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  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: March 2012

Chapter 2 - Pharmacology principles

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References

1. Urman R , Vadivelu N. Acute and postoperative pain management. In Pocket Pain Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2011.
2. Windle ML. Infiltrative administration of local anesthetic agents. Medscape Reference 2011. emedicine.medscape.com/article/149178-overview (accessed June 2011).
3. Arthur GR. Pharmacokinetics. In Strichartz GR , ed., Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 81. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987; 165–86.
4. Clarkson CW , Hondeghem LM. Mechanism for bupivacaine depression of cardiac conduction: fast block of sodium channels during the action potential with slow recovery from block during diastole. Anesthesiology 1985; 62: 396–405.
5. Thomas RD , Behbehani MM , Coyle DE , Denson DD. Cardiovascular toxicity of local anesthetics: an alternative hypothesis. Anesth Analg 1986; 65: 444–50.
6. Nath S , Häggmark S , Johansson G , Reiz S. Differential depressant and electrophysiologic cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics: an experimental study with special reference to lidocaine and bupivacaine. Anesth Analg 1986; 65: 1263–70.
7. Weinberg GL. Treatment of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Reg Anesth Pain Med 2010; 35: 188–93.
8. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Sedation and Analgesia by Non-Anesthesiologists . Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology 2002; 96: 1004–17.

Further reading

Barash PG , Cullen BF , Stoelting RK , Cahalan MK , Stock MC , eds. Clinical Anesthesia, 6th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.
Faust RJ , Cucchiara RF , Rose SH , et al. Anesthesiology Review, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone, 2002.
Hospira . Dosing guidelines for Precedex®: nonintubated procedural sedation and ICU sedation. Lake Forest, IL: Hospira, 2010. www.precedex.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Dosing_Guide.pdf (accessed June 2011).
Morgan GE , Mikhail MS , Murray MJ . Clinical Anesthesiology, 4th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006.
Riker RR , Shehabi Y , Bokesch PM , et al. Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam for sedation of critically ill patients: a randomized trial. JAMA 2009; 301: 489–99.
Stoelting RK , Hillier SC . Pharmacology and Physiology in Anesthetic Practice, 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
Stoelting RK , Miller RD . Basics of Anesthesia, 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone, 2007.
Watson DS , Odom-Forren J . Practical Guide to Moderate Sedation/Analgesia, 2nd edn. New York, NY: Mosby, 2005.