Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: March 2013

Chapter 1 - Epidemiology of the psychiatric comorbidities of headache


[1] FeinsteinA. The pre-therapeutic classification of co-morbidity in chronic disease. J Chronic Dis 1970; 23: 455–68.
[2] AamodtAH, StovnerLJ, LanghammerA, HagenK, ZwartJA. Is headache related to asthma, hay fever, and chronic bronchitis? The Head-HUNT Study. Headache 2007; 47: 204–12.
[3] CookNR, BensenorIM, LotufoPA, et al. Migraine and coronary heart disease in women and men. Headache 2002; 42: 715–27.
[4] El MetwallyA, SalminenJJ, AuvinenA, KautiainenH, Marja MikkelssonM. Prognosis of non-specific musculoskeletal pain in preadolescents: a prospective 4-year follow-up study till adolescence. Pain 2004; 110: 550–9.
[5] HestbaekL, Leboeuf-YdeC, KyvikKO, et al. Comorbidity with low back pain: a cross-sectional population-based survey of 12- to 22-year-olds. Spine 2004; 29: 1483–91.
[6] HagenK, EinarsenC, ZwartJA, SvebakS, BovimG. The co-occurrence of headache and musculoskeletal symptoms amongst 51,050 adults in Norway. Eur J Neurol 2002; 9: 527–33.
[7] Von KorffM, CraneP, LaneM, et al. Chronic spinal pain and physical-mental comorbidity in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Pain 2005; 113: 331–9.
[8] OttmanR, LiptonRB. Comorbidity of migraine and epilepsy. Neurology 1994; 44: 2105–10.
[9] BreslauN, DavisGC. Migraine, physical health and psychiatric disorder: a prospective epidemiologic study in young adults. J Psychiatry Res 1993; 27: 211–21.
[10] Lanteri-MinetM, RadatF, ChautardM-H, LucasC. Anxiety and depression associated with migraine: influence on migraine subjects’ disability and quality of life, and acute migraine management. Pain 2005; 118: 319–26.
[11] ZwartJA, DybG, HagenK, et al. Depression and anxiety disorders associated with headache frequency. The Nord-Trondelag Health Study. Eur J Neurol 2003; 10: 147–52.
[12] AshinaS, BuseDC, ManackAN, et al. Depression: a risk factor for migraine chronification: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study. Neurology 2010; 74(Suppl 2): A113. Presented at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, Toronto, Canada, April 12–17, 2010.
[13] JuangKD, WangSJ, FuhJL, LuSR, SuTP. Comorbidity of depressive and anxiety disorders in chronic daily headache and its subtypes. Headache 2000; 40: 818–23.
[14] AshinaS, BuseDC, MaizelsM, et al. Self-reported anxiety as a risk factor for migraine chronification. results from The American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study. Headache 2010; 50(Suppl 1): S4. Presented at the 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Headache Society, Los Angeles, California, June 24–27, 2010.
[15] PeterlinBL, TietjenG, MengS, LidickerJ, BigalM. Post-traumatic stress disorder in episodic and chronic migraine. Headache 2008; 48: 517–22.
[16] PeresMF, YoungWB, KaupAO, ZukermanE, SilbersteinSD. Fibromyalgia is common in patients with transformed migraine. Neurology 2001; 57: 1326–8.
[17] Stedman’s Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, 5th edn., New York: Lippincott: Williams & Wilkins, 2005.
[18] GerstmanBB.Epidemiology Kept Simple: An Introduction to Classic and Modern Epidemiology. Hoboken, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
[19] GordisL.Epidemiology. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1996.
[20] MerrillRM.Introduction to Epidemiology. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2010.
[21] RothmanK, GreenlandS.Modern Epidemiology. Hagerstown, MD, Lippincott-Raven; 1998.
[22] MerinkangasKR, AngstJ, IslerH. Migraine and psychopathology. Results of Zurich cohort study of young adults. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; 47: 849–53.
[23] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 2000.
[24] MarazzitiD, ToniC, PedriS, et al. Headache, panic disorder and depression: comorbidity or a spectrum?Neuropsychobiology 1995; 31: 125–9.
[25] MitsikostasDD, ThomasAM. Comorbidity of headache and depressive disorders. Cephalalgia 1999; 19: 211–17.
[26] VerriAP, CechiniAP, GalliC, GranellaF, SandriniG, NappiG. Psychiatric comorbidity in chronic daily headache. Cephalalgia 1998; 18 Suppl 21: 45–9.
[27] OedegaardK, NeckelmannD, MykletonA, et al. Migraine with and without aura: association with depression and anxiety disorder in a population-based study. The HUNT Study. Cephalalgia 2005; 26: 1–6.
[28] MerinkangasKR, MerinkangasJR, AngstJ. Headache syndromes and psychiatric disorders: association and familial transmission. J Psychiatry Res 1993; 27: 197–210.
[29] HeckmanBD, HolroydKA. Tension-type headache and psychiatric comorbidity. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2006; 10: 439–47.
[30] WilliamsDE, RaczynskiJM, DominoJ, DavigHP. Psychophysiological and MMPI personality assessment of headaches: an integrative approach. Headache 1993; 3: 149–54.
[31] SilbersteinS, LiptonR, Dodick, D.Wolff’s Headache and Other Head Pain. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.
[32] PenacobaPC, Fernandez-de-las-PenasCF, Gonzalez-GutierrezJL, Miangolarra-PageJC, ParejaJA.Interaction between anxiety, depression, quality of life and clinical parameters in chronic tension-type headache. Eur J Pain 2008; 12: 886–94.
[33] LipchikGL, PenzienDB. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with headaches. Semin Pain Med 2004; 2: 93–105.
[34] LakeAE, RainsJC, PenzienDB, LipchikGL. Headache and psychiatric comorbidity: historical Context, clinical implications, and research relevance. Headache 2005; 45: 493–506.
[35] PucaF, GencoS, PrudenzanoMP, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial stress in patients with tension type headache from headache centers in Italy. The Italian Collaborative Group for the Study of Psychopathological Factors in Primary Headaches. Cephalalgia 1999; 19: 159–64.
[36] LiptonRB, SilbersteinSD. Why study the comorbidity of migraine?Neurology 1994; 44: S4–S5.
[37] MerikangasKR, StevensDE. Comorbidity of migraine and psychiatric disorders. Neurol Clin 1997; 15: 115–23.
[38] BreslauN, DavisGC, SchultzLR, PetersonEL. Joint 1994 Wolff Award Presentation. Migraine and major depression: a longitudinal study. Headache 1994; 34: 387–93.
[39] BreslauN, LiptonRB, StewartWF, SchultzLR, WelchKM. Comorbidity of migraine and depression: investigating potential etiology and prognosis. Neurology 2003; 60: 1308–12.
[40] MerikangasKR, RischNJ, MerikangasJR, WeissmanMM, KiddKK. Migraine and depression: association and familial transmission. J Psychiatry Res 1988; 22: 119–29.
[41] BursteinR, JakubowskiM. Neural substrate of depression during migraine. Neurol Sci 2009; 30 Suppl 1: S27–31.
[42] BarbantiP, FabbriniG, RicciA, et al. Migraine patients show an increased density of dopamine D3 and D4 receptors on lymphocytes. Cephalalgia 2000; 20: 15–19.
[43] FerrariMD, SaxenaPR. On serotonin and migraine: a clinical and pharmacological review. Cephalalgia 1993; 13: 151–65.
[44] HamelE. Serotonin and migraine: biology and clinical implications. Cephalalgia 2007; 27: 1293–300.
[45] SmithermanTA, PenzienDB, MaizelsM. Anxiety disorders and migraine intractability and progression. Curr Pain Headache Rep 2008; 12: 224–9.
[46] FinocchiC, VillaniV, CasucciG. Therapeutic strategies in migraine patients with mood and anxiety disorders: clinical evidence. Neurol Sci 2010; 31 Suppl 1: S95–98.
[47] BigalME, AshinaS, BursteinR, ReedML, BuseDC, SerranoD, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of allodynia in headache sufferers: a population study. Neurology 2008; 70: 1525–33.
[48] ScherAI, BigalME, LiptonRB. Comorbidity of migraine. Curr Opin Neurol. 2005; 18: 305–10.
[49] BoudreauGP, GrosbergBM, McAllisterPJ, SheftellFD, LiptonRB, BuseDC. Open-label, multicenter study of the efficacy and outcome of onabotulinumtoxin – a treatment in patients with chronic migraine and comorbid depressive disorders. 2nd European Headache and Migraine Trust International Congress – EHMTIC, 241, 2010.
[50] HeckmanBD, Holroyd, KA, HimawanL, et al. Do psychiatric comorbidities influence headache treatment outcomes? results of a naturalistic longitudinal treatment study. Pain 2009; 146: 56–64.
[51] HolroydKA, DrewJB, CottrellCK, RomanekKM, HehV. Impaired functioning and quality of life in severe migraine: the role of catastrophizing and associated symptoms. Cephalalgia 2007; 27: 1156–65.
[52] HautSR, BigalME, LiptonRB. Chronic disorders with episodic manifestations: focus on epilepsy and migraine. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5: 148–57.
[53] LiptonRB. Tracing transformation: chronic migraine classification, progression, and epidemiology. Neurology 2009; 72: S3–7.
[54] BuseDC, ManackA, SerranoD, TurkelC, LiptonRB. Sociodemographic and comorbidity profiles of chronic migraine and episodic migraine sufferers. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010; 81: 428–32.
[55] LiptonRB, HamelskySW, KolodnerKB, SteinerTJ, StewartWF. Migraine, quality of life, and depression: a population-based case-control study. Neurology 2000; 55: 629–35.
[56] JetteN, PattenS, WilliamsJ, BeckerW, WiebeS. Comorbidity of migraine and psychiatric disorders – a national population-based study. Headache 2008; 48: 501–16[0].
[57] SilbersteinSD, DodickD, FreitagF, et al. Pharmacological approaches to managing migraine and associated comorbidities – clinical considerations for monotherapy versus polytherapy. Headache 2007; 47: 585–99.
[58] BuseDC, AndrasikF. Behavioral medicine for migraine. Neurol Clini 2009; 27: 321–582.
[59] BuseDC, RupnowMFT, LiptonRB. Assessing and managing all aspects of migraine: migraine attacks, migraine-related functional impairment, common comorbidities, and quality of life. Mayo Clin Proc 2009; 84: 422–35.
[60] BuseDC, AndrasikF, SollarsCM.Headaches. In: AndrasikF, GoodieJ, PetersonA, eds. Biopsychosocial Assessment in Clinical Health Psychology: A Handbook. New York: Guilford Press; 2012.
[61] MaizelsM, SmithermanTA, PenzienDB. A review of screening tools for psychiatric comorbidity in headache patients. Headache 2006; 46(Suppl 3): S98–109.