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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: July 2011

Chapter 7 - Central venous and pulmonary artery catheterization


1. McGee DC, Gould MK. Preventing complications of central venous catheterization. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1123–33.
2. Wiener RS, Welch HG. Trends in use of the pulmonary artery catheter in the United States, 1993–2004. JAMA 2007;298:423–9.
3. English IC, Frew RM, Pigott JF, et al. Percutaneous catheterization of the internal jugular vein. Anesthesia 1969;24:521–31.
4. Muralidhar K. Left internal versus right internal jugular vein access to central venous circulation using the Seldinger technique. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1995;9:115–116.
5. Neustein S, Narang J, Bronheim D. Use of the color test for safer internal jugular vein cannulation. Anesthesiology 1992;76:1062.
6. Jobes DR, Schwartz AJ, Greenhow DE, et al. Safer jugular vein cannulation: Recognition of arterial puncture. Anesthesiology 1983;59:353–5.
7. Fabian JA, Jesudian MC. A simple method for improving the safety of percutaneous cannulation of the internal jugular vein. Anesth Analg 1985;64:1032–3.
8. Denys BG, Uretsky BF. Anatomical variations of internal jugular vein location: Impact on central venous access. Crit Care Med 1991;19:1516–9.
9. Hind D, Calvert N, McWilliams R, et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;327:361.
10. Leyvi G, Taylor D, Reith E, Wasnick J. Utility of ultrasound guided central venous cannulation in pediatric surgical patients: a clinical series. Pediatric Anesthesia 2005;15:953–8.
11. Asheim P, Mostad U, Aadahl P. Ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation in infants and children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2002;46:390–2.
12. Liberman L, Hordof AJ, Hsu DT, et al. Ultrasound-assisted cannulation of the right internal jugular vein during electrophysiologic studies in children. J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2001;5:177–9.
13. Verghese ST, McGill WA, Patel RI, et al. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular venous cannulation in infants: a prospective comparison with the traditional palpation method. Anesthesiology 1999;91:71–7.
14. Verghese ST, McGill WA, Patel RI, et al. Comparison of three techniques for internal jugular vein cannulation in infants. Paediatr Anaesth 2000;10:505–11.
15. Hind D, Calvert N, McWilliams R, et al. Ultrasonic locating devices for central venous cannulation: meta-analysis. BMJ 2003;327:361.
16. Grebenik CR, Boyce A, Sinclair ME, et al. NICE guidelines for central venous catheterization in children. Is the evidence base sufficient? Br J Anaesth 2004;92:827–30.
17. Randolph AG, Cook DJ, Gonzales CA, Pribble CG. Ultrasound guidance for placement of central venous catheters: a meta-analysis of the literature. Crit Care Med 1996;24:2053–8.
18. Gratz I, Ashar M, Kidwell P, et al. Doppler-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein: A prospective, randomized trial. J Clin Monit 1994;10(3):185–8.
19. Troianos CA, Jobes DR, Ellison N. Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the internal jugular vein: A prospective, randomized study. Anesth Analg 1991;72:823–6.
20. Mallory DL, McGee WT, Shawker TH, et al. Ultrasound guidance improves the success rate of internal jugular vein cannulation. Chest 1990;98:157–60.
21. Denys BG, Uretsky BF, Reddy PS. Ultrasound-assisted cannulation of the internal jugular vein. A prospective comparison to the external landmark-guided technique. Circulation 1993;87:1557–62.
22. Augoustides J, Horak J, Ochroch A, et al. A randomized controlled clinical trial of real-time needle-guided ultrasound for internal jugular venous cannulation in a large university anesthesia department. J Cardiothorac Anesth 2005;19:310–5.
23. Leung J, Duffy M, Finckh A. Real-time ultrasonographically-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in the emergency department increases success rates and reduces complications: a randomized, prospective study. Ann Emerg Med 2006;48:540–7.
24. Milling T, Rose J, Briggs W, et al. Randomized, controlled clinical trial of point-of-care limited ultrasonography assistance of central venous cannulation: The Third Sonography Outcomes Assessment Program (SOAP-3) Trial. Crit Care Med 2005;33:1764–9.
25. Hayashi H, Amano M. Does ultrasound imaging before puncture facilitate internal jugular vein cannulation? Prospective randomized comparison with landmark-guided puncture in ventilated patients. J Cardiothorac Anesth 2002;16:572–5.
26. Troianos CA, Kuwik R, Pasqual J, et al. Internal jugular vein and carotid artery anatomic relation as determined by ultrasonography. Anesthesiology 1996;85:43–48.
27. Alderson PJ, Burrows FA, Stemp LI, et al. Use of ultrasound to evaluate internal jugular vein anatomy and to facilitate central venous cannulation of paediatric patients. Br J Anaesth 1993;70:145–8.
28. Sulek CA, Gravenstein N, Blackshear RH, Weiss L. Head rotation during internal jugular vein cannulation and the risk of carotid artery puncture. Anesth Analg 1996; 82:125–8.
29. van de Griendt EW, Muhiudeen I, Cassoria L, et al. The effects of Trendelenburg position and Valsalva maneuver on the cross-sectional area of the internal jugular vein. Anesthesiology 1991;75:A423.
30. Mallory DL, Showker T, Evans G, et al. Effects of clinical maneuvers on sonographically determined internal jugular vein size during venous cannulation. Crit Care Med 1990;18:1269–73.
31. Suarez T, Baerwald J, Kraus C. Central venous access: the effects of approach, position, and head rotation on internal jugular vein crosssectional area. Anesth Analg 2002;95:1519–24.
32. Parry G. Trendelenburg position, head elevation and a midline position optimize right internal jugular vein diameter. Can J Anaesth 2004;51:379–81.
33. Blitt CD, Wright WA, Petty WC, et al. Cardiovascular catheterization via the external jugular vein: A technique employing the J-wire. JAMA 1974;229:817–8.
34. Defalque RJ. Subclavian venapuncture: a review. Anesth Analg 1968;47:677–82.
35. Ruesch S, Walder B, Tramer M. Complications of central venous catheters: internal jugular versus subclavian access – a systematic review. Crit Care Med 2002;30:486–7.
36. Lefrant JY, Muller L, De La Coussaye JE, et al. Risk factors of failure and immediate complication of subclavian vein catheterization in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:1036–41.
37. Fangio P, Mourgeon E, Romelaer A, et al. Aortic injury and cardiac tamponade as a complication of subclavian venous catheterization. Anesthesiology 2002;96:1520–2.
38. Mansfield PF, Hohn DC, Fornage BD, et al. Complications and failures of subclavian-vein catheterization. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1735–8.
39. Kellner GA, Smart JF. Percutaneous placement of catheters to monitor “central venous pressure.” Anesthesiology 1972;36:515–6.
40. Webre DR, Arens JF. Use of cephalic and basilic veins for introduction of cardiovascular catheters. Anesthesiology 1973;38:389–92.
41. Nadroo AM, Lin J, Green RS, et al. Death as a complication of peripherally inserted central catheters in neonates. J Pediatr 2001;138:599–601.
42. Nadroo AM, Glass RB, Lin J, et al. Changes in upper extremity position cause migration of peripherally inserted central catheters in neonates. Pediatrics 2002;110:131–6.
43. Loewenthal MR, Dobson PM, Starkey RE, et al. The peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC): a prospective study of its natural history after cubital fossa insertion. Anaesth Intensive Care 2002;30:21–4.
44. Burgess GE, Marino RJ, Peuler MJ. Effect of head position on the location of venous catheters inserted via the basilic vein. Anesthesiology 1977;46:212–3.
45. Mongan P, Peterson R, Culling R. Pressure monitoring can accurately position catheters for air embolism aspiration. J Clin Monit 1992;8:121–5.
46. Roth S, Aronson S. Placement of a right atrial air aspiration catheter guided by transesophageal echocardiography. Anesthesiology 1995;83:1359–60.
47. Kumar M, Amin M. The peripherally inserted central venous catheter; friend or foe? Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2004;33:201–4.
48. Parikh S, Narayanan V. Misplaced peripherally inserted central catheter: an unusual cause of stroke. Pediatr Neurol 2004;30:210–2.
49. Pettit J. Assessment of infants with peripherally inserted central catheters: Part 1. Detecting the most frequently occurring complications. Adv Neonatal Care 2002;2:304–15.
50. Smith JR, Friedell ML, Cheatham ML, et al. Peripherally inserted central catheters revisited. Am J Surg 1998;176:208–11.
51. Durbec O, Viviand X, Potie F, et al. A prospective evaluation of the use of femoral venous catheters in critically ill adults.Crit Care Med 1997;25:1986–9.
52. Pawar M, Mehta Y, Kapoor P, et al. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: incidence, risk factors, outcome, and associated pathogens. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004;18:304–8.
53. Timsit JF, Bruneel F, Cheval C, et al. Use of tunneled femoral catheters to prevent catheter-related infection. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:729–35.
54. Nahum E, Levy I, Katz J, et al. Efficacy of subcutaneous tunneling for prevention of bacterial colonization of femoral central venous catheters in critically ill children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:1000–4.
55. Mantia AM, Robinson JN, Lolley DM, et al. Sternal retraction and pulmonary artery catheter compromise. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1988;2:430–9.
56. Keusch DJ, Winters S, Thys DM. The patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary artery catheterization. Anesthesiology 1989;70:582–4.
57. Benumof JL, Saidman IJ, Arkin DB, et al. Where pulmonary artery catheters go: Intrathoracic distribution. Anesthesiology 1977;46:336–8.
58. Mark JB. Central venous pressure monitoring: clinical insights beyond the numbers. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1991;5:163–73.
59. Schmitt EA, Brantigan CO. Common artifacts of pulmonary artery pressures: recognition and interpretation. J Clin Monit 1986;2:44–53.
60. Moore RA, Neary MJ, Gallagher HD, Clark DL. Determination of the pulmonary capillary wedge position in patients with giant left atrial V waves. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1987;1:108–113.
61. Grose R, Strain J, Cohen MV. Pulmonary arterial V waves in mitral regurgitation: clinical and experimental observations. Circulation 1984;69:214–22.
62. Haggmark S, Hohner P, Ostman M, et al. Comparison of hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, mechanical, and metabolic indicators of intraoperative myocardial ischemia in vascular surgical patients with coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology 1989;70:19–25.
63. van Daele ME, Sutherland GR, Mitchell MM, et al. Do changes in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure adequately reflect myocardial ischemia during anesthesia? Circulation 1990;81:865–71.
64. Lappas D, Lell WA, Gabel JC, et al. Indirect measurement of left atrial pressure in surgical patients – pulmonary capillary wedge and pulmonary artery diastolic pressures compared with left atrial pressure. Anesthesiology 1973;38:394–7.
65. Nadeau S, Noble WH. Misinterpretation of pressure measurements from the pulmonary artery catheter. Can Anaesth Soc J 1986;33:352–63.
66. Tuman KJ, Carroll G, Ivankovich AD. Pitfalls in interpretation of pulmonary artery catheter data. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1989;3:625–41.
67. Shasby DM, Dauber IM, Pfister S, et al. Swan-Ganz catheter location and left atrial pressure determine the accuracy of the wedge pressure when positive end-expiratory pressure is used. Chest 1980;80:666–70.
68. Lorzman J, Powers SR, Older T, et al. Correlation of pulmonary wedge and left atrial pressure: A study in the patient receiving positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation. Arch Surg 1974;109:270–7.
69. Kane PB, Askanazi J, Neville JF Jr, et al. Artifacts in the measurement of pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Crit Care Med 1978;6:36–8.
70. Rajacich N, Burchard KW, Hasan FM, Singh AK. Central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure as estimates of left atrial pressure: effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and catheter tip malposition.Crit Care Med 1989;17:7–11.
71. Shasby DM, Dauber IM, Pfister S, et al. Swan-Ganz catheter location and left atrial pressure determine the accuracy of the wedge pressure when positive end-expiratory pressure is used. Chest 1981;80:666–70.
72. Teboul J‑L, Zapol WM, Brun-Buisson C, et al. A comparison of pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure during mechanical ventilation with PEEP in patients with severe ARDS. Anesthesiology 1989;70:261–266.
73. Pinsky M, Vincent JL, DeSmet JM. Estimating the left ventricular filling pressure during positive end-expiratory pressure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;25:143.
74. Haskell RJ, French WJ. Accuracy of left atrial and pulmonary artery wedge pressure in pure mitral regurgitation in predicting left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:136–41.
75. Entress JJ, Dhamee S, Olund T, et al. Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure is not accurate immediately after CPB. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1990;4:558–63.
76. Mangano DT. Monitoring pulmonary arterial pressure in coronary artery disease. Anesthesiology 1980;53:364–70.
77. Kumar A, Anel R, Bunnell E, et al. Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure fail to predict ventricular filling volume, cardiac performance, or the response to volume infusion in normal subjects. Crit Care Med 2004;32:691–9.
78. Buhre W, Weyland A, Schorn B, et al. Changes in central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure do not indicate changes in right and left heart volume in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1999;16:11–17.
79. Godje O, Peyerl M, Seebauer T, et al. Central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and intrathoracic blood volumes as preload indicators in cardiac surgery patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1998;13:533–9.
80. Lichtwarck-Aschoff M, Beale R, Pfeiffer UJ. Central venous pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, intrathoracic blood volume, and right ventricular end-diastolic volume as indicators of cardiac preload. J Crit Care 1996;11:180–8.
81. Gelman S. Venous function and central venous pressure. Anesthesiology 2008;108:735–48.
82. Swan HJC, Ganz W, Forrester JS, et al. Catheterization of the heart in man with the use of a flow-directed balloon-tipped catheter. N Engl J Med 1970;283:447–51.
83. Connors AF, McCaffree DR, Gray BA. Evaluation of right heart catheterization in the critically ill patient. N Engl J Med 1983;308:263–7.
84. Waller JL, Johnson SP, Kaplan JA. Usefulness of pulmonary artery catheters during aortocoronary bypass surgery. Anesth Analg 1982;61:221–2.
85. Iberti T, Fisher CJ. A prospective study on the use of the pulmonary artery catheter in a medical intensive care unit – its effect on diagnosis and therapy. Crit Care Med 1983;11:238.
86. Iberti TJ, Fischer EP, Leibowitz AB, et al. A multicenter study of physicians’ knowledge of the pulmonary artery catheter. JAMA 1990;264:2928–32.
87. Connors AF, Speroff T, Dawson NV, et al. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. JAMA 1996;276:889–97.
88. Barone JE, Tucker JB, Rassias D, Corvo PR. Routine perioperative pulmonary artery catheterization has no effect on rate of complications in vascular surgery: a meta-analysis. Am Surg 2001;67(7):674–9.
89. Shah MR, Hasselblad V, Stevenson LW et al. Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients. JAMA 2005;294:1664–70.
90. Afessa B, Spencer S, Khan W, et al. Association of pulmonary artery catheter use with in-hospital mortality. Crit Care Med 2001;29:1145–8.
91. Gattinoni L, Brazzi L, Pelosi P, et al. A trial of goal-oriented hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1025–32.
92. Tuman KJ, McCarthy RJ, Spiess BD, et al. Effect of pulmonary artery catheterization on outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery. Anesthesiology 1989;70:199–206.
93. Taylor RW. Controversies in pulmonary artery catheterization. New Horizons 1997;5:173–296.
94. Steward RD, Psyhojos T, Lahey SJ, et al. Central venous catheter use in low-risk coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg 1998;66:1306–11.
95. Schwann TA, Zacharias A, Riordan CJ, et al. Safe, highly selective use of pulmonary artery catheters in coronary artery bypass grafting: an objective patient selection method. Ann Thorac Surg 2002;73:1394–401.
96. Ramsey SD, Saint S, Sullivan SD, et al. Clinical and economic effects of pulmonary artery catheterization in nonemergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2000;14:113–8.
97. Resano FG, Kapetanakis EI, Hill PC, et al. Clinical outcomes of low-risk patients undergoing beating-heart surgery with or without pulmonary artery catheterization. JCVA 2006;20:300–6.
98. Djaiani G, Karski J, Yudin M et al. Clinical outcomes in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with and without utilization of pulmonary artery catheter-generated data. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006;20:307–10.
99. Pölönen P, Ruokonen E, Hippeläinen M, et al. A prospective, randomized study of goal-oriented hemodynamic therapy in cardiac surgical patients. Anesth Analg 2000;90:1052–9.
100. Polanczyk CA, Rohde LE, Goldman L, et al. Right heart catheterization and cardiac complications in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: an observational study. JAMA 2001;286:309–14.
101. Sandham JD, Hull RD, Brant RF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of the use of pulmonary-artery catheters in high-risk surgical patients. N Engl J Med 2003;348:5–14.
102. Wiener RS, Welch HG. Trends in use of the pulmonary artery catheter in the United States, 1993–2004. JAMA 2007;298:423–429.
103. Yu DT, Platt R, Lanken PN, Black E, et al. Relationship of pulmonary artery catheter use to mortality and resource utilization in patients with severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 2003;31:2734–41.
104. Sakr Y, Vincent JL, Reinhard K, et al. Use of the pulmonary artery catheter is not associated with worse outcome in the ICU. Chest 2005;128:2722–31.
105. Rhodes A, Cusack RJ, Newman PJ, et al. A randomised, controlled trial of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:256–64.
106. Murdoch SD, Cohen AT, Bellamy MC. Pulmonary artery catheterization and mortality in critically ill patients. Br J Anaesth 2000;85:611–5.
107. Chittock DR, Dhingra VK, Ronco JJ, et al. Severity of illness and risk of death associated with pulmonary artery catheter use. Crit Care Med 2004;32:911–5.
108. Richard C, Warszawski J, Anguel N, Deye N, et al. Early use of the pulmonary artery catheter and outcomes in patients with shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290:2713–20.
109. Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, et al. Pulmonary-artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2213–24.
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111. Gore JM, Goldberg RJ, Spodick DH, et al. A community-wide assessment of the use of pulmonary artery catheters in patients with acute myocardial infarctions. Chest 1987;92:721–7.
112. Cohen MG, Kelly RV, Kong DF, et al. Pulmonary artery catheterization in acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the GUSTO IIb and GUSTO III trials. Am J Med 2005;118:482–8.
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118. Heyland DK, Cook DL, King D, et al. Maximizing oxygen delivery in critically ill patients: A methodologic appraisal of the evidence. Crit Care Med 1996;24:517–24.
119. Wiener RS, Welch HG. Trends in use of the pulmonary artery catheter in the United States, 1993–2004. JAMA 2007;298:423–9.
120. Ranucci M. Which cardiac surgical patients can benefit from placement of a pulmonary artery catheter? Crit Care 2006;10(Suppl3):S6.
121. Applebaum RM, Adelman MA, Kanschuger MS, et al. Transesophageal echocardiographic identification of a retrograde dissection of the ascending aorta caused by inadvertent cannulation of the common carotid artery. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1997;10:749–51.
122. Eckhardt W, Iaconetti D, Kwon J, et al. Inadvertent carotid artery cannulation during pulmonary artery catheter insertion. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1996;10:283–90.
123. Fraizer MC, Chu WW, Gudjonsson T, Wolff MR. Use of a percutaneous vascular suture device for closure of an inadvertent subclavian artery puncture. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2003;59:369–71.
124. Berlet MH, Steffen D, Shaughness G, Hanner J. Closure using a surgical closure device of inadvertent subclavian artery punctures during central venous catheter placement. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2001;24:122–4.
125. Gobiel F, Couture P, Girard D, et al. Carotid artery-internal jugular fistula: Another complication following pulmonary artery catheterization via the internal jugular venous route. Anesthesiology 1994;80:230–1.
126. Robinson R, Errett L. Arteriovenous fistula following percutaneous internal jugular vein cannulation: A report of carotid artery-to-internal jugular vein fistula. J Cardiothorac Anesth 1988;2:488–91.
127. Kim J, Ahn W, Bahk JH. Hemomediastinum resulting from subclavian artery laceration during internal jugular catheterization. Anesth Analg 2003;97:1257–9.
128. Kwon SS, Falk A, Mitty HA. Thoracic duct injury associated with left internal jugular vein catheterization: anatomic considerations. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002; 13:337–9.
129. Khalil DG, Parker FB, Mukherjee N, Webb WR. Thoracic duct injury: a complication of jugular vein catheterization. JAMA 1972;221:908–9.
130. Teba L, Dedhia HV, Bowen R, Alexander JC. Chylothorax review. Crit Care Med 1985;13:49–52.
131. Cook TL, Deuker CW. Tension pneumothorax following internal jugular cannulation and general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1976;45:554–5.
132. Plewa MC, Ledrick D, Sferra JJ. Delayed tension pneumothorax complicating central venous catheterization and positive-pressure ventilation. Am J Emerg 1995;Med 13:532–5.
133. Porzionato A, Montisci M, Manani G. Brachial plexus injury following subclavian vein catheterization: a case report. J Clin Anesth 2003;15:582–6.
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135. Karakaya D, Baris S, Guldogus F, et al. Brachial plexus injury during subclavian vein catheterization for hemodialysis. J Clin Anesth 2000;12:220–3.
136. Nakayama M, Fulita S, Kawamata M, et al. Traumatic aneurysm of the internal jugular vein causing vagal nerve palsy: a rare complication of percutaneous catheterization. Anesth Analg 1994;78:598–600.
137. Parikh RD. Horner's syndrome: a complication of percutaneous catheterization of the internal jugular vein. Anaesthesia 1972;27:327–9.
138. Turnage WS, Harper JV. Venous air embolism occurring after removal of a central venous catheter. Anesth Analg 1991;72:559–60.
139. Akazawa S, Nakaigawa Y, Hotta K. Unrecognized migration of an entire guidewire on insertion of a central venous catheter into the cardiovascular system. Anesthesiology 1996;84:241–2.
140. Smyth NPD, Rogers JB. Transvenous removal of catheter emboli from the heart and great veins by endoscopic forceps. Ann Thorac Surg 1971;11:403–8.
141. Bossert T, Gummert J, Bittner H, et al. Swan-Ganz catheter-induced severe complications in cardiac surgery: right ventricular perforation, knotting, and rupture of a pulmonary artery. J Card Surg 2006;21:292–5.
142. Friedman BA, Jergeleit HC. Perforation of atrium by polyethylene central venous catheter. JAMA 1968;203:1141–2.
143. Oropello J, Leibowitz A, Manasia A, et al. Dilator-associated complications of central venous catheter insertion: Possible mechanisms of injury and suggestions. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1996;10:634–7.
144. Royster RL, Johnston WE, Gravlee GP, et al. Arrhythmias during venous cannulation prior to pulmonary artery catheter insertion. Anesth Analg 1985;64:1214–6.
145. Eissa NT, Kvetan V. Guide wire as a cause of complete heart block in patients with preexisting left bundle-branch block. Anesthesiology 1990;73:772–4.
146. O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Dellinger EP, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2002;23:759–69.
147. Hu KK, Lipsky BA, Veenstra DL, Saint S. Using maximal sterile barriers to prevent central venous catheter-related infection: a systematic evidence-based review. Am J Infect Control 2004;32:142–6.
148. Timsit JF, Sebille V, Farkas JC, et al. Effect of subcutaneous tunneling on internal jugular catheter-related sepsis in critically ill patients: a prospective randomized multicenter study. JAMA 1996;276:1416–20.
149. Timsit JF, Bruneel F, Cheval C, et al. Use of tunneled femoral catheters to prevent catheter-related infection. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:729–35.
150. Leon C, Alvarez-Lerma F, Ruiz-Santana S, et al. Antiseptic chamber-containing hub reduces central venous catheter-related infection: a prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med 2003;31:1318–24.
151. Veenstra DL, Saint S, Saha S, et al. Efficacy of antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infection: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1999;281:261–7.
152. Kamal GD, Pfaller MA, Rempe LE, Jebson PJR. Reduced intravascular catheter infection by antibiotic bonding: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. JAMA 1991;265:2364–8.
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156. Chaiyakunapruk N, Veenstra DL, Lipsky BA, Saint S. Chlorhexidine compared with povidone-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:792–801.
157. Mermel LA. Prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Ann Intern Med 2000;132:391–402.
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162. Spring CL, Pozen RG, Rozanski JJ, et al. Advanced ventricular arrhythmias during bedside pulmonary artery catheterization. Am J Med 1982;72:203–8.
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