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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: April 2014

Section 1 - General Concepts

Further reading

BartlettRH, DechertRE, MaultJR, et al. Measurement of metabolism in multiple organ failure. Surgery 1982;92:771–779.
BurgeJC, GoonA, ChobanPS, FlancbaumL. Efficacy of hypocaloric total parenteral nutrition in hospitalized obese patients: a prospective, double-blind randomized trial. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1994;18:203–207.
FrankenfieldDC. Energy expenditure and protein requirements after traumatic injury. Nutr Clin Pract 2006;21:430–437.
FrankenfieldDC. Validation of a metabolic rate equation in older obese critically ill people. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:264–269.
FrankenfieldDC, SmithJS, CooneyRN, BlosserSA. Relative association of fever and injury with hypermetabolism in critically ill patients. Injury 1997;28:617–621.
FrankenfieldDC, SmithJS, CooneyRN. Accelerated nitrogen loss after traumatic injury is not attenuated by achievement of energy balance. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 1997;21:324–329.
FrankenfieldDC. Energy expenditure and protein requirements after traumatic injury. Nutr Clin Pract 2006;21:430–437.
FrankenfieldDC, SchubertA, AlamS, CooneyRN. Validation study of predictive equations for resting metabolic rate in critically ill patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33:27–36.
FrankenfieldDC, AshcraftCM, GalvanDA. Longitudinal assessment of metabolic rate in critically ill patients. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2012;36:700–712.
HeideggerCP, GrafS, ThibaultR, et al. Supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients for optimal energy coverage: improved clinical outcome. Clin Nutr 2011;1(S):2–3.
McClaveSA, MartindaleRG, VanekVW, et al. Guidelines for the provision and assessment of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient. Society for Critical Care Medicine, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33:277–316.
MullerMJ, Bosy-WestphalA, KutznerD, HellerM. Metabolically active components of fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure in humans: recent lessons from imaging technologies. Obes Rev 2002;3:113–122.
Pontes-ArrudaA, AragaoAM, AlbuquerqueJD. Effects of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2006;34:2325–2333.
RiceTW, WheelerAP, ThompsonBT, et al. Enteral omega-3 fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidant supplementation in acute lung injury. J Am Med Assoc 2011;306:1574–1581.
ScheinkestelCD, KarL, MarshallK, et al. Prospective randomized trial to assess caloric and protein needs of critically ill, anuric, ventilated patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Nutrition 2003;19:909–916.
ShawJHF, WildboreM, WolfeRR. Whole-body protein kinetics in severely septic patients: the response to glucose infusion and total parenteral nutrition. Ann Surg 1987;205:288–294.
SingerP, AnbarR, CohenJ, et al. The tight calorie control study (TICACOS): a prospective randomized clinical pilot study of nutrition support in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2011;37:601–609.
WeijsPJM, StapelSN, de GrootSDW, et al. Optimal protein and energy nutrition decreases mortality in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: a prospective observational cohort study. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2012;36:60–68.
WolfeRR, GoodenoughRD, BurkeJF, et al. Response of protein and urea kinetics in burn patients to different levels of protein intake. Ann Surg 1983;197:163–171.

Further reading

FontesD, GenerosoSD, Toulson Davisson CorreiaMI. Subjective global assessment: a reliable nutritional assessment tool to predict outcomes in critically ill patients. Clin Nutr 2013 May 13. doi:pii: S0261–5614(13)00143-X.
HeylandDK, DhaliwalR, JiangX, DayAG. Identifying critically ill patients who benefit the most from nutrition therapy: the development and initial validation of a novel risk assessment tool. Crit Care 2011;15(6):R268.
HiesmayrM. Nutrition risk assessment in the ICU. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2012;15(2):174–180.
HigginsPA, DalyBJ, LipsonAR, Su-ErG. Assessing nutritional status in chronically ill adult patients. Am J Crit Care 2006;15:1–99.
KondrupJ, AllisonSP, EliaM, VellasB, PlauthM. Educational and Clinical Practice Committee, European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN). ESPEN guidelines for nutritional screening 2002. Clin Nutr 2003;22(4):415–421.
McClaveSA, MartindaleRG, KiralyL. The use of indirect calorimetry in the intensive care unit. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2013;16(2):202–208.
PrinsA. Nutritional assessment of the critically ill patient. S Afr J Clin Nutr 2010;23(1):11–18.
RodriguezL. Nutritional status: assessing and understanding its value in the critical care setting. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 2004;16(4):509–514.
SungurtekinH, SungurtekinU, OkkeD. Nutrition assessment in critically ill patients. Nutr Clin Pract 2008;23(6):635–641.
ThibaultR, PichardC. Nutrition and clinical outcome in intensive care patients. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010;13(2):177–183.

Further reading

BaracosVE, ReimanT, MourtzakisM, et al. Body composition in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a contemporary view of cancer cachexia with the use of computed tomography image analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91(4):1133S–1137S.
BinyminK, HerrickA, CarlsonG, et al. The effect of disease activity on body composition and resting energy expenditure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Inflamm Res 2011;4:61–66.
BrinksmaA, HuizingaG, SulkersE, et al. Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients: a review on its prevalence and possible causes. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2012;83(2):249–275.
CaoDX, WuGH, ZhangB, et al. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in patients with newly detected cancer. Clin Nutr 2010;29(1):72–77.
Di SommaS, GoriCS, GrandiT, et al. Fluid assessment and management in the emergency department. Contrib Nephrol 2010;164:227–236.
GallagherD, DeLeggeM. Body composition (sarcopenia) in obese patients: implications for care in the intensive care unit. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2011;35:21S
HeymsfieldSB, LohmanTG, WangZ, et al. Human Body Composition. Champaign, US: Human Kinetics; 2005.
JiangF, BoY, CuiT, et al. Estimating the hydration status in nephrotic patients by leg electrical resistivity measuring method. Nephrology (Carlton) 2010;15(4):476–479.
RozentrytP, von HaehlingS, LainscakM, et al. The effects of a high-caloric protein-rich oral nutritional supplement in patients with chronic heart failure and cachexia on quality of life, body composition, and inflammation markers: a randomized, double-blind pilot study. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2010;1(1):35–42.
ThibaultR, CanoN, PichardC. Quantification of lean tissue losses during cancer and HIV infection/AIDS. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2011;14(3):261–267.

Further reading

AylingR, MarshallW. Nutrition and Laboratory Medicine. London: ACB Venture Publication; 2007.
BergerM, ShenkinA, RevellyJP, et al. Copper, selenium, zinc and thiamine balances during continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration in critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:410–416.
Bonet SarisA, Márquez VácaroJA, Serón ArbeloaC, et al. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient. Update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: Macronutrient and micronutrient requirements. Medicina Intensiva 2011;35 (Suppl 1):17–21.
Critical Care Nutrition, CERU. Practice Guidelines: Supplemental Antioxidant Nutrients: Combined Vitamins and Trace Elements; 2009.
McClaveS, MartindaleRG, VanekVW, et al. ASPEN Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient. J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2009;33(3):277–316.
NICE and the National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care. Nutrition Support in Adults: Oral Nutrition Support, Enteral Tube Feeding and Parenteral Nutrition. London: NICE and the National Collaborating Centre For Acute Care; 2006.
ShenkinA. Basics in clinical nutrition: Trace elements and vitamins in parenteral and enteral nutrition. ESPEN 2008;3(6):293–297.
SingerP et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Intensive Care. Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland). 2009. 28(4):387–400
The Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Group of the British Dietetic Association. Pocket Guide to Clinical Nutrition, 3rd edn London: PEN Group Publications; 2007;3.13–3.15.
ZieglerT. Parenteral nutrition in the critically ill patient. New Engl J Med 2009;361(11):1088–1097.