance on clinical outcome in ICU patients. Clin Nutr 2005;24:502–509.

Further reading

BakerJP, DetskyAS, StewartS, et al. Randomized trial of total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: metabolic effects of varying glucose-lipid ratios as the energy source. Gastroenterology 1984;87(1):53–59.
BlotS, RelloJ, VogelaersD. What is new in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia?Curr Opin Pulm Med 2011;17(3):155–159.
BudweiserS, MeyerK, JörresRA, et al. Nutritional depletion and its relationship to respiratory impairment in patients with chronic respiratory failure due to COPD or restrictive thoracic diseases. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008;62(3):436–443.
GadekJE, DeMicheleSJ, KarlstadMD, et al. Effect of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Enteral Nutrition in ARDS Study Group. Crit Care Med 1999;27(8):1409–1420.
KreymannKG, BergerMM, DeutzNEP, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Intensive care. Clin Nutr 2006;25(2):210–223.
MartinCM, DoigGS, HeylandDK, MorrisonT, SibbaldWJ. Multicentre, cluster-randomized clinical trial of algorithms for critical-care enteral and parenteral therapy (ACCEPT). CMAJ 2004;170(2):197–204.
McClaveSA, MartindaleRG, VanekVW, et al. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33(3):277–316.
Pontes-ArrudaA, AragãoAMA, AlbuquerqueJD. Effects of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2006;34(9):2325–2333.
RiceTW, WheelerAP, ThompsonBT, et al. Enteral omega-3 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidant supplementation in acute lung injury. JAMA 2011;306(14):1574–1581.
SingerP, TheillaM, FisherH, et al. Benefit of an enteral diet enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid in ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 2006;34(4):1033–1038.
StapletonRD, MartinTR, WeissNS, et al. A phase II randomized placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of acute lung injury. Crit Care Med 2011;39(7):1655–1662.
TalpersSS, RombergerDJ, BunceSB, PingletonSK. Nutritionally associated increased carbon dioxide production. Excess total calories vs high proportion of carbohydrate calories. Chest 1992;102(2):551–555.
WheelerAP, BernardGR. Acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a clinical review. Lancet 2007;369(9572):1553–1564.

Further reading

BragaM, LjungqvistO, SoetersP, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Surgery. Clin Nutr 2009;28:378–386.
DetskyAS, McLaughlinJR, BakerJP, et al. What is subjective global assessment of nutritional status?J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1987;11(1):8–13.
KerwinAJ, NussbaumMS. Adjuvant nutrition management of patients with liver failure including transplantation. Surg Clin North Am 2011;565–578.
MartindaleRG, McClaveSA, VanekVW, et al. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Crit Care Med 2009;37(5):1–30.
MartinsC, Pecoits-FilhoR, RiellaMC. Nutrition for the post-renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2004;36:1650–1654.
MolnarMZ, KvesdyCP, BunnapradistS, et al. Associations of pretransplant serum albumin with post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2011;11:1006–1015.
PlauthM, CabreE, RiggioO, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Liver disease. Clin Nutr 2006;25:285–294.
SarmaS, GheorghiadeM. Nutritional assessment and support of the patient with acute heart failure. Curr Opin Crit Care 2010;16:413–418.
SteinEM, ShaneE. Vitamin D in organ transplantation. Osteoporos Int 2011;22:2107–2018.
WeimannA, BragaM, HarsanyiL, et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Surgery including organ transplantation. Clin Nutr 2006;25:224–244.

Further reading

American Psychiatric Association Work Group on Eating Disorders. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with eating disorders. 2006.
ByrnesMC, StangenesJ. Refeeding in the ICU: an adult and pediatric problem. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14:186–192.
GaudianiJL, SabelAL, MascoloM, MehlerPS. Severe anorexia nervosa: outcomes from a Medical Stabilization Unit. Int J Eat Disord 2012;45:85–92.
GentileMG, MannaGM, CiceriR, RodeschiniE. Efficacy of inpatient treatment in severely malnourished anorexia nervosa patients. Eat Weight Disord 2008;13:191–197.
GentileMG, PastorelliP, CiceriR, et al. Specialized refeeding treatment for anorexia nervosa patients suffering from extreme undernutrition. Clin Nutr 2010;29:627–632.
KohnMR, MaddenS, ClarkeSD. Refeeding in anorexia nervosa: increased safety and efficiency through understanding the pathophysiology of protein calorie malnutrition. Curr Opin Pediatr 2011;23:390–394.
MARSIPAM Group. MARSIPAN: Management of Really Sick Patients with Anorexia Nervosa. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists and Royal College of Physicians; 2010.
MehannaHM, MoledinaJ, TravisJ. Refeeding syndrome: what it is, and how to prevent and treat it. BMJ 2008;336:1495–1498.
SylvesterCJ, FormanSF. Clinical practice guidelines for treating restrictive eating disorder patients during medical hospitalization. Curr Opin Pediatr 2008;20:390–397.
VignaudM, ConstantinJ-M, RuivardM, et al. Refeeding syndrome influences outcome of anorexia nervosa patients in intensive care unit: an observational study. Crit Care 2010;14:R172.

Further reading

HurtRT, FrazierTH, McClaveSA, et al. Pharmaconutrition for the obese, critically ill patient. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:60S–72S.
KaafaraniH, ShikoraA. Nutritional support of the obese and critically ill obese patient. Surg Clin North Am 2011;91:837–855.
KushnerR, DroverJ. Current strategies of critical care assessment and therapy of the obese patient (hypocaloric feeding): what are we doing and what do we need to do?J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:36S–43S.
MartindaleRG, DeLeggeM, McClaveSA, et al. Nutrition delivery for obese ICU patients: delivery issues, lack of guidelines, and missed opportunities. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:80S–87S.
MartinoJL, StapletonRD, WangM, et al. Extreme obesity and outcomes in critically ill patients. Chest 2011;140:1198–1206.
McClaveSA, MartindaleRG, VanekVW, et al. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33:277–316.
McClaveSA, KushnerR, Van WayCW, et al. Nutrition therapy of the severely obese, critically ill patient: summation of conclusions and recommendations. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:88S–96S.
PalghiA, ReedJL, GreenburgI, et al. Multidisciplinary treatment of obesity with a protein-sparing modified fast: results in 668 outpatients. Am J Public Health 1985;75:1190–1194.
PaoliniJB, ManciniJ, GenestalM, et al. Predictive value of abdominal obesity vs. body mass index for determining risk of intensive care unit mortality. Crit Care Med 2010;38:1308–1314.
PortAM, ApovianC. Metabolic support of the obese intensive care unit patient: a current perspective. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010;13:184–191.