1. , , Should PTSD Criterion A be retained?J Trauma Stress. 2009;22:374–83.
2. , , . Saving PTSD from itself in DSM-V. J Anxiety Disord. 2007;21:233–41.
4. , , . Prevalence and characteristics of trauma and post-traumatic stress symptoms in operational members of the South African National Defence Force. Mil Med. 2003;168:71–5.
5. , , , et al. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community: the 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55:626–32.
6. , , , , . Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995;52:1048–60.
7. , , , . Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;15(Suppl 2):S31–9.
8. , , , et al. A guide to guidelines for the treatment of PTSD and related conditions. J Trauma Stress. 2010;23:537–52.
9. , , , et al. Health care costs associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60:369–74.
10. , , , . Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2003;129:52–73.
11. , , , , . Adverse childhood experiences associated with sleep in primary insomnia. J Sleep Res. 2007;16:285–96.
12. , , III, , , . Sleep disturbances in survivors of the Nazi Holocaust. Am J Psychiatry. 1991;148:62–6.
13. , , , , . Revictimization and self-harm in females who experienced childhood sexual abuse: results from a prospective study. J Interpers Violence. 2003;18:1452–71.
14. , , , . Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009;10:434–45.
15. , , , . Sleep complaints as early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder: a 1-year prospective study of injured survivors of motor vehicle accidents. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:855–7.
16. , , , . Sleep complaints are not corroborated by objective sleep measures in post-traumatic stress disorder: a 1-year prospective study in survivors of motor vehicle crashes. J Sleep Res. 2003;12:35–41.
17. , , , . Relationships between REM sleep findings and PTSD symptoms during the early aftermath of trauma. J Trauma Stress. 2007;20:893–901.
18. , , , , . REM sleep and the early development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1696–701.
19. , , , , . Sleep disturbance and its relationship to psychiatric morbidity after Hurricane Andrew. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:1659–63.
20. , , , , . Sleep disturbance immediately prior to trauma predicts subsequent psychiatric disorder. Sleep. 2010;33:69–74.
21. , , , , . A brief sleep scale for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD. J Anxiety Disord. 2005;19:233–44.
22. , , , , . Clinical correlates of poor sleep quality in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 2004;17:477–84.
23. , , . Sleep problems among persons with a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder alone and in combination with a lifetime history of other psychiatric disorders: a replication and extension. Compr Psychiatry. 2011;52:580–6.
24. , , , et al. Sleep problems outperform depression and hopelessness as cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior in young adults in the military. J Affect Disord. 2012;136:743–50.
25. , , . Impact of sleep disturbances on PTSD symptoms and perceived health. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:126–32.
26. , , , . Sleep disturbances associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence. Addict Behav. 2008;33:328–35.
27. , , , . The relationship between sleep disturbance and the course of anxiety disorders in primary care patients. Psychiatry Res. 2010;178:487–92.
28. , , . Sleep disturbances in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: epidemiology, impact and approaches to management. CNS Drugs. 2006;20:567–90.
29. , , . Polysomnographically measured sleep abnormalities in PTSD: a meta-analytic review. Psychophysiology. 2007;44:660–9.
30. . International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (ICSD-2): Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Westchester, IL, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005.
31. , , , et al. Functional neuroimaging evidence for hyperarousal in insomnia. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:2126–8.
32. , . The functional neuroanatomy of PTSD: a critical review. Prog Brain Res. 2008;167:151–69.
33. , , . Sleep-specific mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder: integrative review and neurobiological hypotheses. Sleep Med Rev. 2008;12:185–95.
34. , , . Stress induces atrophy of apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. Brain Res. 1992;588:341–5.
35. , , , et al. MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995;152:973–81.
36. , , . Hippocampal volume deficits associated with exposure to psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: a meta-analysis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:1181–8.
37. , , , , . Hippocampal neurogenesis is reduced by sleep fragmentation in the adult rat. Neuroscience. 2007;148:325–33.
38. , , , et al. Chronic insomnia and MRI-measured hippocampal volumes: a pilot study. Sleep. 2007;30:955–8.
39. , , , et al. Insomnia severity is associated with a decreased volume of the CA3/dentate gyrus hippocampal subfield. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68:494–6.
40. , , , et al. Default mode network connectivity as a predictor of post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity in acutely traumatized subjects. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2010;121:33–40.
41. , , , et al. High-field MRI reveals an acute impact on brain function in survivors of the magnitude 8.0 earthquake in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15412–7.
42. , , , et al. Functional neuroanatomy of human rapid-eye-movement sleep and dreaming. Nature. 1996;383:163–6.
43. , , , et al. A method for the assessment of the functional neuroanatomy of human sleep using FDG PET. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 1998;2:191–8.
44. , , , et al. Regional cerebral blood flow throughout the sleep-wake cycle. An H2(15)O PET study. Brain. 1997;120:1173–97.
45. , , , et al. Functional microstates within human REM sleep: first evidence from fMRI of a thalamocortical network specific for phasic REM periods. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:863–71.
46. , , , et al. Increased activation of anterior paralimbic and executive cortex from waking to rapid eye movement sleep in depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61:695–702.
47. , , , et al. Neuroimaging of NREM sleep in primary insomnia: a Tc-99-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography study. Sleep. 2002;25:325–35.
48. , , , , . Sleep spindle-related reactivation of category-specific cortical regions after learning face-scene associations. Neuroimage. 2012;59:2733–42.
49. , , , , . Functional neuroimaging of REM sleep in returning veterans with PTSD: an [18F]-FDG PET study. Sleep. 2011;A242:34(Suppl):A242.
50. , , , , . The human emotional brain without sleep–a prefrontal amygdala disconnect. Curr Biol. 2007;17:R877–8.