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  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: June 2018

4 - Nonlinear Frequency Domain Behavioral Models

[1]Van Moer, W. and Gomme, L., “NVNA versus LSNA: enemies or friends?IEEE Microw. Mag., vol. 11, no. 1, 2010, pp. 97103.
[2]Blockley, P.; Gunyan, D., and Scott, J. B., “Mixer-based, vector-corrected, vector signal/network analyzer offering 300kHz-20GHz bandwidth and traceable phase response,” IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2005, June 2005, p. 4.
[5]Root, D. E., Verspecht, J., Horn, J., and Marcu, M., X-Parameters: Characterization, Modeling, and Design of Nonlinear RF and Microwave Components, Cambridge University Press, 2013, (referred to below simply as X-Parameters), section 2.8.
[6]X-Parameters, chapter 3.
[7]X-Parameters, chapter 2.
[8]Horn, J., Root, D.E., Gunyan, D., and Xu, J., “Method and apparatus for determining a response of a DUT to a desired large signal, and for determining input tones required to produce a desired output,” US Patent 7924026, April 12, 2011.
[9]Biernacki, R., Marcu, M., Root, D. E., “Circuit optimization with X-parameter models,” International Microwave Symposium Digest, Honolulu, Hawaii, June 2017.
[10]Verspecht, J., Bossche, M. V., and Verbeyst, F., “Characterizing components under large signal excitation: defining sensible ‘large signal S-parameters’?!” 49th ARFTG Conference Digest, 1997, pp. 109–117.
[11]Verspecht, J. and Root, D. E., “Poly-harmonic distortion modeling,” IEEE Microw. Mag., June 2006.
[12]X-Parameters, section 4.4.2.1.
[13]Pelaez-Perez, A. M., Woodington, S., Fernández-Barciela, M., Tasker, P. J., and Alonso, J. I., “Application of an NVNA-based system and load-independent-parameters in analytical circuit design assisted by an experimental search algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 61, no. 1, January 2013.
[14]Root, D. E., Verspecht, J., and Xu, J., “Closed-form solutions to large-signal PA problems: Wirtinger calculus applied to X-parameter expressions,” 2017 IEEE European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference, Nuremberg, Germany, October 2017.
[15]X-Parameters, Appendix B.
[16]Woodington, S., Saini, R., Williams, D., Lees, J., Benedikt, J., Tasker, P. J., “Behavioral model analysis of active harmonic load-pull measurements,” IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest , June 2010, pp. 1688–1691.
[17]X-Parameters, sections 5.2 and 5.3.
[18]Horn, J., Root, D. E., and Simpson, G., “GaN device modeling with X-parameters,” IEEE Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS), October 2010.
[19]X-Parameters, section 5.5.1.
[20]Nielsen, T. S., Dieudonné, M., Gillease, C., and Root, D. E., “Doherty power amplifier design in gallium nitride technology using a nonlinear vector network analyzer and X-parameters,” IEEE CSICS Digest, October 2012.
[21]Qi, H., Benedikt, J., and Tasker, P. J., “Nonlinear data utilization from direct data lookup to behavioral modeling,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 57, no. 6. pp. 14251432, June 2009.
[22]Tasker, P. J. and Benedikt, J., “Waveform inspired models and the harmonic balance Emulator,” IEEE Microw. Mag., April 2011, pp. 38–54.
[23]Tasker, P. J., “Practical waveform engineering,” IEEE Microw. Mag., vol. 10, issue: 7, 2009, pp. 6576.
[24]Schetzen, M., The Volterra and Wiener Theories of Nonlinear Systems, New York: Wiley, 1989.
[25]Verbeyst, F. and Bossche, M. Vanden, “VIOMAP, the S-parameter equivalent for weakly nonlinear RF and microwave devices,” IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, May 1994, vol. 3, pp. 13691372.
[26]Root, D. E., Verspecht, J., Sharrit, D., Wood, J., and Cognata, A., “Broad-band, poly-harmonic distortion (phd) behavioral models from fast automated simulations and large-signal vectorial network measurements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 53, no. 11, November 2005, pp. 36563664.
[27]Root, D. E., Horn, J., Betts, L., Gillease, C., Verspecht, J., “X-parameters, the new paradigm for measurement, modeling, and design of nonlinear rf and microwave components,” Microwave Engineering Europe, pp. 16–21, December 2008.
[28]Maas, S., Nonlinear Microwave and RF Circuits, 2nd ed., London: Artech House, 2003.
[29]Vendelin, G. D., Pavio, A. M., Rohde, U. L., Microwave Circuit Design using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques, 2nd ed., Wiley, 2005.
[30]Mazumder, S. R., van der Puije, P. D., “Two-signal method of measuring the large-signal S-parameters of transistors,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 417420, June 1978.
[31]X-Parameters, section 5.7.
[32]Strogatz, S., “Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering,” Perseus Press, 1994.
[33]Verspecht, J., Horn, J., Betts, L., Gunyan, D., Pollard, R., Gillease, C., and Root, D. E., “Extension of X-parameters to include long-term dynamic memory effects,” IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest, 2009., June 2009, pp. 741–744.
[34]Verspecht, J., Horn, J., and Root, D. E., “A simplified extension of X-parameters to describe memory effects for wideband modulated signals,” IEEE Microwave Measurements Conference (ARFTG), May 2010.
[35]X-Parameters, chapter 6.
[36]X-Parameters, Appendix D.
[37]Biernacki, R., Gillease, C., and Verspecht, J., “Memory effect enhancements for X-parameter models in ADS,” IEEE International Microwave Symposium, MicroApps, 2014.
[38]Soury, A. and Ngoya, E., “Handling long-term memory effects in X-parameter model,” IEEE International Microwave Symposium, 2012.
[39]Ngoya, E. and Soury, A., “Envelope Domain Methods for Behavioral Modeling,” in chapter 3 of Fundamentals of Nonlinear Behavioral Modeling for RF and Microwave Design, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 2005.
[40]Root, D. E., Sharrit, D., and Verspecht, J., “Nonlinear behavioral models with memory” in 2006 IEEE International Microwave Symposium Workshop (WSL) on Memory Effects in Power Amplifiers, June 2006
[41]X-Parameters, chapter 6.
[42]Root, D. E., Wood, J., and Tufillaro, N., “New techniques for nonlinear behavioral modeling of microwave/RF ICs from simulation and nonlinear microwave measurements,” in 40th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA, USA, June 2003, pp. 85–90.
[43]Verspecht, J., Root, D., Nielsen, T., “Digital predistortion method based on dynamic X-parameters,” 82nd ARFTG Microwave Measurement Conference, November 2013, pp.1, 6, 18–21.
[44]Verspecht, J., Nielsen, T., and Root, D., “Digital predistortion method based on dynamic X-parameters,” IEEE International Microwave Symposium Workshop (WMI-6), Honolulu, Hawaii, June 2017.