Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: February 2011

Chapter 6 - Ethnicity, migration and mental health:

from Section 1 - Epidemiology and inequalities

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


Ahmad, W. I. U. (1996). The trouble with culture. In D. Kelleher and S. Hillier, eds. Researching Cultural Differences in Health. London: Routledge.
Audini, B., Lelliott, P. (2002). Age, gender and ethnicity of those detained under Part ll of the Mental Health Act 1983. British Journal of Psychiatry, 280, 222–6.
Bagley, C. (1971). The social aetiology of schizophrenia in immigrant groups. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 17, 292–304.
Bhugra, D. (2008). Renewing psychiatry’s contract with society. Psychiatric Bulletin, 32, 281–3.
Bhugra, D., Hilwig, M., Hossein, B. et al. (1996). First-contact incidence rates of schizophrenia in Trinidad and one-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 587–92.
Bhugra, D., Leff, J., Mallett, R. et al. (1997). Incidence and outcome of schizophrenia in whites, African-Caribbeans and Asians in London. Psychological Medicine, 27, 791–8.
Bhui, K., Bhugra, D. (2002). Mental illness in black and Asian ethnic minorities: pathways to care and outcomes. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 8, 26–33.
Bhui, K., Stansfield, S., Hull, S. et al. (2003). Ethnic variations in pathways to and use of specialist mental health services. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 105–16.
Blane, D., Power, C., Bartley, M. (1996). Illness behaviour and the measurement of class differentials in morbidity. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 156(1), 77–92.
Blofeld, J. (2003). Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett. Norwich: Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire Strategic Health Authority.
Bowl, R. (2007a). The need for change in UK Mental Health Services: South Asian service user’s views. Ethnicity and Health, 12, 1–19.
Bowl, R. (2007b). Responding to ethnic diversity: black service users’ views of mental health services in the UK. Diversity in Health and Social care, 4, 201–10.
Bresnahan. M., Begg, M. D., Brown, A. et al. (2007). Race and risk of schizophrenia in a US birth cohort: another example of health disparity? International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, 751–8.
Burnett, R., Mallet, R., Bugra, D. et al. (1999). The first contact of patients with schizophrenia with psychiatric services: social factors and pathways to care in a multi-ethnic population. Psychological Medicine, 29, 475–83.
Burr, J. A., Chapman, T. (1998). Some reflections on cultural and social considerations in mental health nursing. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 5, 431–7.
Cantor-Graae, E., Selten, J. P. (2005). Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 12–24.
Cantor-Graae, E., Zolkowska, K., McNeil, T. F. (2005). Increased risk of psychotic disorder among immigrants in Malmo: a 3-year first-contact study. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1155–63.
Challal, K., Iqbal, A. (2004). Foundations Experiencing Ethnicity: Discrimination and Service Provision. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
Cochrane, R., Bal, S. S. (1989). Mental hospital admission rates of immigrants to England: a comparison of 1971 and 1981. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 24, 2–11.
Cochrane, R., Stopes-Roe, M. (1981). Psychological symptom levels in Indian immigrants to England – a comparison with native English. Psychological Medicine, 11, 319–27.
Cole, E., Leavey, G., King, M., Johnson-Sabine, E., Hoar, A. (1995). Pathways to care for patients with a first episode of psychosis: a comparison of ethnic Groups. British Journal of Psychiatry 167, 770–6.
Commander, M. J., Dharan, S. P., Odell, S. M., Surtees, P. G. (1997). Access to mental health care in an inner city health district. II: Association with demographic factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 317–20.
Commander, M., Odell, S., Surtees, P., Sashidharan, S. (2003). Characteristics of patients and patterns of psychiatric service user in ethnic minorities. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 49, 216–24.
Davies, S., Thornicroft, G., Leese, M. et al. (1996). Ethnic differences in risk of compulsory psychiatric admission among representative cases of psychosis in London. British Medical Journal, 312, 533–7.
DoH (Department of Health). (1999). The National Health Framework for Mental Health. London: Department of Health.
DoH (Department of Health). (2005). Delivering Race Equality in Mental Health Care: an Action Plan for Reform Inside and Outside Services: and the Government’s Response to the Independent Inquiry into the Death of David Bennett. London: Department of Health.
Department of Health. (2006). From Values to Action: The Chief Nursing Officer’s Review of Mental Health Nursing. London: Department of Health.
Erens, B., Primatesta, P., Prior, G. (2001). Health Survey for England 1999: The Health of Minority Ethnic Groups. London: The Stationery Office.
Fearon, P., Kirkbiride, J. B., Morgan, C. et al. (2006). Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups: results from the MRC AESOP Study. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1541–50.
Fernando, S. (2003). Cultural Diversity, Mental Health and Psychiatry. The Struggle Against Racism. Hove and New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Fernando, S. (2005). Multicultural mental health services: projects for ethnic minority communities in England. Transcultural Psychiatry, 42, 420–36.
Gerrish., K., Husband, C., Mackenzie, J. (1996). Ethnicity, the minority ethnic community and health care delivery. In W. I. U. Ahmad and C. Husband, eds. ‘Race’, Health and Social Care. Birmingham, Open University Press.
Gilliam, S. J., Jarman, B., White, P., Law, R. (1989). Ethnic differences in consultation rates in urban general practice. British Medical Journal, 299, 953–7.
Hall, S. (1992). The question of cultural identity. In S. Hall, D. Held and T. McGrew, eds. Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge: Polity.
Handy, S., Chithiramohan, R. N., Ballard, C. G., Silveira, W. R. (1991). Ethnic differences in adolescent self-poisoning: a comparison of Asian and Caucasian groups. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 157–62.
Harris, R., Tobias, M., Jeffreys, M. et al. (2006). Racism and health: the relationship between experience of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Social Science and Medicine, 63(6), 1428–41.
Harrison, G., Owens, D., Holton, A., Neilson, D., Boot, D. (1988). A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients. Psychological Medicine, 18, 643–57.
Harrison, G., Holton, A., Neilson, D. et al. (1989). Severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients: some social, demographic and service factors. Psychological Medicine, 19, 683–96.
Hickling, F. W. (1991). Psychiatric hospital admission rates in Jamaica. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 817–21.
Hickling, F. W., Rodgers-Johnson, P. (1995). The incidence of first contact schizophrenia in Jamaica. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 193–6.
Jarvis, G. E. (2007). The social causes of psychosis in North American psychiatry: a review of a disappearing literature. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 287–94.
Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J. Y. (2002). The relationship between racial discrimination, social class and health among ethnic minority groups. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 624–31.
Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J. (2006). Measuring and analyzing ‘race’, racism and racial discrimination. In J. Oakes, and J. Kaufman, eds. Methods in Social Epidemiology. Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 86–111.
Karlsen, S., Nazroo, J. Y., McKenzie, K., Bhui, K., Weich, S. (2005). Racism, psychosis and common mental disorder among ethnic minority groups in England. Psychological Medicine, 35(12), 1795–1803.
Karmi, G., Abdulrahim, D., Pierpoint, T., McKeigue, P. (1994). Suicide Among Ethnic Minorities and Refugees in the UK. London: NE and NW Thames RHA.
Kauffman, J. S., Cooper, R. S., McGee, D. L. (1997). Socioeconomic status and health in blacks and whites: the problem of residual confounding and the resiliency of race. Epidemiology, 8(6), 621–8.
Kauffman, J. S., Long, A. E., Liao, Y., Cooper R. S., McGee D. L. (1998). The relation between income and mortality in U.S. blacks and whites. Epidemiology, 9(2), 147–55.
Keating, F. (2007). African and Caribbean Men and Mental Health. Better Health Briefing 5. London: Race Equality Foundation.
Keating, F., Robertson, D., Kotecha, N. (2003). Ethnic Diversity and Mental Health in London: Recent Developments. Working Paper, Kings Fund.
King, M., Coker, E., Leavey, G., Hoare, A., Johnson-Sabine, E. (1994). Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups. British Medical Journal, 309, 1115–19.
King’s Fund. (1998). London’s Mental Health. The Report to the King’s Fund London Commission. London: King’s Fund Publishing.
Lipsedge, M. (1993). Mental health: access to care for black and ethnic minority people. In A. Hopkins and V. Bahl, eds. Access to Health Care for People from Black and Ethnic Minorities. London: Royal College of Physicians.
Littlewood, R., Lipsedge, M. (1988). Psychiatric illness among British Afro-Caribbeans. British Medical Journal, 296, 950–1.
Lloyd, K. (1993). Depression and anxiety among Afro-Caribbean general practice attenders in Britain. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 39, 1–9.
Loring, M., Powell, B. (1988). Gender, race and DSM-III: a study of the objectivity of psychiatric diagnostic behavior. Journal of Health and Social behavior, 29, 1–22.
McGovern, D., Cope, R. (1987). First psychiatric admission rates of first and second generation Afro-Caribbeans. Social Psychiatry, 22, 139–49.
McKenzie, K., van Os, J., Fahy, T. et al. (1995). Psychosis with good prognosis in Afro-Caribbean people now living in the United Kingdom. British Medical Journal, 311, 1325–8.
Macpherson, W. (1999). The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report of an inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny, Cm 4261–1. London: The Stationery Office.
Merrill, J., Owens, J. (1986). Ethnic differences in self-poisoning: a comparison of Asian and white groups. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 708–12.
Miles, R. (1989). Racism. London: Routledge.
Miles, R. (1996). Racism and nationalism in the United Kingdom: a view from the periphery. In R. Barot, ed. The Racism Problematic: Contemporary Sociological Debates on Race and Ethnicity. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Modood, T. (1998). Anti-essentialism, multiculturalism and the ‘recognition’ of religious groups. The Journal of Political Philosophy, 6(4), 378–99.
Morgan, C., Mallet, R., Hutchinson, G. et al. (2005). Pathways to care and ethnicity. 1: Sample characteristics and compulsory admission. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 281–9.
Munro, R. (1999). There’s sin in them there genes. Nursing Times, 95(33), 28–9.
Murray, R., Fearon, P. (2007). Searching for racists under the psychiatric bed: commentary on . . . institutional racism in psychiatry. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31, 365–6.
Nazroo, J. Y. (1997). Ethnicity and Mental Health: Findings from a National Community Survey. London: Policy Studies Institute.
Nazroo, J. Y. (1998). Genetic, cultural or socio-economic vulnerability? Explaining ethnic inequalities in health. Sociology of Health and Illness, 20(5), 710–30.
Nazroo, J. Y. (2001). Ethnicity, Class and Health. London: Policy Studies Institute.
Nazroo, J. (2003). The structuring of ethnic inequalities in health: economic position, racial discrimination and racism. American Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 277–84.
Nazroo, J. Y., Williams, D. R. (2005). The social determination of ethnic/racial inequalities in health. In M. Marmot and R. G. Wilkinson, eds. Social Determinants of Health, 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 238–66.
Nazroo, J., Jackson, J., Karlsen, S., Torres, M. (2007). The black diaspora and health inequalities in the US and England: does where you go and how you get there make a difference? Sociology of Health and Illness, 26, 811–30.
Neighbors, H. W., Jackson, J. S., Campbell, L., Williams, D. (1989). The influence of racial factors on psychiatric diagnosis. Community Mental Health, 44, 237–56.
Neighbors, H. W., Trierweiler, S. J., Ford, B. C., Murof, J. R. (2003). Racial differences in DSM diagnosis using a semi-structured instrument: the importance of clinical judgement in the diagnosis of blacks. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 44, 237–56.
Nursing Midwifery Council. (2004). Standards of Proficiency for Pre-registration Nurse Education. London: Nursing Midwifery Council.
Observer. (2008). Psychiatric patients ‘feel lost and unsafe.’ 29 June, (last accessed 24 October 2008).
OPCS (Office of Population Censuses and Surveys). (1994). Undercoverage in Great Britain (Census User Guide no. 58). London: HMSO.
Oliver, M. L., Shapiro, T. M. (1995). Black Wealth/White Wealth: A New Perspective on Racial Inequality. New York: Routledge.
Patel, K., Heginbotham, C. (2007). Institutional racism in mental health services does not imply racism in individual psychiatrists: commentary on institutional racism in psychiatry. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31, 367–8.
Raleigh, V., Deery, A. (2008). Care quality data on mental health is too hard to pin down. Health Service Journal, 10 April 2008.
Robins, L. N., Reiger, D. A. (1991). Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. New York: Free Press.
Rogers, A. (1990). Policing mental disorder: controversies, myths and realities. Social Policy and Administration, 24(3), 226–36.
SCMH (Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health). (1998a). Keys to Engagement: Review of Care for People with Severe Mental Illness who are Hard to Engage with Services. London: Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health.
SCMH (Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health). (1998b). Acute Problems: A Survey of the Quality of Care in Acute Psychiatric Wards. London: Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health.
SCMH (Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health). (2002). Breaking the Circles of Fear. London: Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health.
SCMH (Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health). (2006). Policy Paper 6. The Costs of Race Inequality. London: Sainsburys Centre for Mental Health.
Sashidharan, S. P. (1993). Afro-Caribbeans and schizophrenia: the ethnic vulnerability hypothesis re-examined. International Review of Psychiatry, 5, 129–44.
Sashidharan, S., Francis, E. (1993). Epidemiology, ethnicity and schizophrenia. In W. I. U. Ahmad, ed. ‘Race’ and Health in Contemporary Britain. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Selten, J. P., Slaets, J. P. J., Kahn, R. S. (1997). Schizophrenia in Surinamese and Dutch Antillean immigrants to The Netherlands: evidence of an increased incidence. Psychological Medicine, 27, 807–11.
Selten, J. P., Veen, N. N., Feller, W. et al. (2001). Incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrant groups to The Netherlands. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 367–72.
Singh, S. (2007). Institutional racism in psychiatry. Psychiatric Bulletin, 31, 363–5.
Singh, S. P., Burns, T. (2006). Race and mental health: there is more to race than racism. British Medical Journal, 333, 648–51.
Smaje, C. (1996). The ethnic patterning of health: new directions for theory and research. Sociology of Health and Illness, 18(2), 139–71.
Soni Raleigh, V. (1996). Suicide patterns and trends in people of Indian subcontinent and Caribbean origin in England and Wales. Ethnicity and Health, 1(1), 55–63.
Soni Raleigh, V., Balarajan, R. (1992). Suicide and self-burning among Indians and West Indians in England and Wales. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 365–8.
Soni Raleigh, V., Bulusu, L., Balarajan, R. (1990). Suicides among immigrants from the Indian subcontinent. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 46–50.
Sproston, K., Mindell, J. (2006). Health Survey for England 2004: The Health of Minority Ethnic Groups. London: National Centre for Social Research.
Sproston, K., Nazroo, J. (eds.) (2002). Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC). London: The Stationery Office.
Strakowski, S. M., Shelton, R. C., Kolbrener, M. L. (1993). The effects of race and comorbidity on clinical diagnosis in patients with psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54, 96–102.
Takei, N., Persaud, R., Woodruff, P., Brockington, I., Murray, R. M. (1998). First episodes of psychosis in Afro-Caribbean and white people. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 147–53.
Townsend, P., Davidson, N. (1982). Inequalities in Health (the Black Report). Middlesex: Penguin.
Van Os, J., Castle, D. J., Takei, N., Der, G., Murray, R. M. (1996). Psychotic illness in ethnic minorities: clarification from the 1991 Census. Psychological Medicine, 26, 203–8.
Veling, W., Selten, J. P., Veen, N. et al. (2006). Incidence of schizophrenia among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: a four-year first-contact study. Schizophrenia Research, 86, 189–93.
Webbe, A. (1998). Ethnicity and mental health. Psychiatric Care, 5(1), 12–16.
Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 200–8.