Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2008
  • Online publication date: August 2009

16 - Neuroendocrine-immune interactions in neurotropic viral infections

from Section III - Introduction: immunity, diagnosis, vector, and beneficial uses of neurotropic viruses
    • By C. Jane Welsh, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, Andrew J. Steelman, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, Amy N. Sieve, Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, Wentao Mi, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, Robin R. Johnson, Psychology Department, College of Liberal Arts, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, Colin R. Young, Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, and Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, Thomas W. Prentice, Psychology Department, College of Liberal Arts, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA, Mary W. Meagher, Psychology Department, College of Liberal Arts, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
  • Edited by Carol Shoshkes Reiss, New York University
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511541728.021
  • pp 300-314

Summary

Historical aspects of the neuroendocrine-immune connection

In order to understand the connection between the neuroendocrine and immune system, it is important to discuss the historical aspects of this relationship and the formulation of the concepts of homeostasis and stress. Claude Bernard in the 1860s developed the concept of “the milieu interne” to describe the balance of the internal milieu. In 1927, Cannon defined the fight or flight response to a threat and the concept of homeostasis as the physiological process by which an organism maintains a stable internal environment [1]. Then in 1936, Hans Selye observed that sick patients all had similar nonspecific symptoms: malaise, fever, and loss of appetite [2]. He proposed the general adaptation syndrome that states that when threatened by a threat or infection, the central nervous system (CNS) diverts the organism's energy reserves from nonessential functions (reproduction, growth) to functions that allow the organism to cope with the insult. Selye borrowed the term “stress” from the physical sciences to describe factors that upset homeostasis. He observed that stressed animals developed atrophy of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes and enlarged adrenal glands. Eventually, these effects were discovered to be the result of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Recently, McEwen has proposed the concept of allostatic load, which describes the cumulative effects of chronic stess that can result in dysregulation of multiple integrated physiological systems [3].

References
Cannon, W. B., Britton, S.W., and Lewis, J.T., et al., Am J Physiol, 79 (1927) 433–65.
Selye, H., Nature, 138 (1936) 32.
McEwen, B.S. and Wingfield, J.C., Horm Behav, 433 (2003) 2–15.
Besedovsky, H.E., Rey, Del A., and Sorkin, E., Clin Exp Immunol, 37 (1979) 106–13.
Besedovsky, H.E., Sorkin, E., and Keller, M., Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 150 (1975) 466–70.
Besedovsky, H.E., Rey, Del A., and Sorkin, E., Eur J Immunol, 7 (1986) 323–5.
Blalock, J.E., J Immun, 132 (1984) 1067–70.
Blalock, J.E. and Smith, E.M., Brain Behav Immun, 21 (2007) 23–33.
Glaser, R. and Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., Nat Rev Immunol, 5 (2005) 243–51.
Dhabhar, F.S. and McEwen, B.S., Brain Behav Immun, 11 (1997) 286–306.
Elenkov, I.J. and Chrousos, G.P., TEM, 10 (1999) 359–68.
Ader, R., Felten, D.L., and Cohen, N., Psychoneuroimmunology. New York: Academic Press (1991).
Watkins, L.R. and Maier, S.F., PNAS, 96 (1999) 7710–3.
Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K. and Glaser, R., Psychosom Med, 57 (1995) 269–74.
Homo-Delarche, F., Fitzpatrick, F., Christeff, N., et al., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 40 (1991) 619–37.
Rimon, R. and Laakso, R.L., Psychother Psychosom, 43 (1985) 38–43.
Whitacre, C.G., Cummings, S.O., and Griffin, A.C. In Glaser, Ronald and Kiecolt-Glaser, (Eds.), Handbook of human stress and immunity, Academic Press, San Diego, 1994, pp.77–100.
Bradley, L.A., Young, L.D., Anderson, K.O., et al., Arthritis Rheum, 30 (1987) 1105–14.
Broderick, J., Junghanel, M., and Schwartz, J., Psychosom Med, 67 (2005) 326–34.
Carrico, A.W., Antoni, M.H., Pereira, D.B., et al., Int J Behav Med, 12 (2005) 218–26.
Parker, J.C., Smarr, K.L., Slaughter, J.R., et al., Arthritis Rheum, 49 (2003) 766–77.
Smyth, J., Stone, A., Hurewitz, A., et al., JAMA, 281 (1999) 1304–9.
O'Leary, A., Shoor, S., Lorig, K., et al., Health Psychol, 7 (1988) 527–44.
Radojevic, V., Nicassio, P.M., and Weisman, M.H., Behav Ther, 23 (1992) 13–30.
Dhabhar, F.S. and McEwen, B.S., J Immunol, 156 (1996) 2608–15.
Teshima, H., Sogawa, H., and Kihara, H., et al., Ann NY Acad Sci, 496 (1987) 459–66.
Hermann, G., Beck, F.M., and Sheridan, J.F., J Neuroimmunol, 56 (1995) 179–86.
Rasmussen, A.F., Marsh, J.T., and Brill, N.O., Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 96 (1957) 183–9.
Bonneau, R.H. and Hunzecker, J. In Welsh, Jane, Meagher, Mary, and Sternberg, Esther (Eds.), Neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms in host defense and autoimmunity, Springer Publishers, New York, 2006, pp.125–49.
Challoner, P.B., Smith, K.T., Parker, J.D., et al., PNAS, 92 (1995) 7440–4.
Ortiz, G.C., Sheridan, J.F., and Marucha, P.T., Brain Behav Immun, 17 (2003) 329–38.
Noisakran, S., Halford, W.P., and Carr, D.J., J Immunol, 160 (1998) 5441–7.
Bonneau, R.H., Zimmerman, K.M., Ikeda, S.C., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 82 (1998) 199–207.
Koff, W.C. and Dunegan, M.A., J Immun, 136 (1986) 705–9.
Bonneau, R.H., Sheridan, J.F., Feng, N., et al., Brain Behav Immun, 5 (1991) 170–92.
Nair, A. and Bonneau, R.H., J Neuroimmunol, 171 (2006) 72–85.
Truckenmiller, M.E., Princiotta, M.F., Norbury, C.C., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 160 (2005) 48–60.
Anglen, C.S., Truckenmiller, M.E., Schell, T.D., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 140 (2003) 13–27.
Sheridan, J.F., Dobbs, C., Jung, J., et al., Ann New York Acad Sci, 840 (1998) 803–8.
Dobbs, C.M., Vasquez, M., Glaser, R., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 48 (1993) 151–60.
Bonneau, R.H., Sheridan, J.F., Feng, N., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 42 (1993) 167–76.
Bonneau, R.H., Brain Behav Immun, 10 (1996) 139–63.
Karp, J.D., Moynihan, J.A., and Ader, R., Brain Behav Immun, 11 (1997) 47–62.
Brenner, G.J. and Moynihan, J.A., Brain Behav Immun, 11 (1997) 9–23.
Kusnecov, A.V., Grota, L.J., Schmidt, S.G., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 38 (1992) 129–38.
Padgett, D.A., Sheridan, J.F., Dorne, J., et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95 (1998) 7231–5.
Anderson, D.W., Ellenberg, J.H., Leventhal, C.M., et al., Ann Neurol, 31 (1992) 333–6.
Hirtz, D., Thurman, D.J., Gwinn-Hardy, K., et al., Neurology, 68 (2007) 326–37.
Whetten-Goldstein, K., Sloan, F.A., Goldstein, L.B., et al., Mult Scler, 4 (1998) 419–25.
Acheson, E.D., Brit Med Bull, 33 (1997) 9–14.
Hernan, M.A., Zhang, S.M., Lipworth, L., et al., Epidemiology, 12 (2001) 301–6.
Sibley, W.A., Bamford, C.R., and Clark, K., Lancet, 1 (1985) 1313–15.
IFN-β Multiple Sclerosis Study Group, Neurology, 43 (1993) 655–61.
Allen, I. and Brankin, B.J., Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 52 (1993) 95–105.
Canto, Dal M.C. and Rabinowitz, S.G., Ann Neurol, 11 (1982) 109–27.
Grant, I. In Hailbreich, U. (Ed.), Multiple sclerosis: A neuropsychiatric disorder, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, 1993, pp.119–36.
Warren, S., Greenhill, S., and Warren, K.G., J Chronic Dis, 35 (1982) 821–31.
Ackerman, K.D., Stover, A., Heyman, R., et al., Brain Behav Immun, 17 (2003) 141–51.
Ackerman, K.D., Heyman, R., Rabin, B.S., et al., Psychosom Med, 64 (2002) 916–20.
Mei-Tal, V., Meyerowitz, S., and Engel, G.L., Psychosom Med, 32 (1970) 67–86.
Mohr, D.C., Hart, S.L., Julian, L., et al., BMJ, 328 (2004) 731–5.
Theiler, M., Science, 80 (1934) 122.
Lipton, H.L., Infect Immun, 11 (1975) 1147–55.
Chamorro, M., Aubert, C., and Brahic, M., J Virol, 57 (1986) 992–7.
Melvold, R.W., Jokinen, D.M., Knobler, R.L., et al., J Immunol, 138 (1987) 1429–33.
Bureau, J.F., Montagutelli, X., Lefebvre, S., et al., J Virol, 66 (1992) 4698–704.
Bureau, J.F., Montagutelli, X., Lefebvre, Bihl F., et al., Nature Genetics, 5 (1993) 82–91.
Sheridan, J.F., Feng, N., Bonneau, R.H., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 31 (1991) 245–55.
Campbell, T., Meagher, M.W., Sieve, A., et al., Brain Behav Immun, 15 (2001) 235–54.
Welsh, C.J.R., Bustamante, L., Nayak, M., et al., Brain Behav Immun, 18 (2004) 166–74.
Mi, W., Belyavskyi, M., Johnson, R.R., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 151 (2004) 103–15.
Sieve, A.N., Steelman, A.J., Young, C.R., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 155 (2004) 103–18.
Brahic, M., Stroop, W.G., and Baringer, J.R., Cell, 26 (1981) 123–8.
Rodriguez, M., Pavelko, K.D., Njenga, M.K., et al., J Immunol, 157 (1996) 5699–709.
Fiette, L., Aubert, C., Ulrike, M., et al., J Exp Med, 181 (1995) 2069–76.
Paya, C.V., Patick, A.K., Leibson, P.J., et al., J Immunol, 143 (1989) 95–102.
Kaminsky, S.G., Nakamura, I., and Cudkowicz, G., J Immunol, 138 (1987) 1020–5.
Steelman, A.J., Prentice, T.W., Lee, A., et al., Manuscript in preparation.
Mi, W., Prentice, T.W., Young, C.R., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 178 (2006) 49–61.
Mi, W., Young, C.R., Storts, R., et al., Microb Path, 41 (2006) 133–43.
Welsh, C.J.R., Tonks, P., Nash, A.A., et al., J Gen Virol, 68 (1987) 1659–67.
Borrow, P., Tonks, P., Welsh, C.J.R., et al., J Gen Virol, 73 (1992) 1861–5.
Murray, P.D., Pavelko, K.D., Leibowitz, J., et al., J Virol, 72 (1998) 7320–9.
Clatch, R.J., Lipton, H.L., and Miller, S.D., Microb Path, 3 (1987) 327–37.
Rodriguez, M. and Sriram, S., J Immunol, 140 (1998) 2950–5.
Welsh, C.J.R., Blakemore, W.F., Tonks, P., et al., In Dimmock, Nigel (Ed.), Immune responses, virus infection and disease, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989, pp. 125–47.
Borrow, P., Welsh, C.J.R., and Nash, A.A., Immunol, 80 (1993) 502–6.
Welsh, C.J.R., Sapatino, B.V., Rosenbaum, B., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 62 (1995) 119–25.
Kohanawa, M., Nakane, A., and Minagawa, T., J Neuroimmunol, 48 (1993) 205–11.
Rodriguez, M., Pavelko, K., and Coffman, R.L., J Virol, 69 (1995) 7286–90.
Pullen, L.C., Miller, S.D., Canto, Dal M.C., et al., Eur J Immunol, 23 (1993) 2287–93.
Fiette, L., Aubert, C., Brahic, M., et al., J Virol, 67 (1993) 589–92.
Azoulay, A., Brahic, M., and Bureau, J.F., J Virol, 68 (1994) 4049–52.
Rodriguez, M. and David, C.S., J Neurovirol, 1 (1995) 111–17.
Nicholson, S.M., Peterson, J.D., Miller, S.D., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 52 (1994) 19–24.
Mendez-Fernandez, Y.V., Johnson, A.J., Rodriguez, M., et al., Eur J Immunol, 33 (2003) 2501–10.
Lindsley, M.D., Thiemann, R., and Rodriguez, M., J Virol, 65 (1991) 6612–20.
Rossi, P.C., McAllister, A., Fiette, L., et al., Cell Immunol, 138 (1991) 341–8.
Dethlefs, S., Brahic, M., and Larsson-Sciard, E.L., J Virol, 71 (1997) 8875–8.
Kang, B.S., Lyman, M.A., and Kim, B.S., J Virol, 76 (2002) 11780–4.
Gerety, S.J., Clatch, R.J., Lipton, H.L., et al., J Immunol, 146 (1991) 2401–8.
Gerety, S., Karpus, W., Cubbon, A.R., et al., J Immunol, 152 (1994) 908–18.
Kang, B.S., Lyman, M.A., and Kim, B.S., J Virol, 76 (2002) 6577–85.
Steelman, A.J., Prentice, T.W., Young, C.R., et al., Manuscript in preparation for J Neuroimmunology (2008).
Zheng, W. and Flavell, R.A., Cell, 89 (1997) 587–96.
Szabo, S.J., Kim, S.T., Costa, G.L., et al., Cell, 100 (2000) 655–69.
Steelman, A.J., Mi, W., Alford, E.N., et al., Manuscript in preparation for Brain Behav Immun (2008).
Roos, R.P., Wollmann, R., Ann Neurol, 15 (1984) 494–9.
Welsh, C.J.R., Tonks, P., Borrow, P., et al., Autoimmunity, 6 (1990) 105–12.
Borrow, P., Welsh, C.J.R., Dean, D., et al., Immunol, 93 (1998) 478–84.
Miller, S.D., VanDerlugt, C.L., Begolka, W.S., et al., Nat Med, 3 (1997) 1133–6.
Canto, Dal M.C., Calenoff, M.A., Miller, S.D., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 104 (2000) 79–84.
Borrow, P. and Nash, A.A., Immunol, 76 (1992) 133–9.
Welsh, C.J.R., Sapatino, B., Rosenbaum, B., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 48 (1993) 91–8.
Johnson, R.R., Prentice, T., Bridegam, P., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 175 (2006) 39–51.
Lipton, H.L. and Canto, Dal M.C., Science, 192 (1976) 62–4.
Griffen, A., Lo, W., Wolny, A., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 44 (1993) 103–16.
Dowdell, K.C., Gienapp, I.E., Stuckman, S., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 100 (1999) 243–51.
Nicholson, S.M., Peterson, J.D., Miller, S.D., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 52 (1994) 19–24.
Johnson, R.R., Storts, R., Welsh, T.H., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 148 (2004) 74–85.
Meagher, M.W., Johnson, R.R., Young, E.E., et al., Brain Behav Immun (in press, 2007).
Quan, N., Avitsur, R., Stark, J.L., et al., J Neuroimmunol, 115 (2001) 36–45.
Avitsur, R., Stark, J.L., and Sheridan, J.F., Horm Behav, 39 (2001) 247–57.
Meagher, M.W., Belyavskyi, M., Sieve, A.N., et al., (in preparation, 2008).
Meagher, M.W., Belyavskyi, M., Sieve, A.N., et al., (in preparation, 2008).
Kumar, M., Kumar, A.M., Waldrop, D., et al., Stress, 6 (2003) 167–72.
Sloan, E.K., Collado-Hidalgo, A., and Cole, S.W. In Welsh, Jane, Meagher, Mary, and Sternberg, Esther (Eds.), Neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms in host defense and autoimmunity, Springer Publishers, New York, 2006.
Capitanio, J.P., Mendoza, S.P., Lerche, N.W., et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 95 (1998) 4714–9.