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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Section 2 - Uncommon cases of stroke

Suggested Reading

Amlie-Lefond C, Sébire G, Fullerton HJ. Recent developments in childhood arterial ischemic stroke. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7: 425–35.
Amlie-Lefond C, de Veber G, Chan AK, et al. Use of alteplase in childhood arterial ischaemic stroke: a multicentre, observational, cohort study. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 530–6.
Arnold M, Steinlin M, Baumann A, et al. Thrombolysis in childhood stroke: report of 2 cases and review of literature. Stroke 2009; 40: 801–7.
Kirkham F, Sébire G, Steinlin M, Sträter R. Arterial ischaemic stroke in children. Review of the literature and strategies for future stroke studies. Thromb Haemost 2004; 92: 697–706.
Plouin PF, Perdu F, La Batide Alanore A, et al. Fibromuscular dysplasia. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007; 2: 28.
Rafay MF, Pontigon AM, Chiang J, et al. Delay to diagnosis in acute pediatric arterial ischemic stroke. Stroke 2009; 40: 58–64.

Suggested Reading

Gonzalez-Gay MA, Blanco R, Rodriguez-Valverde V, et al. Permanent visual loss and cerebrovascular accidents in giant cell arteritis: predictors and response to treatment. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 1497–504.
Hunder GG, Bloch DA, Michel BA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33(8): 1122–8.
Rüegg S, Engelter S, Jeanneret C, et al. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion resulting from giant cell arteritis: report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 2003; 82(1): 1–12.
Wilkinson IM, Russell RW. Arteries of the head and neck in giant cell arteritis. A pathological study to show the pattern of arterial involvement. Arch Neurol 1972; 27(5): 378–91.
Wiszniewska M, Devuyst G, Bogousslavsky J. Giant cell arteritis as a cause of first-ever stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 24(2–3): 226–30.

Suggested Reading

Bechterew W. Demonstration eines Gehirns mit Zerstörung der vorderen und inneren Teile der Hirnrinde beider Schläfenlappen. Neurologisches Zentralblatt 1900; 19: 990–1.
Del Ser T, Hachinski V, Merskey H, Munoz DG. Alzheimer’s disease with and without cerebral infarcts. J Neurol Sci 2005; 231(1–2): 3–11.
Förster A, Griebe M, Gass A, et al. Value of diffusion-weighted imaging in differential diagnosis of hippocampal pathologies. Cerebrovasc Dis 2012; 33(2): 104–15.
Szabo K, Förster A, Jäger T, et al. Hippocampal lesion patterns in acute posterior cerebral artery stroke: clinical and MRI findings. Stroke 2009; 40: 2042–5.
Victor M, Angevine JB, Mancall EL, Fisher CM. Memory loss with lesions of hippocampal formation. Report of a case with some remarks on the anatomical basis of memory. Arch Neurol 1961; 5: 244–63.

Suggested Reading

Caplan LR. Migraine and vertebrobasilar ischemia. Neurology 1991; 41: 55–61.
Kurth T, Chabriat H, Bousser MG. Migraine and stroke: a complex association with clinical implications. Lancet Neurol 2012; 11: 92–100.
Laurell K, Artto V, Bendtsen L, et al. Migrainous infarction: a Nordic multicenter study. Eur J Neurol 2011; 18: 1220–6.
Wolf ME, Szabo K, Griebe M, et al. Clinical and MRI characteristics of acute migrainous infarction. Neurology 2011; 76: 1911–17.

Current review

Hayreh SS. Ischemic optic neuropathy. Prog Retin Eye Res 2009; 28(1): 34–62.

Suggested reading

Birnbaum J, Hellmann DB. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Arch Neurol 2009; 66(6): 704–9.
Hajj-Ali RA, Calabrese LH. Central nervous system vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2009; 21(1): 10–18.
Isobe N, Kira J, Kawamura N, et al. Neural damage associated with atopic diathesis: a nationwide survey in Japan. Neurology 2009; 73(10): 790–7.
vanOverbeeke J, Sekhar L. Microanatomy of the blood supply to the optic nerve. Orbit 2003; 22(2): 81–8.

Suggested Reading

Caplan L. Top of the basilar syndrome: selected clinical aspects. Neurology 1980; 30: 72–9.
Kumral E, Evyapan D, Balkir K, et al. Bilateral thalamic infarction. Clinical, etiological and MRI correlates. Acta Neurol Scand 2001; 103: 35–42.
Roitberg BZ, Tuccar E, Alp MS. Bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct in the presence of an unpaired thalamic perforating artery. Acta Neurochir 2002; 144: 301–4.
Schmahmann JD. Vascular syndromes of the thalamus. Stroke 2003; 34: 2264–78.

First description

Broca P. Perte de la parole, ramollissement chronique et destruction partielle du lobe antérieur gauche du cerveau. Bull Soc Anthrop 1861; 2: 235–8.

Suggested reading

Hillis AE, Work M, Barker PB, et al. Re-examining the brain regions crucial for orchestrating speech articulation. Brain 2004; 127: 1479–87.
Lotze M, Seggewies G, Erb M, Grodd W, Birbaumer N. The representation of articulation in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Neuroreport 2000; 11: 2985–9.
Rheims S, Nighoghossian N, Hermier M, et al. Aphemia related to premotor cortex infarction. Eur Neurol 2006; 55: 225–6.
Terao Y, Ugawa Y, Yamamoto T, et al. Primary face motor area as the motor representation of articulation. J Neurol 2007; 254: 442–7.

Suggested reading

Chatzikonstantinou A, Gass A, Förster A, Hennerici MG, Szabo K. Features of acute DWI abnormalities related to status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 2011; 97: 45–51.
Chu K, Kang DW, Kim JY, Chang KH, Lee SK. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Arch Neurol 2001; 58: 993–8.
Kim JA, Chung JI, Yoon PH, et al. Transient MR signal changes in patients with generalized tonicoclonic seizure or status epilepticus: periictal diffusion-weighted imaging. Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22: 1149–60.
Szabo K, Poepel A, Pohlmann-Eden B, et al. Diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI demonstrates parenchymal changes in complex partial status epilepticus. Brain 2005; 128: 1369–76.

Current review

Arnold M, Kurmann R, Galimanis A, et al. Differences in demographic characteristics and risk factors in patients with spontaneous vertebral artery dissections with and without ischemic events. Stroke 2010; 41: 802–4.

Suggested reading

Arnold M, Bousser MG, Fahrni G, et al. Vertebral artery dissection: presenting findings and predictors of outcome. Stroke 2006; 37: 2499–503.
Benny BV, Nagpal AS, Singh P, Smuck M. Vascular causes of radiculopathy: a literature review. Spine J 2011; 11: 73–85.
Crum B, Mokri B, Fulgham J. Spinal manifestations of vertebral artery dissection. Neurology 2000; 55: 304–6.
Dubard T, Pouchot J, Lamy C, et al. Upper limb peripheral deficits due to extracranialvertebral artery dissection. Cerebrovasc Dis 1994; 4: 88–91.
Hardmeier M, Haller S, Steck A, et al. Vertebral artery dissection presenting with fifth cervical root (C5) radiculopathy. J Neurol 2007; 254: 672–3.
McGillion SF, Weston-Simons S, Harvey JR. Vertebral artery dissection presenting with multilevel combined sensorimotor radiculopathy: a case report and literature review.J Spinal Disord Tech 2009; 22: 456–8.
Tabatabai G, Schöber W, Ernemann U, Weller M, Krüger R. Vertebral artery dissection presenting with ispilateral acute C5 and C6 sensorimotor radiculopathy: a case report. Cases J 2008; 1: 139.

Current review

Li Y, Margraf J, Kluck B, Jenny D, Castaldo J. Thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke secondary to paradoxical embolism in pregnancy: a case report and literature review. Neurologist 2012; 18: 44–8.

Suggested reading

Allais G, Gabellari IC, Borgogno P, De Lorenzo C, Benedetto C. The risks of women with migraine during pregnancy. Neurol Sci 2010; 31: S59–61.
Cronin CA, Weisman CJ, Llinas RH. Stroke treatment: beyond the three-hour window and in the pregnant patient. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008; 1142: 159–78.
Dapprich M, Boessenecker W. Fibrinolysis with alteplase in a pregnant woman with stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2002; 13: 290.
De Keyser J, Gdovinová Z, Uyttenboogaart M, Vroomen PC, Luijckx GJ. Intravenous alteplase for stroke: beyond the guidelines and in particular. Stroke 2007; 38: 2612–18.
Del Zotto E, Giossi A, Volonghi I, et al. Ischemic stroke during pregnancy and puerperium. Stroke Res Treat 2011 [Epub before print]
Sidorov EV, Feng W, Caplan LR. Stroke in pregnant and postpartum women. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2011; 9: 1235–47.
Tate J, Bushnell C. Pregnancy and stroke risk in women. Womens Health 2011; 7: 363–74.
Turrentine MA, Braems G, Ramirez MM. Use of thrombolytics for the treatment of thromboembolic disease during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1995; 50: 534–41.

Current review

Grisold W, Oberndorfer S, Struhal W. Stroke and cancer: a review. Acta Neurol Scand 2009; 119: 1–16.

Suggested reading

Amico L, Caplan LR, Thomas C. Cerebrovascular complications of mucinous cancers. Neurology 1989; 39: 522–6.
Cestari DM, Weine DM, Panageas KS, Segal AZ, DeAngelis LM. Stroke in patients with cancer. Neurology 2004; 62: 2025–30.
Cheng SW, Wu LL, Ting AC, et al. Irradiation induced extracranial carotid stenosis in patients with head and neck malignancies. Am J Surg 1999; 178: 323–8.
Graus F, Rogers LR, Posner JB. Cerebrovascular complications in patients with cancer. Medicine 1985; 64: 16–35.
Grisold W, Oberndorfer S, Struhal W. Stroke and cancer: a review. Acta Neurol Scand 2009; 119: 1–16.
Li SH, Chen WH, Tang Y, et al. Incidence of ischaemic stroke post-chemotherapy: a retrospective review of 10,963 patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2006; 108(2): 150–6.
Nichols CR, Roth JB, Williams SD, et al. No evidence of acute cardiovascular complications of chemotherapy for testicular cancer: an analysis of the Testicular Cancer Intergroup Study. J Clin Oncol 1992; 10(5): 760–5.
Numico G, Garrone O, Dongiovanni V, et al. Prospective evaluation of major vascular events in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with cisplatin and gemcitabine. Cancer 2005; 103(5): 994–9.
Rogers LR. Cerebrovascular complications in cancer patients. Neurol Clin N Am 2003; 21: 167–92.
Schwazbach CJ, Schaefer A, Ebert A, et al. Stroke and cancer: the importance of cancer-associated hypercoagulation as a possible stroke etiology. Stroke 2012; 43(11): 3029–34.

References

1. Loeys BL, Chen J, Neptune ER, et al. A syndrome of altered cardiovascular, craniofacial, neurocognitive and skeletal development caused by mutations in TGFBR1 or TGFBR2. Nat Genet 2005; 37(3): 275–81.
2. Singh KK, Rommel K, Mishra A, et al. TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 mutations in patients with features of Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Hum Mutat 2006; 27(8): 770–7.
3. Brandt T, Orberk E, Weber R, et al. Pathogenesis of cervical artery dissections. Association with connective tissue abnormalities. Neurology 2001; 57: 24–30.
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Current review

Debette S, Leys D. Cervical-artery dissections: predisposing factors, diagnosis, and outcome. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8(7): 668–78.

Suggested reading

Drera B, Tadini G, Barlati S, Colombi M. Identification of a novel TGFBR1 mutation in a Loeys–Dietz syndrome type II patient with vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome phenotype. Clin Genet 2008; 73: 290–3.
Pezzini A, Del Zotto E, Giossi A, et al. Transforming growth factor β signaling perturbation in the Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Curr Med Chem 2012; 19(3): 454–60.

Suggested reading

Baquis GD, Pessin MS, Scott RM. Limb shaking–a carotid TIA. Stroke 1985; 16(3): 444–8.
Persoon S, Kappelle LJ, Klijn CJ. Limb-shaking transient ischaemic attacks in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion: a case-control study. Brain 2010; 133(3): 915–22.

Current review

Vianello F, Battisti A, Cella G, Marchetti M, Falanga A. Defining the thrombotic risk in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. ScientificWorldJournal 2011; 11: 1131–7.

Suggested reading

Bhatti AF, Leon LR Jr, Labropoulos N, et al. Free-floating thrombus of the carotid artery: literature review and case reports. J Vasc Surg 2007; 45(1): 199–205.
Caplan L, Stein R, Patel D, et al. Intraluminal clot of the carotid artery detected angiographically. Neurology 1984; 34: 1175–81.
Hill SL, Brozyna W. Extensive mobile thrombus of the internal carotid artery: a case report, treatment options, and review of the literature. Am Surg 2005; 71: 853–5.
James C, Ugo V, Le Couedic JP, et al. A unique clonal JAK2 mutation leading to constitutive signalling causes polycythaemia vera. Nature 2005; 434: 1144–8.
Larsen TS, Pallisgaard N, Møller MB, et al. High prevalence of arterial thrombosis in JAK2 mutated essential thrombocythaemia: independence of the V617F allele burden. Hematology 2008; 13: 71–6.
Moreno MJ, Lozano ML, Roldán V, et al. JAK2V617F, hemostatic polymorphism, and clinical features as risk factors for arterial thombotic events in essential thrombocythemia. Ann Hematol 2008; 87: 763–5.
Richard S, Perrin, J, Baillot PA, Lacour JC, Ducrocq X. Ischaemic stroke and essential thrombocytemia: a series of 14 cases. Eur J Neurol 2011; 18: 995–8.
Tefferi A, Vardiman JW. Classification and diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm: the 2008 World Health Organization criteria and point-of-care diagnostic algorithms. Leukemia 2008; 22: 14–22.

Suggested Reading

Alonso A, Gass A, Griebe M, et al. Isolated ischaemic lesions in the foot motor area mimic peripheral lower-limb palsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010; 81(7): 822–3.
Brust JCM. Anterior cerebral artery. In Caplan LR, van Gijn J (eds.), Stroke Syndromes, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012; 364–74.
Gass A, Szabo K, Behrens S, Rossmanith C, Hennerici MG. A diffusion-weighted MRI study of acute ischemic distal arm paresis. Neurology 2001; 57: 1589–94.
Schneider R, Gautier JC. Leg weakness due to stroke. Site of lesions, weakness patterns and causes. Brain 1994; 117(2): 347–54.

Current review

Bang OY, Seok JM, Kim SG, et al. Ischemic stroke and cancer: stroke severely impacts cancer patients, while cancer increases the number of strokes. J Clin Neurol 2011; 7: 53–9.

Suggested reading

Amico L, Caplan LR, Thomas C. Cerebrovascular complications of mucinous cancers. Neurology 1989; 39: 522–6.
Grisold W, Oberndorfer S, Struhal W. Stroke and cancer: a review. Acta Neurol Scand 2009; 119: 1–16.
Kim SG, Hong JM, Kim HY, et al. Ischemic stroke in cancer patients with and without conventional mechanisms: a multicenter study in Korea. Stroke 2010; 41: 798–801.
Rogers LR. Cerebrovascular complications in patients with cancer. Semin Neurol 2004; 24: 453–60.
Schwazbach CJ, Schaefer A, Ebert A, et al. Stroke and cancer: the importance of cancer-associated hypercoagulation as a possible stroke etiology. Stroke 2012; 43(11): 3029–34.

Suggested Reading

Dichgans M, Mayer M, Uttner I, et al. The phenotypic spectrum of CADASIL: clinical findings in 102 cases. Ann Neurol 1998; 44: 731–9.
Laurell K, Artto V, Bendtsen L, et al. Migrainous infarction: a Nordic multicenter study. Eur J Neurol 2011; 18: 1220–6.
Martikainen MH, Roine S. Rapid improvement of a complex migrainous episode with sodium valproate in a patient with CADASIL. J Headache Pain 2012; 13: 95–7.
Vahedi K, Chabriat H, Levy C, et al. Migraine with aura and brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in patients with CADASIL. Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 1237–40.

Suggested Reading

Habib G, Hoen B, Tornos P, et al. Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis (new version 2009): the Task Force on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2009; 30(19): 2369–413.
Okazaki S, Yoshioka D, Sakaguchi M, et al. Acute ischemic brain lesions in infective endocarditis: incidence, related factors, and postoperative outcome. Cerebrovasc Dis 2013; 35(2): 155–62.
Ong E, Mechtouff L, Bernard E, et al. Thrombolysis for stroke caused by infective endocarditis: an illustrative case and review of the literature. J Neurol 2013; 260(5): 1339–42.
Pruitt AA. Neurologic complications of infective endocarditis. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2013; 15(4): 465–76.

Suggested Reading

Arboix A, García-Eroles L, Oliveres M, Massons JB, Targa C. Clinical predictors of early embolic recurrence in presumed cardioembolic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 1998; 8: 345–53.
Caplan LR, Manning WJ. Brain Embolism. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare, 2006.
Mehdiratta M, Murphy C, Al-Harthi A, Teal PA. Myocardial infarction following tPA for acute stroke. Can J Neurol Sci 2007; 34: 417–20.
Meissner W, Lempert T, Saeuberlich-Knigge S, Bocksch W, Pape UF. Fatal embolic myocardial infarction after systemic thrombolysis for stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 2006; 22: 213–14.
Paciaroni M, Agnelli G, Micheli S, Caso V. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials efficacy and safety of anticoagulant treatment in acute cardioembolic stroke. Stroke 2007; 38: 423–30.
Pessin MS, Estol CJ, Lafranchise F, Caplan LR. Safety of anticoagulation after hemorrhagic infarction. Neurology 1993; 43: 1298–303.
Santos N, Serrão M, Silva B, et al. Acute myocardial infarction after thrombolytic treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Rev Port Cardiol 2009; 28: 1161–6.
Saxena R, Lewis S, Berge E, Sandercock PA, Koudstaal PJ. Risk of early death and recurrent stroke and effect of heparin in 3169 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation in the International Stroke Trial. Stroke 2001; 32: 2333–7.
Sweta A, Sejal S, Prakash S, Vinay C, Shirish H. Acute myocardial infarction following intravenous tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: an unknown danger. Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2010; 13: 64–6.

References

1. Greenberg SM, Vernooij MW, Cordonnier C, et al. Cerebral microbleeds: a guide to detection and interpretation. Lancet Neurol 2009; 8: 165–74.
2. Ly JV, Donnan GA, Villemagne VL, et al. 11C-PIB binding is increased in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related hemorrhage. Neurology 2010; 74: 487–93.
3. Gaviani P, Mullins ME, Braga TA, et al. Improved detection of metastatic melanoma by T2*-weighted imaging. Am J Neuroradiol 2006; 27: 605–8.

Suggested Reading

Caplan LR. Dissections of brain-supplying arteries. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 2008; 4(1): 34–42.
Caplan LR, Estol CJ, Massaro AR. Dissection of the posterior cerebral arteries. Arch Neurol 2005; 62: 1138–43.
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Estol CJ, Caplan LR. Intracranial arterial dissections. In Caplan LR, van Gijn (eds.), Stroke Syndromes, 3rd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012; 566–73.

Suggested Reading

Caplan LR. Intracerebral hemorrhage, revisited. Neurology 1988; 38: 624–6.
Cole AJ, Aube M. Migraine with vasospasm and delayed intracerebral hemorrhage. Arch Neurol 1990; 47: 53–6.
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Gokhale S, Ghoshal S, Lahotti SA, Caplan LR. An uncommon cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in a healthy truck driver. Arch Neurol 2012; 69(11): 1500–3.

Suggested reading

Cluroe AD, Synek BJ. A fatal case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome with cerebral infarction. Pathology 1995; 27(4): 344–6.
Davies AJ, Patel B. Hyperstimulation–brain attack. Br J Radiol 1999; 72: 923–4.
Elford K, Leader A, Wee R, Stys PK. Stroke in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in early pregnancy treated with intra-arterial rt-PA. Neurology 2002; 59: 1270–2.
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Suggested reading

Caplan LR, Gonzalez RG, Buonanno FS. Case 18–2012: a 35-year-old man with neck pain, hoarseness, and dysphagia. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 2306–13.
Guidetti D, Pisanello A, Giovanardi F, et al. Spontaneous carotid dissection presenting lower cranial nerve palsies. J Neurol Sci 2001; 184(2): 203–7.
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Sturzenegger M, Huber P. Cranial nerve palsies in spontaneous carotid artery dissection. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993; 56(11): 1191–9.

Suggested reading

Cook J, Aeschlimann S, Fuh A, et al. Aortic dissection presenting as concomitant stroke and STEMI. J Human Hypertens 2007; 21: 818–21.
Estrera A, Garami Z, Miller CC, et al. Acute type A aortic dissection complicated by stroke: can immediate repair be performed safely? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2006; 132: 1404–8.
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Gaul C, Dietrich W, Erbguth FJ. Neurological symptoms in aortic dissection: a challenge for neurologists. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 26: 1–8.
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Suggested reading

Cacoub P, Saadoun D, Limal N, Léger JM, Maisonobe T. Hepatitis C virus infection and mixed cryoglobulinaemia vasculitis: a review of neurological complications. AIDS 2005; 19(3): S128–34.
Halperin JJ. Stroke in Lyme disease. In Caplan LR (ed.), Uncommon Causes of Stroke, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
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Suggested reading

Finsterer J. Management of mitochondrial stroke-like episodes. Eur J Neurol 2009; 16: 1178–84.
Hirt L. MELAS and other mitochondrial disorders. In Caplan LR (ed.), Uncommon Causes of Stroke, 2nd edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
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