Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: August 2013

Section 2 - Diagnosis and biomarkers

References

1. LangAE.A critical appraisal of the premotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: potential usefulness in early diagnosis and design of neuroprotective trials. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 775–83.
2. AarslandD, ZaccaiJ, BrayneC.A systematic review of prevalence studies of dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 1255–63.
3. AarslandD, BrønnickK, Williams-GrayC, et al. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease: a multicenter pooled analysis. Neurology 2010; 75: 1062–9.
4. MuslimovicD, PostB, SpeelmanJD, SchmandB.Cognitive profile of patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson disease. Neurology 2005; 65: 1239–45.
5. AarslandD, KvaloyJT, AndersenK, et al. The effect of age of onset of PD on risk of dementia. J Neurol 2007; 254: 38–45.
6. Williams-GrayCH, FoltynieT, BrayneCE, RobbinsTW, BarkerRA.Evolution of cognitive dysfunction in an incident Parkinson’s disease cohort. Brain 2007; 130: 1787–98.
7. HallidayGM, McCannH.The progression of pathology in Parkinson’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1184: 188–95.
8. MuslimovicD, PostB, SpeelmanJD, SchmandB, de HaanRJ.Determinants of disability and quality of life in mild to moderate Parkinson disease. Neurology 2008; 70: 2241–7.
9. LitvanI, AarslandD, AdlerCH, et al. MDS task force on mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: critical review of PD-MCI. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 1814–24.
10. Martinez-HortaS, KulisevskyJ.Is all cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease “mild cognitive impairment”?J Neural Transm 2011; 118: 1185–90.
11. KulisevskyJ, PagonabarragaJ.Cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: tools for diagnosis and assessment. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1103–10.
12. Williams-GrayCH, EvansJR, GorisA, et al. The distinct cognitive syndromes of Parkinson’s disease: 5 year follow-up of the CamPaIGN cohort. Brain 2009; 132: 2958–69.
13. DuboisB, BurnD, GoetzC, et al. Diagnostic procedures for Parkinson’s disease dementia: recommendations from the Movement Disorder Society task force. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 2314–24.
14. JanvinC, AarslandD, LarsenJP, HugdahlK.Neuropsychological profile of patients with Parkinson’s disease without dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2003; 15: 126–31.
15. TaylorAE, Saint-CyrJA.The neuropsychology of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Cogn 1995; 28: 281–96.
16. OwenAM, JamesM, LeighPN, et al. Fronto-striatal cognitive deficits at different stages of Parkinson’s disease. Brain 1992; 115: 1727–1751.
17. JanvinCC, LarsenJP, SalmonDP, et al. Cognitive profiles of individual patients with Parkinson’s disease and dementia: comparison with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 337–42.
18. KulisevskyJ, PagonabarragaJ, Pascual-SedanoB, García-SánchezC, GironellA.Prevalence and correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease without dementia. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 1889–96.
19. GoetzCG, EmreM, DuboisB.Parkinson’s disease dementia: definitions, guidelines, and research perspectives in diagnosis. Ann Neurol 2008; 64 (Suppl 2): S81–92.
20. YeterianEH, PandyaDN.Prefrontostriatal connections in relation to cortical architectonic organization in rhesus monkeys. J Comp Neurol 1991; 312: 43–67.
21. KulisevskyJ.Role of dopamine in learning and memory: implications for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Drugs Aging 2000; 16: 365–79.
22. KulisevskyJ, García-SánchezC, BerthierML, et al. Chronic effects of dopaminergic replacement on cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease: a two-year follow-up study of previously untreated patients. Mov Disord 2000; 15: 613–26.
23. CoolsR, StefanovaE, BarkerRA, RobbinsTW, OwenAM.Dopaminergic modulation of high-level cognition in Parkinson’s disease: the role of the prefrontal cortex revealed by PET. Brain 2002; 125: 584–94.
24. MattisPJ, TangCC, MaY, DhawanV, EidelbergD.Network correlates of the cognitive response to levodopa in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2011; 77: 858–65.
25. BohnenNI, AlbinRL.The cholinergic system and Parkinson disease. Behav Brain Res 2011; 221: 564–73.
26. BohnenNI, AlbinRL.Cholinergic denervation occurs early in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2009; 73: 256–7.
27. HilkerR, ThomasAV, KleinJC, et al. Dementia in Parkinson disease: functional imaging of cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Neurology 2005; 65: 1716–22.
28. KleinJC, EggersC, KalbeE, et al. Neurotransmitter changes in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia in vivo. Neurology 2010; 74: 885–92.
29. Seto-SalviaN, ClarimonJ, PagonabarragaJ, et al. Dementia risk in Parkinson disease: disentangling the role of MAPT haplotypes. Arch Neurol 2011; 68: 359–64.
30. PappataS, SantangeloG, AarslandD, et al. Mild cognitive impairment in drug-naive patients with PD is associated with cerebral hypometabolism. Neurology 2011; 77: 1357–62.
31. TrösterAI, WoodsSP, MorganEE.Assessing cognitive change in Parkinson’s disease: development of practice effect-corrected reliable change indices. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2007; 22: 711–18.
32. AarslandD, MunizG, MatthewsF.Nonlinear decline of mini-mental state examination in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 334–7.
33. HosokaiY, NishioY, HirayamaK, et al. Distinct patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson’s disease with and without mild cognitive impairment. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 854–62.
34. HuangC, MattisP, PerrineK, et al. Metabolic abnormalities associated with mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2008; 70: 1470–7.
35. KulisevskyJ, AvilaA, BarbanojM, et al. Acute effects of levodopa on neuropsychological performance in stable and fluctuating Parkinson’s disease patients at different levodopa plasma levels. Brain 1996; 119: 2121–32.
36. WitjasT, KaphanE, AzulayJP, et al. Nonmotor fluctuations in Parkinson’s disease: frequent and disabling. Neurology 2002; 59: 408–13.
37. TrösterAI.Neuropsychology of deep brain stimulation in neurology and psychiatry. Front Biosci 2009; 14: 1857–79.
38. PagonabarragaJ, KulisevskyJ, LlebariaG, et al. Parkinson’s disease-cognitive rating scale: a new cognitive scale specific for Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 998–1005.
39. CavinessJN, Driver-DunckleyE, ConnorDJ, et al. Defining mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1272–7.
40. PetersenRC, DoodyR, KurzA, et al. Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 2001; 58: 1985–92.
41. LarnerAJ.Mini-Mental Parkinson (MMP) as a dementia screening test: comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Curr Aging Sci 2012; 5: 136–9.
42. LitvanI, GoldmanJG, TrösterAI, et al. Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force guidelines. Mov Disord 2012; 27: 349–56.
43. CrumRM, AnthonyJC, BassettSS, FolsteinMF.Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA 1993; 269: 2386–91.
44. FreemanRQ, GiovannettiT, LamarM, et al. Visuoconstructional problems in dementia: contribution of executive systems functions. Neuropsychology 2000; 14: 415–26.
45. WindAW, SchellevisFG, Van StaverenG, et al. Limitations of the Mini-Mental State Examination in diagnosing dementia in general practice. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1997; 12: 101–08.
46. ZadikoffC, FoxSH, Tang-WaiDF, et al. A comparison of the mini mental state exam to the Montreal cognitive assessment in identifying cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 297–9.
47. RiedelO, KlotscheJ, SpottkeA, et al. Cognitive impairment in 873 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Results from the German Study on Epidemiology of Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia (GEPAD). J Neurol 2008; 255: 255–64.
48. VilleneuveS, Rodrigues-BrazeteJ, JoncasS, et al. Validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale to detect mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease and REM sleep behavior disorder. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2011; 31: 210–17.
49. DujardinK, DuboisB, TisonF, et al. Parkinson’s disease dementia can be easily detected in routine clinical practice. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 2769–76.
50. HoopsS, NazemS, SiderowfAD, et al. Validity of the MoCA and MMSE in the detection of MCI and dementia in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2009; 73: 1738–45.
51. NazemS, SiderowfAD, DudaJE, et al. Montreal cognitive assessment performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease with “normal” global cognition according to mini-mental state examination score. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 304–8.
52. Dalrymple-AlfordJC, MacAskillMR, NakasCT, et al. The MoCA: well-suited screen for cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2010; 75: 1717–25.
53. ChouKL, AmickMM, BrandtJ, et al. A recommended scale for cognitive screening in clinical trials of Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 2501–7.
54. Serrano-DuenasM, CaleroB, SerranoS, SerranoM, CoronelP.Metric properties of the mini-mental Parkinson and SCOPA-COG scales for rating cognitive deterioration in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 2555–62.
55. PagonabarragaJ, KulisevskyJ, LlebariaG, et al. PDD-Short Screen: a brief cognitive test for screening dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 440–6.
56. MorrisJC.The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993; 43: 2412–14.
57. GoldmanWP, BatyJD, BucklesVD, SahrmannS, MorrisJC.Cognitive and motor functioning in Parkinson disease: subjects with and without questionable dementia. Arch Neurol 1998; 55: 674–80.
58. DuboisB, SlachevskyA, LitvanI, PillonB.The FAB: a frontal assessment battery at bedside. Neurology 2000; 55: 1621–6.
59. LimaCF, MeirelesLP, FonsecaR, CastroSL, GarrettC.The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) in Parkinson’s disease and correlations with formal measures of executive functioning. J Neurol 2008; 255: 1756–61.
60. AarslandD, LitvanI, SalmonD, et al. Performance on the dementia rating scale in Parkinson’s disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies: comparison with progressive supranuclear palsy and Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74: 1215–20.
61. BrownGG, RahillAA, GorellJM, et al. Validity of the Dementia Rating Scale in assessing cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1999; 12: 180–8.
62. VitalianoPP, BreenAR, RussoJ, et al. The clinical utility of the dementia rating scale for assessing Alzheimer patients. J Chronic Dis 1984; 37: 743–53.
63. LlebariaG, PagonabarragaJ, KulisevskyJ, et al. Cut-off score of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale for screening dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 1546–50.
64. MarinusJ, VisserM, VerweyNA, et al. Assessment of cognition in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2003; 61: 1222–8.
65. VerbaanD, Jeukens-VisserM, Van LaarT, et al. SCOPA-cognition cutoff value for detection of Parkinson’s disease dementia. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 1881–6.
66. EmreM, AarslandD, BrownR, et al. Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1689–707.
67. KalbeE, CalabreseP, KohnN, et al. Screening for cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease with the Parkinson neuropsychometric dementia assessment (PANDA) instrument. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2008; 14: 93–101.
68. Martinez-MartinP, Prieto-JurczynskaC, Frades-PayoB.[Psychometric attributes of the Parkinson’s Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale. An independent validation study]. Rev Neurol 2009; 49: 393–8.
69. BerardelliA, WenningGK, AntoniniA, et al. EFNS/MDS-ES recommendations for the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 2013; 20: 16–34.
70. RothM, TymE, MountjoyCQ, et al. CAMDEX. A standardised instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1986; 149: 698–709.
71. HobsonP, MearaJ.The detection of dementia and cognitive impairment in a community population of elderly people with Parkinson’s disease by use of the CAMCOG neuropsychological test. Age Ageing 1999; 28: 39–43.
72. Saint-CyrJA, TrepanierLL, KumarR, LozanoAM, LangAE.Neuropsychological consequences of chronic bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in Parkinson’s disease. Brain 2000; 123: 2091–108.

References

1. BaroneP, AntoniniA, ColosimoC, et al. The PRIAMO study: a multicenter assessment of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1641–9.
2. ReijndersJSAM, EhrtU, WeberWEJ, AarslandD, LeentjensAFG.A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 183–9.
3. HolroydS, CurrieLJ, WootenGF.Depression is associated with impairment of ADL, not motor function in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2005; 64: 2134–5.
4. LiuCY, WangSJ, FuhJL, et al. The correlation of depression with functional ability in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol 1997; 244: 493–8.
5. RavinaB, CamiciolliR, ComoPG, et al. The impact of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2007; 69: 342–7.
6. SchragA, JahanshahiM, QuinnN.What contributes to quality of life in Parkinson’s disease?J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000; 69: 308–12.
7. SantangeloG, VitaleC, TrojanoL, et al. Relationship between depression and cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease without dementia. J Neurol 2009; 256: 632–8.
8. TrösterAI, StalpLD, PaoloAM, FieldsJA, KollerWC.Neuropsychological impairment in Parkinson’s disease with and without depression. Arch Neurol 1995; 52: 1164–9.
9. Global Parkinson’s Disease Survey Steering Committee. Factors impacting on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease: results from an international survey. Mov Disord 2002; 17: 60–7.
10. HobsonP, HoldenA, MearaJ.Measuring the impact of Parkinson’s disease with the Parkinson’s Disease Quality of Life questionnaire. Age Ageing 1999; 28: 341–6.
11. AarslandD.Mental symptoms in Parkinson’s disease are important contributors to caregiver distress. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999; 14: 866–74.
12. ShulmanLM, TabackRL, RabinsteinAA, WeinerWJ.Non-recognition of depression and other non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2002; 8: 193–7.
13. WeintraubD, MobergPJ, DudaJE, KatzIR, SternMB.Recognition and treatment of depression in Parkinson’s disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2003; 16: 178–83.
14. DobkinRD, MenzaMA, BienfaitK, et al. The impact of antidepressant treatment on cognitive functioning in depressed patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2010; 22: 188–95.
15. KulisevskyJ, PagonabarragaJ, Pascual-SedanoB, et al. Motor changes during sertraline treatment in depressed patients with Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 2008; 15: 953–9.
16. MenzaMA, DobkinRD, MarinH, et al. The impact of treatment of depression on quality of life, disability and relapse in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1325–32.
17. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.
18. MarshL, McDonaldWM, CummingsJ, RavinaB, NINDS/NIMH Work Group on Depression and Parkinson’s Disease. Provisional diagnostic criteria for depression in Parkinson’s disease: report of an NINDS/NIMH Work Group. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 148–58.
19. StarksteinSE, DragovicM, JorgeR, et al. Diagnostic criteria for depression in Parkinson’s disease: a study of symptom patterns using latent class analysis. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 2239–45.
20. StarksteinSE, MerelloM, JorgeR, et al. A validation study of depressive syndromes in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 538–46.
21. ReijndersJSAM, LousbergR, LeentjensAFG.Assessment of depression in Parkinson’s disease: the contribution of somatic symptoms to the clinimetric performance of the Hamilton and Montgomery Asberg rating scales. J Psychosom Res 2010; 68: 561–5.
22. SchragA, BaroneP, BrownRG, et al. Depression rating scales in Parkinson’s disease: critique and recommendations. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1077–92.
23. NaardingP, LeentjensAFG, van KootenF, VerheyFRJ.Disease-specific properties of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression in patients with stroke, Alzheimer’s dementia, and Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002; 14: 329–34.
24. Serrano-DueñasM, Soledad SerranoM.Concurrent validation of the 21-item and 6-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale versus the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria to assess depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease: an exploratory analysis. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2008; 14: 233–8.
25. WilliamsJR, MarshL.Validity of the Cornell scale for depression in dementia in Parkinson’s disease with and without cognitive impairment. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 433–7. Erratum in: Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1101.
26. KendlerKS, MyersJ, HalberstadtLJ.Do reasons for major depression act as causes?Mol Psychiatry 2011; 16: 626–33.
27. Anonymous. Multidiciplinaire richtlijn ziekte van Parkinson. Utrecht: Van Zuiden Communications; 2010.
28. National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions. Parkinson’s Disease: National Clinical Guideline for Diagnosis and Management in Primary and Secondary Care. London: Royal College of Physicians; 2006.
29. DissanayakaNN, SellbachA, MathesonS, et al. Anxiety disorders in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and risk factors. Mov Disord 2010; 15: 7.
30. LeentjensAFG, DujardinK, MarshL, et al. Symptomatology and markers of anxiety disorders in Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 484–92.
31. MenzaMA, Robertson-HoffmanDE, BanapaceAS.Parkinson’s disease and anxiety: comorbidity with depression. Biol Psychiatry 1993; 34: 465–70.
32. PontoneGM, WilliamsJR, AndersonKE, et al. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and anxiety subtypes in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1333–8.
33. RichardIH.Anxiety disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Adv Neurol 2005; 96: 42–55.
34. LeentjensAFG, DujardinK, MarshL, et al. Symptomatology and markers of anxiety disorders in Parkinson’s disease: a cross-sectional study. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 484–92.
35. LauterbachEC, FreemanA, VogelRL.Correlates of generalized anxiety and panic attacks in dystonia and Parkinson’s disease. Cogn Behav Neurol 2003; 16: 225–33.
36. SiemersER, ShekharA, QuaidK, DicksonH.Anxiety and motor performance in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1993; 8: 501–6.
37. VázquezA, Jiménez-JiménezFJ, García-RuizP, García-UrraD.“Panic attacks” in Parkinson’s disease; a long-term complication of levodopa therapy. Acta Neurol Scand 1993; 87: 14–18.
38. MarinusJ, LeentjensAFG, VisserM, StiggelboutAM, Van HiltenJJ.Evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 2002; 6: 318–24.
39. SherbourneCD, SullivanG, CraskeM, et al. Functioning and disability levels in primary care out-patients with one or more anxiety disorders. Psychol Med 2010; 40: 2059–68.
40. LeentjensAFG, DujardinK, MarshL, et al. Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson’s disease: critique and recommendations. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 2015–25.
41. LeentjensAFG, DujardinK, MarshL, et al. Anxiety rating scales in Parkinson’s disease: a validation study of the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, The Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 407–15.
42. DujardinK, SockeelP, DevosD, et al. Characteristics of apathy in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 778–84.
43. PluckGC, BrownRG.Apathy in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73: 636–42.
44. StarksteinSE, MerelloM, JorgeR, et al. The syndromal validity and nosological position of apathy in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1211–16.
45. DrijgersRL, DujardinK, ReijndersJSAM, DefebvreL, LeentjensAFG.Validation of diagnostic criteria for apathy in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2010; 16: 656–60.
46. OguruM, TachibanaH, TodaKO, OkudaB, OkaN.Apathy and depression in Parkinson disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2010; 23: 35–41.
47. PedersenKF, AlvesG, AarslandD, LarsenJP.Occurrence and risk factors for apathy in Parkinson disease: a 4-year prospective longitudinal study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80: 1279–82.
48. MarinRS.Apathy, a neuropsychiatric syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1991; 3: 243–54.
49. StarksteinSE.Apathy and withdrawal. Internat Psychogeriatr 2000; 12 (Suppl 1): 135–8.
50. StarksteinSE, LeentjensAFG.The nosological position of apathy in clinical practice. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79: 1088–92.
51. RobertP, OnyikeCU, LeentjensAFG, et al. Proposed diagnostic criteria for apathy in Alzheimer’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Eur Psychiatry 2009; 66: 531–5.
52. MulinE, LeoneE, DujardinK, et al. Diagnostic criteria for apathy in clinical practice. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2011; 26: 158–65.
53. SockeelP, DujardinK, DevosD, et al. The Lille apathy rating scale (LARS), a new instrument for detecting and quantifying apathy: validation in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006; 77: 579–84.
54. LeentjensAFG, DujardinK, MarshL, et al. Apathy and anhedonia rating scales in Parkinson’s disease: critique and recommendations. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 2004–14.
55. DevosD, DujardinK, PoirotI, et al. Comparison of desipramine and citalopram treatment for depression in Parkinson’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 850–7.
56. MenzaM, DobkinRD, MarinH, MarkMH, GaraM, BuyskeS, et al. A controlled trial of antidepressants in patients with Parkinson disease and depression. Neurology 2009; 72: 886–92.
57. RavindranLN, SteinMB.The pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders: a review of progress. J Clin Psychiatry 2010; 71: 839–54.
58. DrijgersRL, AaltenP, WinogrodzkaA, VerheyFR, LeentjensAFG.Pharmacological treatment of apathy in neurodegenerative diseases: a systematic review. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009; 28: 13–22.
59. VerkaikR, van WeertJC, FranckeAL.The effects of psychosocial methods on depressed, aggressive and apathetic behaviors of people with dementia: a systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005 20: 301–14.

References

1. QinZ, ZhangL, SunF, et al. Health related quality of life in early Parkinson’s disease: impact of motor and non-motor symptoms, results from Chinese levodopa exposed cohort. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009; 15: 767–71.
2. GattellaroG, MinatiL, GrisoliM, et al. White matter involvement in idiopathic Parkinson disease: a diffusion tensor imaging study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2009; 30: 1222–6.
3. WildEJ, FoxNC.Serial volumetric MRI in Parkinsonian disorders. Mov Disord 2009; 24 (Suppl 2): S691–8.
4. ApostolovaL, AlvesG, HwangKS, et al. Hippocampal and ventricular changes in Parkinson’s disease mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 2012; 33: 2113–24.
5. ChoZH, OhSH, KimJM, et al. Direct visualization of Parkinson's disease by in vivo human brain imaging using 7.0T magnetic resonance imaging. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 713–18.
6. BergD, GodauJ, Walter U. Transcranial sonography in movement disorders. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 1044–55.
7. WalterU, SkoloudikD, BergD.Transcranial sonography findings related to non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 2010; 289: 123–7.
8. FazekasF, ChawlukJB, AlaviA, HurtigHI, ZimmermanRA.MR signal abnormalities at 1.5 T in Alzheimer’s dementia and normal aging. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1987; 149: 351–6.
9. ScheltensP, PasquierF, WeertsJG, BarkhofF, LeysD.Qualitative assessment of cerebral atrophy on MRI: inter- and intra-observer reproducibility in dementia and normal aging. Eur Neurol 1997; 37: 95–9.
10. van StraatenEC, FazekasF, RostrupE, et al. Impact of white matter hyperintensities scoring method on correlations with clinical data: the LADIS study. Stroke 2006; 37: 836–40.
11. de LeeuwFE, de GrootJC, AchtenE, et al. Prevalence of cerebral white matter lesions in elderly people: a population based magnetic resonance imaging study. The Rotterdam Scan Study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001; 70: 9–14.
12. YoshitaM, FletcherE, HarveyD, et al. Extent and distribution of white matter hyperintensities in normal aging, MCI, and AD. Neurology 2006; 67: 2192–8.
13. TiehuisAM, VinckenKL, MaliWP, et al. Automated and visual scoring methods of cerebral white matter hyperintensities: relation with age and cognitive function. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 25: 59–66.
14. JovicichJ, CzannerS, HanX, et al. MRI-derived measurements of human subcortical, ventricular and intracranial brain volumes: Reliability effects of scan sessions, acquisition sequences, data analyses, scanner upgrade, scanner vendors and field strengths. Neuroimage 2009; 46: 177–92.
15. DyrbyTB, RostrupE, BaareWF, et al. Segmentation of age-related white matter changes in a clinical multi-center study. Neuroimage 2008; 41: 335–45.
16. LangAE, ObesoJA.Challenges in Parkinson’s disease: restoration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system is not enough. Lancet Neurol 2004; 3: 309–16.
17. BohnenNI, KauferDI, IvancoLS, et al. Cortical cholinergic function is more severely affected in parkinsonian dementia than in Alzheimer disease: an in vivo positron emission tomographic study. Arch Neurol 2003; 60: 1745–8.
18. RemyP, DoderM, LeesA, TurjanskiN, BrooksD.Depression in Parkinson’s disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic system. Brain 2005; 128: 1314–22.
19. GoetzCG.New developments in depression, anxiety, compulsiveness, and hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25 (Suppl 1): S104–9.
20. O’SullivanSS, LoaneCM, LawrenceAD, et al. Sleep disturbance and impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2011; 82: 620–2.
21. BeyerMK, JanvinCC, LarsenJP, AarslandD.A magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment and dementia using voxel-based morphometry. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78: 254–9.
22. KosticVS, AgostaF, PetrovicI, et al. Regional patterns of brain tissue loss associated with depression in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2010; 75: 857–63.
23. LiW, LiuJ, SkidmoreF, LiuY, TianJ, LiK.White matter microstructure changes in the thalamus in Parkinson disease with depression: A diffusion tensor MR imaging study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2010; 31: 1861–6.
24. TandbergE, LarsenJP, KarlsenK.A community-based study of sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1998; 13: 895–9.
25. ComellaCL.Sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2008; 10: 215–21.
26. UngerMM, BelkeM, MenzlerK, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder reveals microstructural changes in the brainstem, substantia nigra, olfactory region, and other brain regions. Sleep 2010; 33: 767–73.
27. SchenckCH, BundlieSR, MahowaldMW.Delayed emergence of a parkinsonian disorder in 38% of 29 older men initially diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Neurology 1996; 46: 388–93.
28. FockeNK, TrenkwalderC.Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson’s disease: two sides of one coin?Sleep 2010; 33: 731–2.
29. GjerstadMD, BoeveB, Wentzel-LarsenT, AarslandD, LarsenJP.Occurrence and clinical correlates of REM sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson’s disease over time. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79: 387–91.
30. GamaRL, TavoraDG, BomfimRC, et al. Sleep disturbances and brain MRI morphometry in Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy – a comparative study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2010; 16: 275–9.
31. EllmoreTM, HoodAJ, CastriottaRJ, StimmingEF, BickRJ, SchiessMC.Reduced volume of the putamen in REM sleep behavior disorder patients. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2010; 16(10): 645–9.
32. WeintraubD, KoesterJ, PotenzaMN, et al. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: a cross-sectional study of 3090 patients. Arch Neurol 2010; 67: 589–95.
33. CiliaR, van EimerenT.Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease: seeking a roadmap toward a better understanding. Brain Struct Funct 2011; 216: 289–99.
34. Rodriguez-OrozMC, Lopez-AzcarateJ, Garcia-GarciaD, et al. Involvement of the subthalamic nucleus in impulse control disorders associated with Parkinson’s disease. Brain 2011; 134: 36–49.
35. WuK, PolitisM, PicciniP.Parkinson disease and impulse control disorders: a review of clinical features, pathophysiology and management. Postgrad Med J 2009; 85: 590–6.
36. PedersenKF, AlvesG, BrønnickK, et al. Apathy in drug-naive patients with incident Parkinson’s disease: the Norwegian ParkWest study. J Neurol 2010; 257: 217–23.
37. IsellaV, MelziP, GrimaldiM, et al. Clinical, neuropsychological, and morphometric correlates of apathy in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2002; 17: 366–71.
38. ReijndersJS, ScholtissenB, WeberWE, et al. Neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in Parkinson’s disease: a magnetic resonance imaging study using voxel-based morphometry. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 2318–25.
39. ThoboisS, ArdouinC, LhomméeE, et al. Non-motor dopamine withdrawal syndrome after surgery for Parkinson’s disease: predictors and underlying mesolimbic denervation. Brain 2010; 133: 1111–27.
40. ReijndersJS, EhrtU, WeberWE, AarslandD, LeentjensAF.A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 183–9.
41. KosticVS, FilippiM.Neuroanatomical correlates of depression and apathy in Parkinson’s disease: magnetic resonance imaging studies. J Neurol Sci 2011; 310: 61–3.
42. CardosoEF, MaiaFM, FregniF, et al. Depression in Parkinson’s disease: convergence from voxel-based morphometry and functional magnetic resonance imaging in the limbic thalamus. Neuroimage 2009; 47: 467–72.
43. MatsuiH, NishinakaK, OdaM, et al. Depression in Parkinson’s disease. Diffusion tensor imaging study. J Neurol 2007; 254: 1170–3.
44. FeldmannA, IllesZ, KosztolanyiP, et al. Morphometric changes of gray matter in Parkinson’s disease with depression: a voxel-based morphometry study. Mov Disord 2008; 23: 42–6.
45. AarslandD, MarshL, SchragA.Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 2175–86.
46. AarslandD, AndersenK, LarsenJP, LolkA, Kragh-SørensenP.Prevalence and characteristics of dementia in Parkinson disease: an 8-year prospective study. Arch Neurol 2003; 60: 387–92.
47. KraftE, WinkelmannJ, TrenkwalderC, AuerDP.Visual hallucinations, white matter lesions and disease severity in Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand 1999; 99: 362–7.
48. Ramirez-RuizB, MartiMJ, TolosaE, et al. Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson’s disease patients with visual hallucinations. Eur J Neurol 2007; 14: 750–6.
49. Ibarretxe-BilbaoN, Ramirez-RuizB, TolosaE, et al. Hippocampal head atrophy predominance in Parkinson’s disease with hallucinations and with dementia. J Neurol 2008; 255: 1324–31.
50. Ibarretxe-BilbaoN, Ramirez-RuizB, JunqueC, et al. Differential progression of brain atrophy in Parkinson’s disease with and without visual hallucinations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010; 81: 650–7.
51. DissanayakaNN, SellbachA, MathesonS, et al. Anxiety disorders in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence and risk factors. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 838–45.
52. PletnikovaO, WestN, LeeMK, et al. Abeta deposition is associated with enhanced cortical alpha-synuclein lesions in Lewy body diseases. Neurobiol Aging 2005; 26: 1183–92.
53. HardingAJ, LakayB, HallidayGM.Selective hippocampal neuron loss in dementia with Lewy bodies. Ann Neurol 2002; 51: 125–8.
54. TroncosoJC, MartinLJ, Dal FornoG, KawasCH.Neuropathology in controls and demented subjects from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Neurobiol Aging 1996; 17: 365–71.
55. JellingerKA, AttemsJ.Prevalence and impact of vascular and Alzheimer pathologies in Lewy body disease. Acta Neuropathol 2008; 115: 427–36.
56. JellingerKA, SeppiK, WenningGK, PoeweW.Impact of coexistent Alzheimer pathology on the natural history of Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm 2002; 109: 329–39.
57. HallidayGM, McCannH.The progression of pathology in Parkinson’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2010; 1184: 188–95.
58. JellingerK, MizunoY.Parkinson’s disease. In DicksonD, ed., Neurodegeneration: the Molecular Pathology of Dementia and Movement Disorders. Basel: ISN Neuropath Press; 2003. pp. 159–87.
59. PetersenRC.Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med 2004; 256: 183–94.
60. JanvinCC, LarsenJP, AarslandD, HugdahlK.Subtypes of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: progression to dementia. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 1343–9.
61. VossiusC, LarsenJP, JanvinC, AarslandD.The economic impact of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 1541–4.
62. MamikonyanE, MobergPJ, SiderowfA, et al. Mild cognitive impairment is common in Parkinson’s disease patients with normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009; 15: 226–31.
63. LitvanI, GoldmanJG, TrösterAI, et al. Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: Movement Disorder Society Task Force guidelines. Mov Disord 2012; 27: 349–56.
64. MeyerJS, HuangJ, ChowdhuryMH.MRI confirms mild cognitive impairments prodromal for Alzheimer’s, vascular and Parkinson-Lewy body dementias. J Neurol Sci 2007; 257: 97–104.
65. BeyerMK, JanvinCC, LarsenJP, AarslandD.A magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment and dementia using voxel-based morphometry. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007; 78: 254–9.
66. DalakerTO, LarsenJP, BergslandN, et al. Brain atrophy and white matter hyperintensities in early Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 2233–41.
67. DalakerTO, ZivadinovR, RamasamyDP, et al. Ventricular enlargement and mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2011; 26: 297–301.
68. AarslandD, ZaccaiJ, BrayneC.A systematic review of prevalence studies of dementia in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 1255–63.
69. AarslandD, AndersenK, LarsenJP, et al. Risk of dementia in Parkinson’s disease: a community-based, prospective study. Neurology 2001; 56: 730–6.
70. EmreM, AarslandD, BrownR, et al. Clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia associated with Parkinson disease. Mov Disord 2007; 22: 1689–707.
71. LaaksoMP, PartanenK, RiekkinenP, et al. Hippocampal volumes in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia, and in vascular dementia: an MRI study. Neurology 1996; 46: 678–81.
72. CamicioliR, MooreMM, KinneyA, et al. Parkinson’s disease is associated with hippocampal atrophy. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 784–90.
73. JunqueC, Ramirez-RuizB, TolosaE, et al. Amygdalar and hippocampal MRI volumetric reductions in Parkinson’s disease with dementia. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 540–4.
74. BouchardTP, MalykhinN, MartinWR, et al. Age and dementia-associated atrophy predominates in the hippocampal head and amygdala in Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2008; 29: 1027–39.
75. KennyER, BurtonEJ, O’BrienJT.A volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study of entorhinal cortex volume in dementia with Lewy bodies: a comparison with Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008; 26: 218–25.
76. ApostolovaLG, BeyerM, GreenAE, et al. Hippocampal, caudate, and ventricular changes in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 687–8.
77. Sanchez-CastanedaC, ReneR, Ramirez-RuizB, et al. Correlations between gray matter reductions and cognitive deficits in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease with dementia. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1740–6.
78. BurtonEJ, McKeithIG, BurnDJ, WilliamsED, O’ BrienJT.Cerebral atrophy in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia: a comparison with Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and controls. Brain 2004; 127: 791–800.
79. SummerfieldC, JunqueC, TolosaE, et al. Structural brain changes in Parkinson disease with dementia: a voxel-based morphometry study. Arch Neurol 2005; 62: 281–5.
80. BeyerMK, LarsenJP, AarslandD.Gray matter atrophy in Parkinson disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2007; 69: 747–54.
81. BurtonEJ, McKeithIG, BurnDJ, O’BrienJT.Brain atrophy rates in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia using serial magnetic resonance imaging. Mov Disord 2005; 20: 1571–6.
82. Ramirez-RuizB, MartiMJ, TolosaE, et al. Longitudinal evaluation of cerebral morphological changes in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia. J Neurol 2005; 252: 1345–52.
83. WhitwellJL, JosephsKA.Voxel-based morphometry and its application to movement disorders. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2007; 13 (Suppl 3): S406–16.
84. BohnenNI, AlbinRL.White matter lesions in Parkinson disease. Nat Rev Neurol 2011; 7: 229–36.
85. BaeznerH, BlahakC, PoggesiA, et al. Association of gait and balance disorders with age-related white matter changes: the LADIS study. Neurology 2008; 70: 935–42.
86. BeyerMK, AarslandD, GreveOJ, LarsenJP.Visual rating of white matter hyperintensities in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 223–9.
87. DalakerTO, LarsenJP, DwyerMG, et al. White matter hyperintensities do not impact cognitive function in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease. Neuroimage 2009; 47: 2083–9.
88. MarshallGA, ShchelchkovE, KauferDI, IvancoLS, BohnenNI.White matter hyperintensities and cortical acetylcholinesterase activity in parkinsonian dementia. Acta Neurol Scand 2006; 113: 87–91.
89. Rodriguez-OrozMC, LagePM, Sanchez-MutJ, et al. Homocysteine and cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: a biochemical, neuroimaging, and genetic study. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1437–44.
90. BurtonEJ, McKeithIG, BurnDJ, FirbankMJ, O'BrienJT.Progression of white matter hyperintensities in Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Parkinson disease dementia: a comparison with normal aging. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2006; 14: 842–9.
91. DalakerTO, AlvesG, LarsenJP, et al. Progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Abstract # 708, The Movement Disorder Society, 15th international congress of Parkinson’s disease and Movement Disorders. 2011.
92. BrenneisC, SeppiK, SchockeMF, MullerJ, LugingerE, BoschS, et al. Voxel-based morphometry detects cortical atrophy in the Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 1132–8.
93. CordatoNJ, DugginsAJ, HallidayGM, MorrisJG, PantelisC.Clinical deficits correlate with regional cerebral atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy. Brain 2005; 128: 1259–66.
94. WiltshireK, FosterS, KayeJA, SmallBJ, CamicioliR.Corpus callosum in neurodegenerative diseases: findings in Parkinson’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2005; 20: 345–51.
95. MartinWR, WielerM, GeeM, CamicioliR.Temporal lobe changes in early, untreated Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 1949–54.
96. WiltshireK, ConchaL, GeeM, et al. Corpus callosum and cingulum tractography in Parkinson’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci 2010; 37: 595–600.

References

1. DuboisB, FeldmanHH, JacovaC, et al. Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 734–46.
2. DuboisB, FeldmanHH, JacovaC, et al. Revising the definition of Alzheimer’s disease: a new lexicon. Lancet Neurology 2010; 9: 1118–27.
3. McKhannGM, KnopmanDS, ChertkowH, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011; 7: 263–9.
4. HughesAJ, DanielSE, LeesAJ.Improved accuracy of clinical diagnosis of Lewy body Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2001; 57: 1497–9.
5. JellingerKA, AttemsJ.Does striatal pathology distinguish Parkinson disease from dementia?Acta Neuropathol 2001; 102: 355–63.
6. AarslandD, PerryR, BrownA, LarsenJP, BallardC.Neuropathology of dementia in Parkinson’s disease: a prospective, community-based study. Ann Neurol 2005; 58: 773–6.
7. SilvermanDH, SmallGW, PhelpsME.Clinical value of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of dementia: sensitivity and specificity of regional metabolic and other parameters for early identification of Alzheimer’s disease. Clin Positron Imaging 1999; 2: 119–30.
8. HuangC, MattisP, PerrineK, et al. Metabolic abnormalities associated with mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 2008; 70: 1470–7.
9. YongSW, YoonJK, AnYS, LeeP.A comparison of cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Eur J Neurol 2007; 14: 1357–62.
10. Vander BorghtT, MinoshimaS, GiordaniB, et al. Cerebral metabolic differences in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease matched for dementia severity. J Nucl Med 1997; 38: 797–802.
11. HuM, Taylor-RobinsonSD, ChaudhuriKR, et al. Cortical dysfunction in non-demented Parkinson's disease patients: a combined (31)P-MRS and (18)FDG-PET study. Brain 2000; 123: 340–52.
12. JokinenP, ScheininN, AaltoS, et al. [11C]PIB-, [18F]FDG-PET and MRI imaging in patients with Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2010; 16: 666–70.
13. HiranoS, EckertT, FlanaganMA, EidelbergD.Metabolic networks for assessment of therapy and diagnosis in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24 (Suppl 2): S725–31.
14. PolitoC, BertiV, RamatS, et al. Interaction of caudate dopamine depletion and brain metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction in early Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2012; 206, e29–39.
15. BrooksDJ.Imaging approaches to Parkinson disease. J Nucl Med 2010; 51: 596–609.
16. BrooksDJ, PaveseN.Imaging non-motor aspects of Parkinson’s disease. Progr Brain Res 2010; 184: 205–18.
17. GilmanS, KoeppeRA, LittleR, et al. Differentiation of Alzheimer’s disease from dementia with Lewy bodies utilizing positron emission tomography with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose and neuropsychological testing. Exp Neurol 2005; 191 (Suppl 1): S95–103.
18. MinoshimaS, FosterNL, SimaAA, et al. Alzheimer’s disease versus dementia with Lewy bodies: cerebral metabolic distinction with autopsy confirmation. Ann Neurol 2001; 50: 358–65.
19. PerneczkyR, DrzezgaA, BoeckerH, et al. Right prefrontal hypometabolism predicts delusions in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurobiol Aging 2009; 30: 1420–9.
20. AlbinRL, MinoshimaS, D’AmatoCJ, et al. Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in diffuse Lewy body disesase. Neurology 1996; 47: 462–6.
21. EckertT, TangC, EidelbergD.Assessment of the progression of Parkinson’s disease: a metabolic network approach. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 926–32.
22. HilkerR, ThomasAV, KleinJC, et al. Dementia in Parkinson’s disease: functional imaging of cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Neurology 2005; 65: 1716–22.
23. HuXS, OkamuraN, AraiH, et al. 18F-fluorodopa PET study of striatal dopamine uptake in the diagnosis of dementia of Lewy bodies. Neurology 2000; 55: 1575–7.
24. ItoK, Nagano-SaitoA, KatoT, et al. Striatal and extrastriatal dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease with dementia: a 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa PET study. Brain 2002; 125; 1358–65.
25. MorrishPK, RakshiJS, BaileyDL, SawleGV, BrooksDJ.Measuring the rate of progression and estimating the preclinical period of Parkinson’s disease with [18F]dopa PET. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 64: 314–19.
26. WalkerZ, CostaDC, WalkerRW, et al. Differentiation of dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer’s disease using dopaminergic presynaptic ligand. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73: 134–40.
27. O’BrienJT, McKeithIG, WalkerZ, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT in possible dementia with Lewy bodies. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 34–9.
28. BenamerTS, PattersonJ, GrossetDG, et al. Accurate differentiation of parkinsonism and essential tremor using visual assessment of [123I]-FP-CIT imaging. The [123I] –FP-CIT Study Group. Mov Disord 2000; 15: 503–10.
29. RinneJO, BergmanJ, RuottinenH, et al. Striatal uptake of a novel PETl ligand [18F] beta-CFT, is reduced in early Parkinson’s disease. Synapse 1999; 31: 119–24.
30. TorstensonR, HartvigP, LångströmB, WesterbergG, TedroffJ.Differential effect of levodopa on dopaminergic function in early and advanced Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 1997; 41: 334–40.
31. KoeppeRA, GilmanS, JunckL, WernetteK, FreyKA.Differentiating Alzheimer’s disease from dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease with (+)-[11C]dihydrotetrabenazine positron emission tomography. Alzheimers Dement 2008; 4: S67–76.
32. RinneJO, LaihinenA, RuottinenH, et al. Increased density of dopamine D2 receptors in the putamen, but not in the caudate nucleus in early Parkinson’s disease: a PET study with [11C] raclopride. J Neurol Sci 1995; 132: 156–61.
33. TedroffJ, PedersenM, AquiloniusSM, et al. Levodopa-induced changes in synaptic dopamine in patients with Parkinson’s disease as measured by [11C] raclopride displacement and PET. Neurology 1996; 46: 1430–6.
34. TurjanskiN, LeesAJ, BrooksDJ.PET studies on striatal dopaminergic receptor binding in drug naive and L-dopa treated Parkinson’s disease patients with and without dyskinesia. Neurology 1997; 49: 717–23.
35. SteevesTD, MiyasakiJ, ZurowskiM, et al. Increased striatal dopamine release in parkinsonian patients with pathological gambling: a [11C] raclopride PET study. Brain 2009; 132: 1376–85.
36. RaoH, MamikonyanE, DetreJA, et al. Decreased ventral striatal activity with impulse control disorder in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 1660–9.
37. DoderM, RabinerEA, TurjanskiN, et al. Brain serotonin HT1A receptors in Parkinson’s disease with and without depression measured by positron emission tomography and 11C-WAY100635. Mov Disord 2000; 15 (Suppl 3): 213.
38. RemyP, DoderM, LeesA, TurjanskiN, BrooksD.Depression in Parkinson’s disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic system. Brain 2005; 128: 1314–22.
39. BallangerB, StrafellaAP, van EimerenT, et al. Serotonin 2A receptors and visual hallucinations in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 2010; 67: 416–21.
40. KuhlDE, MinoshimaS, FesslerJA, et al. In vivo mapping of cholinergic terminals in normal aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 1996; 40: 399–410.
41. HilkerR, ThomasAV, KleinJC, et al. Dementia in Parkinson’s disease: functional imaging of cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Neurology 2005; 65: 1716–22.
42. BohnenNI, KauferDI, HendricksonR.Cognitive correlates of cortical cholinergic denervation in Parkinson’s disease and Parkinson dementia. J Neurol 2006; 253: 242–7.
43. BohnenNI, MüllerML, KotagalV, et al. Heterogeneity of cholinergic denervation in Parkinson’s disease without dementia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2012; 32: 1609–17.
44. KotagalV, AlbinRL, MüllerML, et al. Symptoms of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder are associated with cholinergic denervation in Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol 2012; 71: 560–8.
45. AsahinaM, SuharaT, ShinotohH, et al. Brain muscarinic receptors in progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson’s disease: a positron emission tomography study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998; 65: 155–63.
46. NordbergA, RinneJ, KadirA, LångströmB.The use of PET in Alzheimer’s disease. Nat Rev Neurol 2010; 6: 78–87.
47. KlunkWE, EnglerH, NordbergA, et al. Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease with Pittsburgh compound-B. Ann Neurol 2004; 55: 306–19.
48. SojkovaJ, ResnickSM.In vivo amyloid imaging. Curr Alzheimer Res 2011; 8: 366–72.
49. JohanssonA, SavitchevaI, ForsbergA, et al. [11C]-PIB imaging in patients with Parkinson’s disease: preliminary results. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2008; 14: 345–7.
50. MaetzlerW, ReimboldM, LiepeltI, et al. [11C]PIB binding in Parkinson’s disease dementia. Neuroimage 2008; 39: 1027–33.
51. EdisonP, RoweCC, RinneJ, et al. Amyloid load in Parkinson’s disease dementia and Lewy body dementia measured with [11C]PIB positron emission tomography. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008; 79: 1331–8.
52. GompertsSN, LocascioJJ, MarquieM, et al. Brain amyloid and cognition in Lewy body diseases. Mov Disord 2012; 27: 965–73.
53. MaetzlerW, Liepelt ReimoldM, et al. Cortical PIB binding in Lewy body disease is associated with Alzheimer-like characteristics. Neurobiol Dis 2009; 34: 107–12.
54. FosterER, CampbellMC, BurackMA, et al. Amyloid imaging of Lewy body-associated disorders. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 2516–23.
55. BurackMA, HartleinJ, FloresHP, et al. In vivo amyloid imaging in autopsy-confirmed Parkinson disease with dementia. Neurology 2010; 74: 77–84.
56. VillemagneVL, OngK, MulliganRS, et al. Amyloid imaging with (18)F-florbetaben in Alzheimer disease and other dementias. J Nucl Med 2011; 52: 1210–17.
57. KalaitzakisME, GraeberMB, GentlemanSM, PearceRK.Striatal β-amyloid deposition in Parkinson disease with dementia. Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2008; 67: 155–61.
58. KaitzakisME, WallsAJ, PearceRK, GentelmanSM.Striatal Aβ peptide deposition mirrors dementia and differentiates DLB and PDD from other Parkinsonian syndromes. Neurobiol Dis 2011; 41: 377–84.
59. DuggerBN, SerranoGE, SueLI, et al. Presence of striatal amyloid plaques in Parkinson’s disease dementia predicts concomitant Alzheimer’s disease: usefulness for amyloid imaging. J Parkinsons Dis 2012; 2: 57–65.
60. KlunkWE, PriceJC, MathisCA, et al. Amyloid deposition begins in the striatum of presenilin-1 mutation carriers from two unrelated pedigrees. J Neurosci 2007; 27: 6174–84.
61. Graff-RadfordJ, BoeveBF, PedrazaO, et al. Imaging and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor response in dementia with Lewy bodies. Brain 2012; 135: 2470–7.
62. GompertsSN, LocascioJJ, MarquieM, et al. Brain amyloid and cognition in Lewy body disease. Mov Disord 2012; 27: 965–73.
63. OuchiY, YoshikawaE, SekineY, et al. Microglial activation and dopamine terminal loss in early Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 2005; 57: 168–75.
64. GerhardA, PaveseN, HottonG, et al. In vivo imaging of microglial activation with [11C](R)-PK11195 PET in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Dis 2006; 21: 404–12.
65. CarterSF, SchollM, AlmkvistO, et al. Evidence for astrocytosis in Alzheimer disease provided by 11C-deuterium-L-deprenyl: a multi-tracer PET paradigm combining 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 18F-FDG. J Nucl Med 2012; 53: 37–46.

References

1. DuboisB, FeldmanHH, JacovaC, et al. Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 734–46.
2. JackCR, AlbertMS, KnopmanDS, et al. Introduction to the recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011; 7: 257–62.
3. SperlingRA, AisenPS, BeckettLA, et al. Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011; 7: 280–92.
4. AlbertMS, DekoskyST, DicksonD, et al. The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011; 7: 270–9.
5. McKhannGM, KnopmanDS, ChertkowH, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement 2011; 7: 263–9.
6. McKhannG, DrachmanD, FolsteinM, et al. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984; 34: 939–44.
7. BlennowK, HampelH, WeinerM, ZetterbergH.Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma biomarkers in Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Neurol 2010; 6: 131–44.
8. MollenhauerB, LocascioJJ, Schulz-SchaefferW, et al. α-Synuclein and tau concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid of patients presenting with parkinsonism: a cohort study. Lancet Neurol 2011; 10: 230–40.
9. Schulz-SchaefferWJ.The synaptic pathology of alpha-synuclein aggregation in dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson’s disease and Parkinson’s disease dementia. Acta Neuropathol 2010; 120: 131–43.
10. MollenhauerB, El-AgnafOM, MarcusK, TrenkwalderC, SchlossmacherMG.Quantification of alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid as a biomarker candidate: review of the literature and considerations for future studies. Biomark Med 2010; 4: 683–99.
11. BrownRG, LacomblezL, LandwehrmeyerBG, et al. Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. Brain 2010; 133: 2382–93.
12. BorroniB, AlbericiA, ArchettiS, et al. New insights into biological markers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration spectrum. Curr Med Chem 2010; 17: 1002–9.
13. WeinrichC, WredeA, MollenhauerB. [Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid proteins in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.] Akt Neurol 2011; 38: 203–10.
14. Del TrediciK, HawkesCH, GhebremedhinE, BraakH.Lewy pathology in the submandibular gland of individuals with incidental Lewy body disease and sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropathol 2010; 119: 703–13.
15. DevicI, HwangH, EdgarJS, et al. Salivary α-synuclein and DJ-1: potential biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease. Brain 2011; 134: e178.
16. ZetterbergH, TullhogK, HanssonO, et al. Low incidence of post-lumbar puncture headache in 1,089 consecutive memory clinic patients. Eur Neurol 2010; 63: 326–30.
17. ReiberH.Dynamics of brain-derived proteins in cerebrospinal fluid. Clin Chim Acta 2001; 310: 173–86.
18. GlennerGG, WongCW, QuarantaV, EanesED.The amyloid deposits in Alzheimer’s disease: their nature and pathogenesis. Appl Pathol 1984; 2: 357–69.
19. GuntertA, DobeliH, BohrmannB.High sensitivity analysis of amyloid-beta peptide composition in amyloid deposits from human and PS2APP mouse brain. Neuroscience 2006; 143: 461–75.
20. JendroskaK, KashiwagiM, SassoonJ, DanielSE.Amyloid beta-peptide and its relationship with dementia in Lewy body disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 1997; 51: 137–44.
21. KanemaruK, KamedaN, YamanouchiH.Decreased CSF amyloid beta42 and normal tau levels in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2000; 54: 1875–6.
22. MollenhauerB, TrenkwalderC, von AhsenN, et al. Beta-amyloid 1–42 and tau-protein in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006; 22: 200–8.
23. HolmbergB, JohnelsB, BlennowK, RosengrenL.Cerebrospinal fluid Abeta42 is reduced in multiple system atrophy but normal in Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. Mov Disord 2003; 18: 186–90.
24. SiderowfA, XieSX, HurtigH, et al. CSF amyloid β 1–42 predicts cognitive decline in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2010; 75: 1055–61.
25. AlvesG, BrønnickK, AarslandD, et al. CSF amyloid-beta and tau proteins, and cognitive performance, in early and untreated Parkinson’s disease: the Norwegian ParkWest study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010; 81: 1080–6.
26. NoguchiM, YoshitaM, MatsumotoY, et al. Decreased [beta]-amyloid peptide42 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. J Neurol Sci 2005; 237: 61–5.
27. MollenhauerB, BiblM, EsselmannH, et al. Tauopathies and synucleinopathies: do cerebrospinal fluid beta-amyloid peptides reflect disease-specific pathogenesis?J Neural Transm 2007; 114: 919–27.
28. BiblM, MollenhauerB, LewczukP, et al. Validation of amyloid-beta peptides in CSF diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias. Mol Psychiatry 2007; 12: 671–80.
29. MollenhauerB, EsselmannH, TrenkwalderC, et al. CSF amyloid-β peptides in neuropathologically diagnosed dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2011; 24: 383–91.
30. ClevelandDW, SpiegelmanBM, KirschnerMW.Conservation of microtubule associated proteins. Isolation and characterization of tau and the high molecular weight microtubule associated protein from chicken brain and from mouse fibroblasts and comparison to the corresponding mammalian brain proteins. J Biol Chem 1979; 254: 12670–8.
31. BraakH, BraakE, Grundke-IqbalI, IqbalK.Occurrence of neuropil threads in the senile human brain and in Alzheimer’s disease: a third location of paired helical filaments outside of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques. Neurosci Lett 1986; 65: 351–5.
32. Grundke-IqbalI, IqbalK, QuinlanM, et al. Microtubule-associated protein tau. A component of Alzheimer paired helical filaments. J Biol Chem 1986; 261: 6084–9.
33. LeeVM, GoedertM, TrojanowskiJQ.Neurodegenerative tauopathies. Annu Rev Neurosci 2001; 24: 1121–59.
34. BueeL, BussiereT, Buee-ScherrerV, DelacourteA, HofPR.Tau protein isoforms, phosphorylation and role in neurodegenerative disorders. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2000; 33: 95–130.
35. BillingsleyML, KincaidRL.Regulated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tau protein: effects on microtubule interaction, intracellular trafficking and neurodegeneration. Biochem J 1997; 323: 577–91.
36. AndreasenN, MinthonL, ClarbergA, et al. Sensitivity, specificity, and stability of CSF-tau in AD in a community-based patient sample. Neurology 1999; 53: 1488–94.
37. HulstaertF, BlennowK, IvanoiuA, et al. Improved discrimination of AD patients using beta-amyloid(1–42) and tau levels in CSF. Neurology 1999; 52: 1555–62.
38. MollenhauerB, CepekL, BiblM, et al. Tau protein, Abeta42 and S-100B protein in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2005; 19: 164–70.
39. ParaskevasGP, KapakiE, LiappasI, et al. The diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid tau protein in dementing and nondementing neuropsychiatric disorders. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2005; 18: 163–73.
40. UrakamiK, MoriM, WadaK, et al. A comparison of tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid between corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurosci Lett 1999; 259: 127–9.
41. ItohN, AraiH, UrakamiK, et al. Large-scale, multicenter study of cerebrospinal fluid tau protein phosphorylated at serine 199 for the antemortem diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 2001; 50: 150–6.
42. OttoM, WiltfangJ, CepekL, et al. Tau protein and 14–3–3 protein in the differential diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurology 2002; 58: 192–7.
43. MollenhauerB, SerafinS, ZerrI, et al. Diagnostic problems during late course in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Neurol 2003; 250: 629–30.
44. HesseC, RosengrenL, AndreasenN, et al. Transient increase in total tau but not phospho-tau in human cerebrospinal fluid after acute stroke. Neurosci Lett 2001; 297: 187–90.
45. ZetterbergH, HietalaMA, JonssonM, et al. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing. Arch Neurol 2006; 63: 1277–80.
46. BlennowK, WallinA, AgrenH, et al. Tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid: a biochemical marker for axonal degeneration in Alzheimer disease?Mol Chem Neuropathol 1995; 26: 231–45.
47. McKeithIG, GalaskoD, KosakaK, et al. Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 1996; 47: 1113–24.
48. UrakamiK, WadaK, AraiH, et al. Diagnostic significance of tau protein in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with corticobasal degeneration or progressive supranuclear palsy. J Neurol Sci 2001; 183: 95–8.
49. AraiH, MorikawaY, HiguchiM, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in neurodegenerative diseases with distinct tau-related pathology. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997; 236: 262–4.
50. HampelH, GoernitzA, BuergerK.Advances in the development of biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: from CSF total tau and Abeta(1–42) proteins to phosphorylated tau protein. Brain Res Bull 2003; 61: 243–53.
51. BuergerK, ZinkowskiR, TeipelSJ, et al. Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease with cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau protein phosphorylated at threonine 231. Arch Neurol 2002; 59: 1267–72.
52. HuYY, HeSS, WangXC, et al. Elevated levels of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer disease patients. Neurosci Lett 2002; 320: 156–60.
53. MerdesAR, HansenLA, JesteDV, et al. Influence of Alzheimer pathology on clinical diagnostic accuracy in dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurology 2003; 60: 1586–90.
54. ArimaK, HiraiS, SunoharaN, et al. Cellular co-localization of phosphorylated tau- and NACP/alpha-synuclein-epitopes in Lewy bodies in sporadic Parkinson’s disease and in dementia with Lewy bodies. Brain Res 1999; 843: 53–61.
55. ParnettiL, TiraboschiP, LanariA, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease with dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 64: 850–5.
56. ComptaY, MartíMJ, Ibarretxe-BilbaoN, et al. Cerebrospinal tau, phospho-tau, and beta-amyloid and neuropsychological functions in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2009; 24: 2203–10.
57. MontineTJ, ShiM, QuinnJF, et al. CSF Aβ(42) and tau in Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment. Mov Disord 2010; 25: 2682–5.
58. SpillantiniMG, SchmidtML, LeeVM, et al. Alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies. Nature 1997; 388: 839–40.
59. GaiWP, PowerJH, BlumbergsPC, BlessingWW.Multiple-system atrophy: a new alpha-synuclein disease?Lancet 1998; 352: 547–8.
60. OhrfeltA, ZetterbergH, AnderssonK, et al. Identification of novel alpha-synuclein isoforms in human brain tissue by using an online nanoLC-ESI-FTICR-MS method. Neurochem Res 2011; 36: 2029–42.
61. El-AgnafOM, SalemSA, PaleologouKE, et al. Alpha-synuclein implicated in Parkinson’s disease is present in extracellular biological fluids, including human plasma. Faseb J 2003; 17: 1945–7.
62. DesplatsP, LeeHJ, BaeEJ, et al. Inclusion formation and neuronal cell death through neuron-to-neuron transmission of alpha-synuclein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009; 106: 13010–5.
63. LeeHJ, PatelS, LeeSJ.Intravesicular localization and exocytosis of alpha-synuclein and its aggregates. J Neurosci 2005; 25: 6016–24.
64. ShiM, BradnerJ, HancockAM, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Parkinson disease diagnosis and progression. Ann Neurol 2011; 69: 570–80.
65. AertsMB, EsselinkRA, AbdoWF, BloemBR, VerbeekMM.CSF α-synuclein does not differentiate between parkinsonian disorders. Neurobiol Aging 2012; 33: 430.e1–3.
66. Cantuti-CastelvetriI, KluckenJ, IngelssonM, et al. Alpha-synuclein and chaperones in dementia with Lewy bodies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2005; 64: 1058–66.
67. BeyerK, HumbertJ, FerrerA, et al. Low alpha-synuclein 126 mRNA levels in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer disease. Neuroreport 2006; 17: 1327–30.
68. AndersonJP, WalkerDE, GoldsteinJM, et al. Phosphorylation of Ser 129 is the dominant pathological modification of alpha-synuclein in familial and sporadic Lewy body disease. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 29739–52.
69. ChodobskiA, Szmydynger-ChodobskaJ.Choroid plexus: target for polypeptides and site of their synthesis. Microsc Res Tech 2001; 52: 65–82.
70. TokudaT, SalemSA, AllsopD, et al. Decreased alpha-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid of aged individuals and subjects with Parkinson’s disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 349: 162–6.
71. El-AgnafOM, SalemSA, PaleologouKE, et al. Detection of oligomeric forms of alpha-synuclein protein in human plasma as a potential biomarker for Parkinson’s disease. Faseb J 2006; 20: 419–25.
72. TokudaT, QureshiMM, ArdahMT, et al. Detection of elevated levels of α-synuclein oligomers in CSF from patients with Parkinson disease. Neurology 2010; 75: 1766–72.
73. BonifatiV, OostraBA, HeutinkP.Linking DJ-1 to neurodegeneration offers novel insights for understanding the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. J Mol Med 2004; 82: 163–74.
74. ChoiJ, SullardsMC, OlzmannJA, et al. Oxidative damage of DJ-1 is linked to sporadic Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. J Biol Chem 2006; 281: 10816–24.
75. WaragaiM, WeiJ, FujitaM, et al. Increased level of DJ-1 in the cerebrospinal fluids of sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006; 345: 967–72.
76. HongZ, ShiM, ChungKA, et al. DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid as biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease. Brain 2010; 133: 713–26.
77. OlssonB, ZetterbergH, HampelH, BlennowK.Biomarker-based dissection of neurodegenerative diseases. Prog Neurobiol 2011; 95: 520–34.
78. ChingGY, LiemRK.Assembly of type IV neuronal intermediate filaments in nonneuronal cells in the absence of preexisting cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. J Cell Biol 1993; 122: 1323–35.
79. MersiyanovaIV, PerepelovAV, PolyakovAV, et al. A new variant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 is probably the result of a mutation in the neurofilament-light gene. Am J Hum Genet 2000; 67: 37–46.
80. Agren-WilssonA, LekmanA, SjobergW, et al. CSF biomarkers in the evaluation of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Acta Neurol Scand 2007; 116: 333–9.
81. SjogrenM, BlombergM, JonssonM, et al. Neurofilament protein in cerebrospinal fluid: a marker of white matter changes. J Neurosci Res 2001; 66: 510–16.
82. SjogrenM, RosengrenL, MinthonL, et al. Cytoskeleton proteins in CSF distinguish frontotemporal dementia from AD. Neurology 2000; 54: 1960–4.
83. ZetterbergH, JacobssonJ, RosengrenL, BlennowK, AndersenPM.Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: impact of SOD1 genotype. Eur J Neurol 2007; 14: 1329–33.
84. BjerkeM, AndreassonU, RolstadS, et al. Subcortical vascular dementia biomarker pattern in mild cognitive impairment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009; 28: 348–56.
85. NorgrenN, RosengrenL, StigbrandT.Elevated neurofilament levels in neurological diseases. Brain Res 2003; 987: 25–31.
86. BrettschneiderJ, PetzoldA, SchottleD, ClausA, RiepeM, TumaniH.The neurofilament heavy chain (NfH) in the cerebrospinal fluid diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006; 21: 291–5.
87. HolmbergB, JohnelsB, IngvarssonP, ErikssonB, RosengrenL.CSF-neurofilament and levodopa tests combined with discriminant analysis may contribute to the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2001; 8: 23–31.
88. HolmbergB, RosengrenL, KarlssonJE, JohnelsB.Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of neurofilament protein in progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple-system atrophy compared with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 1998; 13: 70–7.
89. AbdoWF, BloemBR, Van GeelWJ, EsselinkRA, VerbeekMM.CSF neurofilament light chain and tau differentiate multiple system atrophy from Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2007; 28: 742–7.
90. BrettschneiderJ, PetzoldA, SussmuthSD, et al. Neurofilament heavy-chain NfH(SMI35) in cerebrospinal fluid supports the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonian syndromes. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 2224–7.
91. StorchJ, ThumserAE.Tissue-specific functions in the fatty acid-binding protein family. J Biol Chem 2010; 285: 32679–83.
92. NakataT, HashimotoA, HaseM, TsuchihashiK, ShimamotoK.Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein as an early diagnostic and prognostic marker in acute coronary syndrome. Cardiology 2003; 99: 96–104.
93. GlatzJF, van der VusseGJ, SimoonsML, et al. Fatty acid-binding protein and the early detection of acute myocardial infarction. Clin Chim Acta 1998; 272: 87–92.
94. HeuckerothRO, BirkenmeierEH, LevinMS, GordonJI.Analysis of the tissue-specific expression, developmental regulation, and linkage relationships of a rodent gene encoding heart fatty acid binding protein. J Biol Chem 1987; 262: 9709–17.
95. MurphyEJ, OwadaY, KitanakaN, KondoH, GlatzJF.Brain arachidonic acid incorporation is decreased in heart fatty acid binding protein gene-ablated mice. Biochemistry 2005; 44: 6350–60.
96. CheonMS, KimSH, FountoulakisM, LubecG.Heart type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) is decreased in brains of patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 2003; 67: 225–34.
97. ChiasseriniD, ParnettiL, AndreassonU, et al. CSF levels of heart fatty acid binding protein are altered during early phases of Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 2010; 22: 1281–8.
98. SteinackerP, MollenhauerB, BiblM, et al. Heart fatty acid binding protein as a potential diagnostic marker for neurodegenerative diseases. Neurosci Lett 2004; 370: 36–9.
99. MollenhauerB, SteinackerP, BahnE, et al. Serum heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and cerebrospinal fluid tau: marker candidates for dementia with Lewy bodies. Neurodegener Dis 2007; 4: 366–75.
100. ZwiersH, SchotmanP, GispenWH.Purification and some characteristics of an ACTH-sensitive protein kinase and its substrate protein in rat brain membranes. J Neurochem 1980; 34: 1689–99.
101. KarnsLR, NgSC, FreemanJA, FishmanMC.Cloning of complementary DNA for GAP-43, a neuronal growth-related protein. Science 1987; 236: 597–600.
102. AloyoVJ, ZwiersH, GispenWH.Phosphorylation of B-50 protein by calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase and B-50 protein kinase. J Neurochem 1983; 41: 649–53.
103. MeiriKF, PfenningerKH, WillardMB.Growth-associated protein, GAP-43, a polypeptide that is induced when neurons extend axons, is a component of growth cones and corresponds to pp46, a major polypeptide of a subcellular fraction enriched in growth cones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1986; 83: 3537–41.
104. OestreicherAB, ZwiersH, SchotmanP, GispenWH.Immunohistochemical localization of a phosphoprotein (B-50) isolated from rat brain synaptosomal plasma membranes. Brain Res Bull 1981; 6: 145–53.
105. SjogrenM, MinthonL, DavidssonP, et al. CSF levels of tau, beta-amyloid(1–42) and GAP-43 in frontotemporal dementia, other types of dementia and normal aging. J Neural Transm 2000; 107: 563–79.
106. SjogrenM, DavidssonP, GottfriesJ, et al. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau, growth-associated protein-43 and soluble amyloid precursor protein correlate in Alzheimer’s disease, reflecting a common pathophysiological process. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2001; 12: 257–64.