Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 133
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

The archaeological record is a combination of what is seen by eye, as well as the microscopic record revealed with the help of instrumentation. The information embedded in the microscopic record can significantly add to our understanding of past human behaviour, provided this information has not been altered by the passage of time. Microarchaeology seeks to understand the microscopic record in terms of the type of information embedded in this record, the materials in which this information resides, and the conditions under which a reliable signal can be extracted. This book highlights the concepts needed to extract information from the microscopic record. Intended for all archaeologists and archaeological scientists, it will be of particular interest to students who have some background in the natural sciences as well as archaeology.


'I found [this book] so engaging and useful that I read it through with extreme care, rereading and highlighting key passages … It is a textbook, hopefully the first one in a new subfield, microarchaeology, that will become a required component of rigorous archaeology training at both the undergraduate and graduate level.'

Hector Neff Source: Geoarchaeology: An International Journal

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Abelson, P. H. (1955). Organic constituents of fossils. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 54, 107–109.
Abelson, P. H. (1956). Paleobiochemistry. Journal of American Science 195, 83–88.
Addadi, L., Berman, A., and Weiner, S. (1991). Intracrystalline proteins from a sea urchin and a mollusk: a comparison. In: Mechanisms and Phylogeny of Mineralization in Biological Systems (ed. Suga, S. and Nakahara, H.), pp. 29–33. Springer, Tokyo.
Addadi, L., Joester, D., Nudelman, F., and Weiner, S. (2006). Mollusk shell formation: a source of new concepts for understanding biomineralization processes. Chemistry European Journal 12, 980–987.
Addadi, L., Raz, S., and Weiner, S. (2003). Taking advantage of disorder: amorphous calcium carbonate and its roles in biomineralization. Advanced Materials 15, 959–970.
Aitken, M. J. (1958). Magnetic dating. Archaeometry 1, 16–20.
Aitken, M. J. (1976). Thermoluminescence age evaluation and assessment of error limits: revised system. Archaeometry 18, 233–238.
Aitken, M. J. (1990). Science-Based Dating in Archaeology. Longman Group, London and New York.
Aitken, M. J., and Valladas, H. (1992). Luminescence dating relevant to human origins. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 337, 139–144.
Albert, R. M., and Weiner, S. (2001). Study of phytoliths in prehistoric ash layers using a quantitative approach. In: Phytoliths: Applications in Earth Sciences and Human History (ed. Meunier, J. D. and Colin, F.), pp. 251–266. A. A. Balkema, Exton, PA.
Albert, R. M., Tsatskin, A., Ronen, A., Lavi, O., Estroff, L., Lev-Yadun, S., and Weiner, S. (1999). Mode of occupation of Tabun Cave, Mt Carmel, Israel during the Mousterian Period: A study of the sediments and phytoliths. Journal of Archaeological Science 26, 1249–1260.
Albert, R. M., Weiner, S., Bar-Yosef, O., and Meignen, L. (2000). Phytoliths in the Middle Paleolithic deposits of Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel: study of the plant materials used for fuel and other purposes. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 931–947.
Albert, R. M., Bar-Yosef, O., and Weiner, S. (2003a). Use of plant remains in Kebara Cave: phytoliths and mineralogical analyses. In: Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel: The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archaeology, Part 1 (ed. Bar-Yosef, O. and Meignen, L.), pp. 147–164. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Albert, R. M., Bar-Yosef, O., Meignen, L., and Weiner, S. (2003b). Quantitative phytolith study of hearths from the Natufian and Middle Paleolithic levels of Hayonim Cave (Galilee, Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 461–480.
Albert, R. M., Bamford, M. K., and Cabanes, D. (2006). Taphonomy of phytoliths and macroplants in different soils from Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) and the application to Plio-Pleistocene palaeoanthropological samples. Quaternary International 148, 78–94.
Albert, R. M., Shahack-Gross, R., Cabanes, D., Gilboa, A., Portillo, M., Sharon, I., Boaretto, E., and Weiner, S. (2008). Phytolith-rich layers from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages at Tel Dor (Israel): mode of formation and archaeological significance. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 57–75.
Alexander, M. (1977). Introduction to Soil Microbiology. 2nd edition. John Wiley, New York.
Alexandre, A., Meunier, J.-D., Colin, F., and Koud, J.-M. (1997). Plant impact on the biogeochemical cycle of silicon and related weathering processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 677–682.
Alon, D., Mintz, G., Cohen, I., Weiner, S., and Boaretto, E. (2002). The use of Raman spectroscopy to monitor the removal of humic substances from charcoal: quality control for 14C dating of charcoal. Radiocarbon 44, 1–11.
Al-Shorman, A. (2004). Stable carbon isotopic analysis of human tooth enamel from the Bronze Age cemetery of Ya'amoun in Northern Jordan. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 1693–1698.
Ambrose, S. H. (1991). Effects of diet, climate and physiology on nitrogen isotope abundances in terrestrial foodwebs. Journal of Archaeological Science 18, 293–317.
Ambrose, S. H. (1998). Chronology of the Late Stone Age and food production in East Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 25, 377–392.
Amos, G. L. (1952). Silica in timbers. CSIRO Bulletin Melbourne Australia 267, 5–55.
Anderson, S., and Ertug-Yaras, F. (1998). Fuel fodder and faeces: an ethnographic and botanical study of dung fuel use in Central Anatolia. Environmental Archaeology 1, 99–109.
Andrus, C. F. T., and Crowe, D. E. (2002). Alteration of otolith aragonite: effects of prehistoric cooking methods on otolith chemistry. Journal of Archaeological Science 29, 291–299.
Angelini, I., and Bellintani, P. (2005). Archaeological ambers from Northern Italy: an FTIR-DRIFT study of provenance by comparison with the geological amber database. Archaeometry 47, 441–454.
Aoba, T., and Moreno, E. (1990). Changes in the nature and composition of enamel during porcine amelogenesis. Calcified Tissue International 47, 356–364.
Arias, J. L., Fink, D. J., Si-Qun, X., Heuer, A. H., and Caplan, A. I. (1993). Biomineralization and eggshells: cell-mediated acellular compartments of mineralized extracellular matrix. International Review of Cytology 145, 217–250.
Armitage, P. L. (1975). The extraction and identification of opal phytoliths from the teeth of ungulates. Journal of Archaeological Science 2, 187–197.
Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M., González-Reimers, E., Gámez-Mendoza, A., and Galindo-Martín, L. (2009). The Ba/Sr ratio, carious lesions, and dental calculus among the population buried in the church La Concepción (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 351–358.
Arnold, D. E. (1985). Ceramic Theory and Cultural Process. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Arnold, D. E. (2005). Linking society with the compositional analysis of pottery: a model from comparative ethnography. In: Pottery Manufacturing Processes: Reconstruction and Interpretation. (ed. Smith, A. Livingstone, Bosquet, D., and Martineau, R.), pp. 15–21. British Archaeological Reports, International Series 1349, Oxford.
Arrhenius, O. (1931). Die bodenanalyse im dienst der archäologie. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung, Düngung und Bodenkunde B 10, 427–439.
Arsenault, A. L. (1991). Image analysis of collagen-associated mineral distribution in cryogenically prepared turkey leg tendons. Calcified Tissue International 48, 56–62.
Ascough, P. L., Cook, G. T., Dugmore, A. J., Scott, E. M., and Freeman, S. P. H. T. (2005). Influence of mollusk species on marine ΔR determinations. Radiocarbon 47, 433–440.
Aufderheide, A. C., Muñoz, I., and Arriaza, B. (2005). Seven Chinchorro mummies and the prehistory of northern Chile. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 91, 189–201.
Ayliffe, L. K., and Chivas, A. R. (1990). Oxygen isotopic composition of the bone phosphate of Australian kangaroos: potential as a palaeoenvironmental recorder. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54, 2603–2609.
Baillie, M. G. L. (1995). A Slice Through Time: Dendrochronology and Precision Dating. Routledge, London.
Baker, G., Jones, L. H. P., and Wardrop, L. D. (1959). Cause of ware in sheep's teeth. Nature 184, 1583–1584.
Ball, T. B., Gardner, J. S., and Anderson, N. (1999). Identifying inflorescence phytoliths from selected species of wheat (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare and H. spontaneum) (Gramineae). American Journal of Botany 86, 1615–1623.
Bamber, R. K., and Lanyon, J. W. (1960). Silica deposition in several woods of New South Wales. Tropical Woods 113, 48–53.
Bamford, M. (1999). Pliocene fossil woods from an early hominid cave deposit, Sterkfontein, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 95, 231–238.
Bamford, M. K., Albert, R. M., and Cabanes, D. (2006). Plio-Pleistocene macroplant fossil remains and phytoliths from Lowermost Bed II in the eastern paleolake margin of Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Quaternary International 148, 95–112.
Baraldi, P., Bonazzi, A., Giordani, N., Paccagnella, F., and Zannini, P. (2006). Analytical characterization of Roman plasters of the “Domus Farini” in Modena. Archaeometry 48, 481–499.
Barba, L. (2007). Chemical residues in lime-plastered archaeological floors. Geoarchaeology 22, 439–452.
Barber, M., Field, D., and Topping, P. (1999). Neolithic Flint Mines in England. Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, Swindon.
Barton, H. (2007). Starch residues on museum artifacts: implications for determining tool use. Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 1752–1762.
Bar-Yosef, O. (2001). The world around Cyprus: from Epi-Paleolithic foragers to the collapse of the PPNB civilization. In: The Earliest Prehistory of Cyprus from Colonization to Exploitation (ed. Swiny, S.), pp. 129–164. American Schools of Oriental Research, Boston.
Bar-Yosef Mayer, D. E. (2000). The economic importance of mollusks in the Levant. In: Archaeozoology of the Near East, vol. IV A (ed. Mashkour, M., Choyke, A. M., Buitenhuis, H., and Poplin, F.), pp. 218–227. Archeological Research and Consultancy, Groningen, Netherlands.
Bar-Yosef Mayer, D. E. (2005a). Archaeomalacology: Mollusks in Former Environments of Human Behavior. Oxbow, Oxford.
Bar-Yosef Mayer, D. E. (2005b). The exploitation of shells as beads in the Paleolithic and Neolithic of the Levant. Paléorient 31, 176–185.
Bar-Yosef Mayer, D. E. (2008). Archaeomalacological research in Israel: the current state of research. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 56, 191–206.
Battarbee, R. W. (1988). The use of diatom analysis in archaeology: a review. Journal of Archaeological Science 15, 621–644.
Baxter, M. S., and Walton, A. (1970). Radiocarbon dating of mortars. Nature 225, 937.
Beck, C. W., Wilbur, E., Meret, S., Kossove, D., and Kermani, K. (1965). The infrared spectra of amber and the identification of Baltic amber. Archaeometry 8, 96–109.
Behrensmeyer, A. K. (1978). Taphonomic and ecologic information from bone weathering. Paleobiology 4, 150–162.
Behrensmeyer, A. K., and Hill, A. P., eds. (1988). Fossils in the Making: Vertebrate Taphonomy and Paleoecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Belfiore, C. M., Day, P. M., Hein, A., Kilikoglou, V., Rosa, V., Mazzoleni, P., and Pezzino, A. (2007). Petrographic and chemical characterization of pottery production of the Late Minoan I kiln at Haghia Triada, Crete. Archaeometry 49, 621–653.
Bell, I. M., Clark, R. J., and Gibbs, P. J. (1997). Raman spectroscopic library of natural and synthetic pigments (pre- approximately 1850 AD). Spectrochimica Acta A 53, 2159–2179.
Bellomo, R. V. (1993). A methodological approach for identifying archaeological evidence of fire resulting from human activities. Journal of Archaeological Science 20, 525–553.
Bellemo, R. V., and Harris, J. W. K. (1990). Preliminary reports of actualistic studies of fire within Virunga National Park, Zaire: towards an understanding of archaeological occurrences. In: Evolution of Environments and Hominidae in the African Western Rift Valley, vol. 1 (ed. Boaz, N. T.), pp. 317–338. Virginia Museum of Natural History Memoir, Martinsville.
Benayas, J. (1963). Disolución parcial de sílice organica en suelos. Anales de Edafologia y Agrobiologia 22, 623–626.
Benecke, N. (1987). Studies on early dog remains from northern Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 14, 31–49.
Beniash, E., Aizenberg, J., Addadi, L., and Weiner, S. (1997). Amorphous calcium carbonate transforms into calcite during sea urchin larval spicule growth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 264, 461–465.
Bentley, R. A., Krause, R., and Price, T. D. (2003). Human mobility at the early Neolithic settlement of Vaihingen, Germany: evidence from strontium isotope analysis. Archaeometry 45, 471–486.
Benyon, A. D., and Wood, B. A. (1987). Patterns and rates of enamel growth in the molar teeth of early hominids. Nature 326, 493–496.
Berman, A., Addadi, L., and Weiner, S. (1988). Interactions of sea urchin skeleton macromolecules with growing calcite crystals – a study of intracrystalline proteins. Nature 331, 546–548.
Berman, A., Hanson, J., Leiserowitz, L., Koetzle, T. F., Weiner, S., and Addadi, L. (1993). Biological control of crystal texture: a widespread strategy for adapting crystal properties to function. Science 259, 776–779.
Berna, F., and Goldberg, P. (2008). Assessing Paleolithic pyrotechnology and associated hominin behavior in Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 56, 107–121.
Berna, F., Matthews, A., and Weiner, S. (2003). Solubilities of bone mineral from archaeological sites: the recrystallization window. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 867–882.
Berna, F., Behar, A., Shahack-Gross, R., Berg, J., Boaretto, E., Gilboa, A., Sharon, I., et al. (2007). Sediments exposed to high temperatures: reconstructing pyrotechnological processes in Late Bronze and Iron Age Strata at Tel Dor (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 358–373.
Bernal, M. P., Sánchez-Monedero, M. A., Paredes, C., and Roig, A. (1998). Carbon mineralization from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 69, 175–189.
Bertram, B. C. R. (1992). The Ostrich Communal Nesting System. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Bethell, P. H., and Máté, I. (1989). The use of soil phosphate analysis in archaeology: a critique. In: Scientific Analysis in Archaeology, Monograph 19 (ed. Henderson, J.), pp. 1–29. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Oxford.
Bieber, A. M., Brooks, D. W., Harbottle, G., and Sayre, E. V. (1976). Application of multivariate techniques to analytical data on Aegean ceramics. Archaeometry 18, 59–74.
Binford, L. R. (1978). Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology. Academic Press, New York.
Binford, L. R. (1981). Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths. Academic Press, New York.
Binford, L. R. (1983). In Pursuit of the Past. Thames and Hudson, New York.
Bird, M. I., Turney, C. S. M., Fifield, K., Jones, R., Ayliffe, L. K., Palmer, A., Cresswell, R., and Robertson, S. (2002). Radiocarbon analysis of the early archaeological site of Nauwalabila I, Arnhem Land, Australia: implications for sample suitability and stratigraphic integrity. Quaternary Science Review 21, 1061–1075.
Bird, M. I., Turney, C. S. M., Fifield, L. K., Smith, M. A., Miller, G. H., Roberts, R. G., and Magee, J. W. (2003). Radiocarbon dating of organic- and carbonate-carbon in Genyornis and Dromaius eggshell using stepped combustion and stepped acidification. Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 15–17.
Black, D. (1931). Evidences of the use of fire by Sinanthropus. Bulletin of the Geological Society of China 11, 107–108.
Black, D., Teilhard de Chardin, P., and Young, C. C. (1933). Fossil man in China. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of China A, 1–166.
Blackman, E. B. (1969). Observations on the development of the silica cells of the leaf sheath of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Canadian Journal of Botany 47, 827–838.
Blake, R. E., O'Neil, J. R., and Garcia, G. A. (1997). Oxygen isotope systematics of biologically mediated reactions of phosphate: I. Microbial degradation of organophosphorus compounds. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 61, 4411–4422.
Blow, M. J., Zhang, T., Woyke, T., Speller, C. F., Krivoshapkin, A., Yang, D. Y., Derevianko, A., and Rubin, E. M. (2008). Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing. Genome Research 18, 1347–1353.
Blum, J. D., Taliaferro, H. E., Weisse, M. T., and Holmes, R. T. (2000). Changes in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios between trophic levels in two forest ecosystems in the northeastern U.S.A. Biogeochemistry 49, 87–101.
Boardman, S., and Jones, G. (1990). Experiments on the effect of charring on cereal plant components. Journal of Archaeological Science 17, 1–11.
Boaretto, E. (2008). Determining the chronology of an archaeological site using radiocarbon: minimizing uncertainty. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 56, 207–216.
Boaretto, E. (2009a). Dating materials in good archaeological contexts: the next challenge for radiocarbon analysis. Radiocarbon 51, 275–282.
Boaretto, E., Barkai, R., Gopher, A., Berna, F., Kubic, P. W., and Weiner, S. (2009b). Specialized flint procurement strategies for hand axes, scapersa and blades in the Late Lower Paleolithic: a 10Be study at Qesem Cave, Israel. Human Evolution.
Boaretto, E., Wu, X., Yuan, J., Bar-Yosef, O., Chu, V., Pan, Y., Liu, K., et al. (2009c). Radiocarbon dating of the deposits and pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106, 9595–9600.
Bocherens, H., Koch, P. L., Mariotti, A., Geraads, D., and Jaeger, J.-J. (1996). Isotopic biogeochemistry (13C, 18O) of mammalian enamel from African Pleistocene hominid sites. Palaios 11, 306–318.
Boggild, O. (1930). The shell structure of the mollusks. K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. Naturvidensk. Math. Afd. 9, 233–326.
Bolan, N. S., Hedley, M. J., and White, R. E. (1991). Processes of soil acidification during nitrogen cycling with emphasis on legume based pastures. Plant and Soil 134, 53–63.
Bonani, G., Ivy, S., Hajdas, I., Niklaus, T. R., and Suter, M. (1994). AMS 14C age determinations of tissue, bone and grass samples from the Ötztal Ice Man. Radiocarbon 36, 247–250.
Borrelli, E. (1999). Binders. International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, Rome.
Bowman, H. R., Asaro, F., and Perlman, I. (1973). Composition variations in obsidian sources and the archaeological implications. Archaeometry 15, 123–127.
Bowman, S. (1990). Radiocarbon Dating: Interpreting the Past. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Boyde, A. (1963). Estimation of age at death of young human skeletal remains from incremental lines in the dental enamel. Ecerpta Medica International Congress Series 80, 36–46.
Boyde, A. (1997). Microstructure of enamel. In: Dental Enamel, CIBA Foundation Symposium 205 (ed. Chadwick, D. J. and Cardew, G.), pp. 18–31. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Boynton, R. S. (1980). Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone. John Wiley, New York.
Bozarth, S. (1987). Diagnostic opal phytoliths from rinds of selected Cucurbita species. American Antiquity 52, 607–615.
Brain, C. K. (1967a). Hottentot food remains and their bearings on the interpretation of fossil bone assemblages. Scientific Papers of the Namib Desert Research Station 32, 1–11.
Brain, C. K. (1967b). New light on old bones. South African Museum Association Bulletin 9, 22–27.
Brain, C. K. (1981). The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Brain, C. K., and Sillen, A. (1988). Evidence from the Swartkrans cave for the earliest use of fire. Nature 336, 464–466.
Branda, F., Luciani, G., Constantini, A., and Piccioli, C. (2001). Interpretation of the thermogravimetric curves of ancient pozzolanic concretes. Archaeometry 43, 447–453.
Bray, H. J., and Redfern, S. A. T. (1999). Kinetics of dehydration of Ca-montmorillonite. Physical Chemistry of Minerals 26, 591–600.
Brill, R. H., and Wampler, J. M. (1965). Isotope ratios in archaeological artifacts of lead. In: Applications of Science in the Examination of Works of Art, pp. 155–166. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Britton, K., Grimes, V., Dau, J., and Richards, M. P. (2009). Reconstructing faunal migrations using intra-tooth sampling and strontium and oxygen isotope analyses: a case study of modern caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti). Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 1163–1172.
Brochier, J. É. (1983). Combustions et parcage des herbivored domestiques. Bulletin de la Societé Préhistorique Française 80, 143–145.
Brochier, J. É., and Thinon, M. (2003). Calcite crystals, starch grains aggregates or…POCC? Comment on “calcite crystals inside archaeological plant tissues.” Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 1211–1214.
Brochier, J. É., Villa, P., and Giacomarra, M. (1992). Shepherds and sediments: geo-ethnoarchaeology of pastoral sites. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 11, 47–102.
Bronk Ramsey, C (1995). Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy: the OxCal Program. Radiocarbon 37, 425–430.
Bronk Ramsey, C (2001). Development of the radiocarbon program OxCal. Radiocarbon 43, 355–363.
Bronk Ramsey, C. (2003). OxCal Version 3.9. Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Oxford.
Bronk Ramsey, C., and Higham, T. (2003). Towards high precision AMS: progress and limitations. Paper presented at the 18th International Radiocarbon Conference, Wellington, New Zealand.
Bronk Ramsey, C., Plicht, J., and Weninger, B. (2001). “Wiggle matching” radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 43, 381–389.
Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C. E., Manning, S. W., Reimer, P., and Plicht, J. (2006). Developments in radiocarbon calibration for archaeology. Antiquity, 783–798.
Brooks, A. S., Hare, P. E., Kokis, J. E., Miller, G. H., Ernst, R. D., and Wendorf, F. (1990). Dating archaeological sites by protein diagenesis in ostrich eggshell. Science 248, 60–64.
Brothwell, D. R., and Pollard, A. M., eds. (2001). Handbook of Archaeological Sciences. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Brown, A. (1973). Bone strontium content as a dietary indicator in human populations. University of Michigan. PhD Dissertation.
Brown, T. A. (2001). Ancient DNA. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 301–311. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Bryant, J. D., Luz, B., and Froelich, P. N. (1994). Oxygen isotopic composition of fossil horse tooth phosphate as a record of continental paleoclimate. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 107, 303–316.
Bryant, J. D., Koch, P., Froelich, P. N., Showers, W. J., and Genna, B. J. (1996). Oxygen isotope partitioning between phosphate and carbonate in mammalian bone. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, 145–148.
Buchardt, B., and Weiner, S. (1981). Diagenesis of aragonite from Upper Cretaceous ammonites, a geochemical case-study. Sedimentology 28, 423–438.
Buckland, W. (1822). Account of an assemblage of fossil teeth and bones of elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, bear, tiger, and hyaena and sixteen other animals: discovered in a cave at Kirkdale, Yorkshire in the year 1821; with a comparative view of 5 similar caverns in various parts of England and others on the Continent. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 112, 171–237.
Burnell, J., Teubner, E., and Miller, A. (1980). Normal maturational changes in bone matrix, mineral, and crystal size in the rat. Calcified Tissue International 310, 13–19.
Burroni, D., Donahue, R. E., and Pollard, A. M. (2002). The surface alteration features of flint artefacts as a record of environmental processes. Journal of Archaeological Science 29, 1277–1287.
Buxeda, J., Garrigos, I., Mommsen, H., and Tsolakidou, A. (2002). Alterations of Na, K and Rb concentrations in Mycenaean pottery and a proposed explanation using X-ray diffraction. Archaeometry 44, 187–198.
Buxeda, J., Garrigos, I., Jones, R. E., Kilikoglou, V., Levi, S. T., Maniatis, Y., Mitchell, J., Vagnetti, L., Wardle, K. A., and Andreou, S. (2003). Technology transfer at the periphery of the Mycenaean world: the cases of Mycenaean pottery found in Central Macedonia (Greece) and the Plain of Sybaris (Italy). Archaeometry 45, 263–284.
Buxton, D. R., and Russel, J. R. (1988). Lignin constituents and cell-wall digestibility of grass and legume stems. Crop Science 28, 553–558.
Cain, C. J., and Heyn, A. N. J. (1964). X-ray diffraction studies of the crystalline structure of the avian eggshell. Biophysical Journal 4, 23–39.
Calvert, S. E. (1974). Deposition and diagenesis of silica in marine sediments. In: Pelagic Sediments: On Land and Under the Sea, vol. 1 (ed. Hsü, K. J. and Jenkyns, H. C.). International Association of Sedimentology Special Publications 1, 273–299.
Canti, M. (1997). An investigation of microscopic calcareous spherulites from herbivore dung. Journal of Archaeological Science 24, 219–231.
Canti, M. G. (1998). Origin of calcium carbonate granules found in buried soils and Quaternary deposits. Boreas 27, 275–288.
Canti, M. G. (2007). Deposition and taphonomy of earthworm granules in relation to their interpretative potential in Quaternary stratigraphy. Journal of Quaternary Science 22, 111–118.
Carcaillet, C. (1998). A spatially precise study of Holocene fire history, climate and human impact within the Maurienne Valley, north French Alps. Journal of Ecology 86, 384–396.
Carlström, D. (1963). A crystallographic study of vertebrate otoliths. Biological Bulletin 125, 441–463.
Caró, F., and Di Giulio, A. (2004). Reliability of textural analysis of ancient plasters and mortars through automated image analysis. Materials Characterization 53, 243–257.
Caró, F., Riccardi, M. P., and Mazzilli Savini, M. T. (2008). Characterization of plasters and mortars as a tool in archaeological studies: the case of Lardirago Castle in Pavia, northern Italy. Archaeometry 50, 85–100.
Carter, J. G., and Clark, G. R. (1985). Classification and phylogenetic significance of molluscan shell structure. In: Mollusks: Notes for a Short Course (ed. Broadhead, T. W.), pp. 50–71. Department of Geological Science Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
Carty, M. W., and Senapti, U. (1998). Porcelain – raw materials, processing, phase evolution, and mechanical behavior. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 81, 3–20.
Casadio, F., Chiari, G., and Simon, S. (2005). Evaluation of binder/aggregate ratios in archaeological lime mortars with carbonate aggregate: a comparative assessment of chemical, mechanical and microscopic approaches. Archaeometry 47, 671–689.
Casas, L., Linford, P., and Shaw, J. (2007). Archaeomagnetic dating of Dogmersfield Park brick kiln (southern England). Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 205–213.
Cazalla, O., Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Sebastian, E., and Cultrone, G. (2000). Aging of lime putty: effects on traditional lime mortar carbonation. Journal of the American Ceramics Society 83, 1070–1076.
Charola, A. E., and Henriques, F. M. A. (1999). Hydraulicity in lime mortars revisited. Paper presented at the RILEM TC 167-COM International Workshop, University of Paisley, Scotland.
Chefetz, B., Tarchitzky, J., Deshmukh, A. P., Hatcher, P. G., and Chen, Y. (2002). Structural characterization of soil organic matter and humic acids in particle-size fractions of an agricultural soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66, 129–141.
Chernysh, I. G., Pakhovchisin, S. V., and Goncharik, V. P. (1993). The activity of dispersed oxides on natural and exfoliated graphite surfaces. Reaction Kinetics Catalysis Letters 50, 273–277.
Cho, G., Wu, Y., and Ackerman, J. L. (2003). Detection of hydroxyl ions in bone mineral by solid state NMR spectroscopy. Science 300, 1123–1127.
Chu, V., Regev, L., Weiner, S., and Boaretto, E. (2008). Differentiating between anthropogenic calcite in plaster, ash and natural calcite using infrared spectroscopy: implications in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 905–911.
Cohen-Ofri, I., Weiner, L., Boaretto, E., Mintz, G., and Weiner, S. (2006). Modern and fossil charcoal: aspects of structure and diagenesis. Journal of Archaeological Science 33, 428–439.
Cohen-Ofri, I., Popovitz-Biro, R., and Weiner, S. (2007). Structural characterization of modern and fossil natural charcoal using high resolution TEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Chemistry: A European Journal 13, 2306–2310.
Cole, W. E., and Hoskins, J. S. (1957). Clay mineral mixtures and interstratified minerals. In: The Differential Thermal Investigation of Clays (ed. Mackenzie, R. C.), pp. 248–274. Mineralogical Society, London.
Collins, M. J., Muyzer, G., Westbroek, P., Curry, G. B., Sandberg, P. A., Xu, S. J., Quinn, R., and MacKinnon, D. (1991). Preservation of fossil biopolymeric structures: conclusive immunological evidence. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55, 2253–2257.
Collins, M. J., Riley, M., Child, A. M., and Turner, W. G. (1995). A basic mathematical simulation of the chemical degradation of ancient collagen. Journal of Archaeological Science 22, 175–183.
Collins, M. J., Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., Hiller, J., Smith, C. I., Roberts, J. P., Prigodich, R. V., Wess, T. J., Csapó, J., Millard, A. R., and Turner-Walker, G. (2002). The survival of organic matter in bone: a review. Archaeometry 44, 383–394.
Colomban, P. (2005). Raman μ-spectrometry, a unique tool for on-site analysis and identification of ancient ceramics and glasses. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 852, 1–15.
Condamin, J., Formenti, F., Metais, M. O., Michel, M., and Blond, P. (1976). The applications of gas chromatography to the tracing of oil in ancient amphorae. Archaeometry 18, 195–201.
Courty, M. A., Goldberg, P., and MacPhail, R. (1989). Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Coutts, P. J. F. (1970). Bivalve growth patterning as a method of seasonal dating in archaeology. Nature 226, 874.
Crane, N. J., Popescu, V., Morris, M. D., Steenhuis, P., and Ignelzi, M. A. (2006). Raman spectroscopic evidence for octacalcium phosphate and other mineral species deposited during intramembraneous mineralization. Bone 39, 431–433.
Cuif, J.-P., and Dauphin, Y. (2005). The two-step mode of growth in the scleractinian coral skeletons from the micrometre to the overall scale. Journal of Structural Biology 150, 319–331.
Currey, J. D. (1984). The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Currey, J. D. (2002). Bones. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Curry, G. B., Cusack, M., Walton, D., Endo, K., Clegg, H., Abbott, G., and Armstrong, H. (1991). Biogeochemistry of brachiopod intracrystalline molecules. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 333, 359–365.
Daculsi, G., Menanteau, J., Kerebel, L. M., and Mire, D. (1984). Length and shape of enamel crystals. Calcified Tissue International 36, 550–555.
Darwin, C. (1859). The Origin of Species. John Murray, London.
da Silveira, P. M., Rosário Veiga, M., and Brito, J. (2007). Gypsum coatings in ancient buildings. Construction and Building Materials 21, 126–131.
Dauphin, Y. (2002). Comparison of the soluble matrices of the calcitic prismatic layer of Pinna nobilis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pteriomorpha). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 132, 577–590.
Dauphin, Y., Pickford, M., and Senut, B. (1998). Diagenetic changes in the mineral and organic phases of fossil avian eggshells from Namibia. Applied Geochemistry 13, 243–256.
Dauphin, Y., Montuelle, S., Quantin, C., and Massard, P. (2007). Estimating the preservation of tooth structures: towards a new scale of observation. Journal of Taphonomy 5, 43–56.
Davies, G., and Ghabbour, E. A. (1998). Humic Substances: Structures, Properties and Uses. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.
Dean, M. C., Beynon, A. D., Thackeray, J. F., and Macho, G. A. (1993). Histological reconstruction of dental development and age at death of a juvenile Paranthropus robustus specimen, SK 63, from Swartkrans, South Africa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 91, 401–419.
Benedetto, G. E., Laviano, R., Sabbatini, L., and Zambonin, P. G. (2002). Infrared spectroscopy in the mineralogical characterization of ancient pottery. Journal of Cultural Heritage 3, 177–186.
Deer, W. A., Howie, R. A., and Zussman, J. (1992). An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals. London Scientific and Technical, London.
Deith, M. R. (1983a). Seasonality of shell collecting determined by oxygen isotope analysis of marine shells from Asturian sites in Cantabria. In: Animals and Archaeology, vol. 2, Shell Middens, Fishes and Birds (ed. Grigson, C. and Clutton-Brock, J.). British Archaeological Reports International Series 183, 67–76.
Deith, M. R. (1983b). Molluscan calendars: the use of growth line analysis to establish seasonality of shellfish collection at the Mesolithic site of Morton, Fife. Journal of Archaeological Science 10, 423–440.
Della Casa, P. (2005). Lithic resources in the early prehistory of the Alps. Archaeometry 47, 221–234.
DeNiro, M. J. (1985). Postmortem preservation and alteration of in vivo bone collagen isotope ratio in relation to palaeodietry reconstraction. Nature, 317, 806–809.
DeNiro, M. J., and Epstein, S. (1978). Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 42, 495–506.
DeNiro, M. J., and Weiner, S. (1988a). Chemical, enzymatic and spectroscopic characterization of collagen and other organic fractions from prehistoric bones. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, 2197–2206.
DeNiro, M. J., and Weiner, S. (1988b). Organic matter within crystalline aggregates of hydroxyapatite: a new substrate for stable isotopic and possibly other biochemical analyses of bone. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, 2415–2423.
Dennis, J. E., Xiao, S. Q., Agarval, M., Fink, D. J., Heuer, A. H., and Caplan, A. I. (1996). Microstructure of matrix and mineral components of eggshells from white leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus). Journal of Morphology 228, 287–306.
Derry, L. A., Kurtz, A. C., Ziegler, K., and Chadwick, O. A. (2005). Biological control of terrestrial silica cycling and export fluxes to watersheds. Nature 433, 728–731.
Vaux, R. (1973). Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Dixon, J., and Weed, S. (1977). Minerals in Soil Environments. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Dodd, J., and Stanton, R. J. (1981). Paleoecology: Concepts and Applications. John Wiley, New York.
Doner, H. E., and Lynn, W. C. (1977). Carbonate, halide, sulfate, and sulfide minerals. In: Minerals in Soil Environments (ed. Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B.), pp. 75–98. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Douglass, A. E. (1921). Dating our prehistoric ruins. Natural History 21, 27–30.
Douglass, A. E. (1941). Crossdating in dendrochronology. Journal of Forestry 39, 825–831.
Dove, P. M., Weiner, S., and DeYoreo, J. J. (2003). Biomineralization. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry vol. S54.
Dressler, V. L., Pozebon, D., Flores, E. L. M., Paniz, J. N. B., and Flores, E. M. M. (2002). Potentiometric determination of fluoride in geological and biological samples following pyrohydrolytic decomposition. Analytica Chimica Acta 466, 117–123.
Dudd, S. N., and Evershed, R. P. (1998). Direct demonstration of milk as an element of archaeological economies. Science 282, 1478–1481.
Dufour, E., Cappetta, H., Denis, A., Dauphin, Y., and Mariotti, A. (2000). La diagenese des otolithes par la comparaison des donnees microstructurales, mineralogiques et geochimiques; application aux fossiles du Pliocene du Sud-Est de la France. Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France 171, 521–532.
Eckert, K. A., and Kunkel, T. A. (1991). DNA polymerase fidelity and the polymerase chain reaction. In: PCR Methods and Application (eds. Bentley, D., Gibbs, R., Green, E. and Myers, R. pp. 17–24. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, New York.
Eckmeier, E., Gerlach, R., Gehrt, E., and Schmidt, M. W. I. (2007). Pedogenesis of Chernozems in central Europe – a review. Geoderma 139, 288–299.
Edwards, K. J., Whittington, G., Robinson, M., and Richter, D. (2005). Paleoenvironments, the archaeological record and cereal pollen detection at Clickimin, Shetland, Scotland. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 1741–1756.
Edwards, N. T. (1975). Effects of temperature and moisture on carbon dioxide evolution in a mixed deciduous forest floor. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 39, 361–365.
Eframov, I. A. (1940). Taphonomy: a new branch of paleontology. Pan-American Geology 74, 81–93.
Efstratiou, N. (1984). Ethnoarchaeological research in Thrace. Archaeology 13, 20–26.
Efstratiou, N. (1990). Prehistoric habitations and structures in northern Greece: an ethnoarchaeological case study. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique 19, 33–41.
Eiland, M. L., and Williams, Q. (2000). Infrared spectroscopy of ceramics from Tell Brak, Syria. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 993–1006.
Elbaum, R., Albert, R. M., Elbaum, M., and Weiner, S. (2003). Detection of burning of plant materials in the archaeological record by changes in the refractive indices of siliceous phytoliths. Journal Archaeological Science 30, 217–226.
Elbaum, R., Melamed-Bessudo, C., Boaretto, E., Galili, E., Lev-Yadun, S., Levy, A. A., and Weiner, S. (2006). Ancient olive DNA in pits: preservation, amplification and sequence analysis. Journal Archaeological Science 33, 77–88.
Elbaum, R., Zaltzman, L., Burgert, I., and Fratzl, P. (2007). The role of wheat awns in the seed dispersal unit. Science 316, 884–886.
Elbaum, R., Melamed-Bessudo, C., Tuross, N., Levy, A. A., and Weiner, S. (2009). New methods to isolate organic materials from silicified phytoliths reveal fragmented glycoproteins but no DNA. Quaternary International 193, 11–19.
El Hiveris, S. O. (1978). Nature of resistance to Striga hermonithica (Del) Benth. parasitism in some Sorghum vulgare (Pers.) cultivars. Weed Research 27, 305–311.
Elias, R. W., Hirao, Y., and Patterson, C. C. (1982). The circumvention of the natural biopurification of calcium along nutrient pathways by atmospheric inputs of industrial lead. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 46, 2561–2580.
Eliyahu-Behar, A., Regev, L., Shalev, Y., Shilstein, S., Sharon, G., Gilboa, A., and Weiner, S. (2009). Functional analysis of a pyrotechnological installation from the Roman period at Tel-Dor, Israel: casting pit for bronze objects. Journal of Field Archaeology, 34, 135–151.
El Mansouri, M., El Fouikar, A., and Saint Martin, B. (1996). Correlation between 14C ages and aspartic acid racemization at the Upper Paleolithic site of the Abri Pataud (Dordogne, France). Journal of Archaeological Science 23, 803–809.
Elsdon, T. S., and Gillanders, B. M. (2003). Reconstructing patterns of fish based on environmental influences on otolith chemistry. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 13, 219–235.
Epstein, S., Buchsbaum, R., Lowenstam, H. A., and Urey, H. C. (1953). Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 64, 1315–1326.
Ericson, J. E. (1985). Strontium isotope characterization in the study of prehistoric human ecology. Journal of Human Evolution 14, 503–514.
Esslemont, G., Maher, W., Ford, P., and Krikowa, F. (2000). The determination of phosphorus and other elements in plant leaves by ICP-MS after low-volume microwave digestion with nitric acid. Atomic Spectroscopy 21, 42–45.
Everett, D. H. (1959). An Introduction to the Study of Chemical Thermodynamics. Longmans, Greem, London.
Evershed, R. P., Dudd, S. N., Lockheart, M. J., and Jim, S. (2001). Lipids in archaeology. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 331–349. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Faix, O., Bremer, J., Schmidt, O., and Stevanovic, T. (1991). Monitoring of chemical changes in white-rot degraded beech wood by pyrolysis – gas chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 21, 147–162.
Farmer, V. C. (1974). The Infrared Spectra of Minerals. Mineralogical Society, London.
Farmer, V. C., Delbos, E., and Miller, J. D. (2005). The role of phytolith formation and dissolution in controlling concentrations of silica in soil solutions and streams. Geoderma 127, 71–79.
Featherstone, J. D. B., Pearson, S., and LeGeros, R. Z. (1984). An infrared method for the quantification of carbonate in carbonated apatites. Caries Research 18, 63–66.
Ferraiolo, J. A. (1982). A systematic classification of nonsilicate minerals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 172, 1–237.
Ferraiolo, J. A. (2008). A Systematic Classification of Nonsilicate Minerals. Ferraiola, J. A., Bowie, MD, 1–457.
Feynman, R. P. (1998). The Meaning of It All: Thoughts of a Citizen Scientist. Perseus Books, Reading, MA.
Fitton Jackson, S. (1956). The fine structure of developing bone in the embryonic fowl. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 146, 270–280.
Fladmark, K. R. (1982). Microdebitage analysis: initial considerations. Journal of Archaeological Science 9, 205–220.
Fleming, S. (1976). Dating in Archaeology. St. Martin's Press, New York.
Fogel, M. L., Tuross, N., and Owsley, D. W. (1989). Nitrogen isotope tracers. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 88, 133–134.
Forbes, R. J. (1957). Studies in Ancient Technology. Vol. 5. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands.
Franceschi, V. R., and Horner, H. T. (1980). Calcium oxalate crystals in plants. Botanical Review 46, 361–427.
Franklin, R. E. (1951). Crystallite growth in graphitizing and non-graphitizing carbons. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 209, 196–218.
Fraysse, F., Pokrovsky, O. S., Schott, J., and Meunier, J.-D. (2006). Surface properties, solubility and dissolution kinetics of bamboo phytoliths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 1939–1951.
Freestone, I. C., and Tite, M. S. (1986). Refractories in the ancient and preindustrial world. In: High-Technology Ceramics: Past, Present and Future (ed. Kingery, W. D.), pp. 35–63. American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH.
Freund, F., and Knobel, R. M. (1977). Distribution of fluorine in hydroxyapatite studied by infrared spectroscopy. Journal of the Chemical Society Dalton 12, 1136–1140.
Friedman, I., and Smith, R. L. (1960). A new dating method using obsidian: Part 1, the development of the method. American Antiquity 25, 476–522.
Friedman, I., and Trembour, F. W. (1983). Obsidian hydration dating update. American Antiquity 48, 544–547.
Furlan, V., and Bissegger, P. (1975). Les mortiers anciens: histoire et essais d'analyse scientifique. Revue suisse d'Art et d'Archéologie 32, 166–178.
Gago-Duport, L., Briones, M. J. I., Rodríguez, J. B., and Covelo, B. (2008). Amorphous calcium carbonate biomineralization in the earthworm's calciferous gland: pathways to the formation of crystalline phases. Journal of Structural Biology 162, 422–435.
Garrison, E. G. (2003). Techniques in Archaeological Geology. Springer, Berlin.
Garrod, D. A. E. (1957). The Natufian culture: the life and economy of a Mesolithic people in the Near East. Proceedings of the British Academy 43, 211–227.
Garti, J., Kunin, P., Delarea, J., and Weiner, S. (2002). Calcium oxalate and sulphate-containing structures on the thallial surface of the lichen Ramalina lacera: response to polluted air and simulated acid rain. Plant, Cell and Environment 25, 1591–1604.
Gauldie, R. W. (1986). Vaterite otoliths from chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 20, 209–217.
Gautron, J., Rodriguez-Navarro, A. B., Gómez-Morales, J., Hernández-Hernández, M. A., Dunn, I. C., Bain, M. M., García-Ruiz, M., and Nys, Y. (2007). Evidence for the implication of chicken eggshell matrix proteins in the presence of shell mineralization. In: Biomineralization: From Paleontology to Materials Science (ed. Arias, J. L. and Fernández, M. S.), pp. 145–154. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, Chile.
Geiger, S. B., and Weiner, S. (1993). Fluoridated carbonatoapatite in the intermediate layer between glass ionomer and dentin. Dental Materials 9, 33–36.
Genestar, C., and Palou, J. (2006). SEM-FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of deterioration in an historic coffered ceiling. Analytic Bioanalytic Chemistry 384, 987–993.
Gernaey, A. M., Waite, E. R., Collins, M. J., and Craig, O. E. (2001). Survival and interpretation of archaeological proteins. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 323–329. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Gheradi, S. (1862). Sul magnetismo polare de palazzi ed altri edifizi in Torino. Il Nuovo Cimento 16, 384–404.
Gifford, D. P. (1978). Ethnoarchaeological observations of natural processes affecting cultural materials. In: Explorations in Ethnoarchaeology (ed. Gould, R. A.), pp. 77–101. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Gifford-Gonzalez, D. P. (1998). Gender and early pastoralists in East Africa. In: Gender in African Prehistory (ed. Kent, S.), pp. 115–137. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Gifford-Gonzalez, D. P., Damrosch, D. B., Damrosch, D. R., Pryor, J., and Thunen, R. L. (1985). The third dimension in site structure: an experiment in trampling and vertical dispersal. American Antiquity 50, 803–818.
Gilbert, M., Hansen, A., Willerslev, E., Rudbeck, L., Barnes, I., Lynnerup, N., and Cooper, A. (2003a). Characterization of genetic miscoding lesions caused by postmortem damage. American Journal of Human Genetics 72, 48–61.
Gilbert, M. T. P., Willerslev, E., Hansen, A. J., Barnes, I., Rudbeck, L., Lynnerup, N., and Cooper, A. (2003b). Distribution patterns of postmortem damage in human mitochondrial DNA. American Journal of Human Genetics 72, 32–47.
Giraud-Guille, M. M. (1988). Twisted plywood architecture of collagen fibrils in human compact bone osteons. Calcified Tissue International 42, 167–180.
Glaser, B., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., and Zech, W. (1998). Black carbon in soils: the use of benzenecarboxylic acids as specific markers. Organic Geochemistry 29, 811–819.
Glaser, B., Balashov, E., Haumaier, L., Guggenberger, G., and Zech, W. (2000). Black carbon in density fractions of anthropogenic soils of the Brazilian Amazon region. Organic Geochemistry 31, 669–678.
Glob, P. V. (1965). The Bog People: Iron-Age Man Preserved. New York Review of Books, New York.
Goffer, Z. (2007). Archaeological Chemistry. 2nd edition. John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Goldberg, P. (2001). Some micromorphological aspects of prehistoric cave deposits. Cahiers d'archéologie du CELAT 10, 161–175.
Goldberg, P., and MacPhail, R. I. (2006). Practical and Theoretical Geoarchaeology. Blackwell, Malden, MA.
Goldberg, P., Weiner, S., Bar-Yosef, O., Xu, Q., and Liu, J. (2001). Site formation processes at Zhoukoudian. Journal Human Evolution 41, 483–530.
Goldberg, P., Laville, H., Meignen, L., and Bar-Yosef, O. (2007). Stratigraphy and geoarchaeological history of Kebara Cave, Mount Carmel. In: Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel: The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Archaeology, Part 1 (ed. Bar-Yosef, O. and Meignen, L.), pp. 49–89. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Goodfriend, G. A. (1987). Evaluation of amino acid racemization/epimerization dating using radiocarbon-dated fossil land snails. Geology 15, 698–700.
Goodfriend, G. A. (1992). Rapid racemization of aspartic acid in mollusc shells and potential for dating over recent centuries. Nature 357, 399–401.
Goodfriend, G. A., and Ellis, G. L. (2000). Stable carbon isotopic record of middle to late Holocene climate changes from land snail shells at Hinds Cave, Texas. Quaternary International 67, 47–60.
Goodfriend, G. A., Collins, M. J., Fogel, M. L., Macko, S. A., and Wehmiller, J. F. (2000). Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein Geochemistry. Oxford University Press, New York.
Gorecki, P. (1985). Ethnoarchaeology: the need for a post-mortem enquiry. World Archaeology 17, 175–191.
Goren, Y., and Goldberg, P. (1991). Petrographic thin sections and the development of Neolithic plaster production in northern Israel. Journal of Field Archaeology 18, 131–138.
Goren, Y., Finkelstein, I., and Na'aman, N. (2004). Inscribed in Clay: Provenance Study of the Amarna Tablets and Other Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Emery and Claire Yass Publications in Archaeology, Tel Aviv.
Goren-Inbar, N., Werker, E., and Feibel, C. (2002). The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Yaakov, Israel: The Wood Assemblage. Oxbow Books, Oxford.
Goren-Inbar, N., Alperson, N., Kislev, M. E., Simchoni, O., Melamed, Y., Ben-Nun, A., and Werker, E. (2004). Evidence of hominin control of fire at Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel. Science 304, 725–727.
Gosselain, O. P. (1992). Bonfire of the enquiries – pottery firing temperatures in archaeology: what for?Journal of Archaeological Science 19, 243–259.
Gotliv, B., Robach, J. A., and Veis, A. (2006). The composition and structure of bovine peritubular dentin: mapping by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Journal of Structural Biology 156, 320–333.
Gould, R. A. (1980). Living Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Gourdin, W., and Kingery, W. (1975). The beginnings of pyrotechnology: Neolithic and Egyptian lime plaster. Journal of Field Archaeology 2, 133–150.
Green, R. E., Krause, J., Ptak, S. E., Briggs, A. W., Ronan, M. T., Simons, J. F., Du, L., et al. (2006). Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature 444, 330–336.
Greenfield, H. J., Fowler, K. D., and van Schalkwyk, L. O. (2005). Where are the gardens? Early Iron Age horticulture in the Thukela River Basin of South Africa. World Archaeology 37, 307–328.
Greensmith, J. T. (1963). Clastic quartz, provenance and sedimentation. Nature 197, 345–347.
Grögler, N., Geiss, J., Grünenfelder, M., and Houtermans, F. G. (1966). Isotopenuntersuchungen zur Bestimmung der Herkunft römischer Bleirohre und Bleibarren. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung 21a, 1167–1172.
Grün, R. (1989). Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating. Quaternary International 1, 65–109.
Grün, R. (2001). Trapped charge dating (ESR, TL, OSL). In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 47–62. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Grün, R., Stringer, C., McDermott, F., Nathane, R., Porat, N., Robertson, S., Taylor, L., Mortimer, G., Eggins, S., and McCulloch, M. (2005). U-series and ESR analyses of bones and teeth relating to the human burials from Skhul. Journal of Human Evolution 49, 316–334.
Grupe, G., and Hummel, S. (1991). Trace element studies on experimentally cremated bone. I. Alteration of the chemical composition at high temperatures. Journal of Archaeological Science 18, 177–186.
Gueta, R., Natan, A., Addadi, L., Weiner, S., Refson, K., and Kronik, L. (2007). Local atomic order and infrared spectra of biogenic calcite. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 46, 291–294.
Gujer, W., and Zehnder, A. J. B. (1983). Conversion processes in anaerobic digestion. Water Science and Technology 15, 127–167.
Haberle, S. G., and Ledru, M.-P. (2001). Correlations among charcoal records of fires from the past 16,000 years in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and central South America. Quaternary Research 55, 97–104.
Hackett, C. J. (1981). Microscopical focal destruction (tunnels) in exhumed human bones. Medical Science and Law 21, 243–265.
Hagelberg, E., Sykes, B. C., and Hedges, R. E. M. (1989). Ancient bone DNA amplified. Nature342, 485.
Hardy, K., Blakeney, T., Copeland, L., Kirkham, J., Wrangham, R., and Collins, M. J. (2009). Starch granules, dental calculus and new perspectives on ancient diet. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 248–255.
Hare, P. E. (1980). Organic geochemistry of bone and its relation to the survival of bone in the natural environment. In: Fossils in the Making: Vertebrate Taphonomy and Paleoecology (ed. Behrensmeyer, A. K. and Hill, A. P.), pp. 208–219. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Hare, P. E., and Abelson, P. H. (1965). Amino acid composition of some calcified proteins. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 64, 223–234.
Hare, P. E., and Abelson, P. H. (1967). Racemization of amino acids in fossil shells. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 66, 526–528.
Hare, P. E., and Estep, M. L. F. (1983). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids in modern and fossil collagens. Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook 82, 410–414.
Hare, P. E., Hoering, T. C., and King, K. (1980). Biogeochemistry of Amino Acids. John Wiley, New York.
Hare, P. E., Fogel, M. L., Stafford, T. W., Mitchell, A. D., and Hoering, T. C. (1991). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in individual amino acids isolated from modern and fossil proteins. Journal of Archaeological Science 18, 277–292.
Harrison, C. C. (1996). Evidence for intramineral macromolecules containing protein from plant silicas. Phytochemistry 41, 37–42.
Harrison, C. C., and Lu, Y. (1994). In vivo and in vitro studies of polymer controlled silicification. Bulletin de l'Institut océanographique, Monaco 14, 151–158.
Harry, K. G., and Johnson, A. (2004). A non-destructive technique for measuring ceramic porosity using liquid nitrogen. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 1567–1575.
Hart, J. P., and Matson, R. G. (2008). The use of multiple discriminant analysis in classifying prehistoric phytolith assemblages recovered from cooking residues. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 430–433.
Haslam, M. (2004). The decomposition of starch grains in soils: implications for archaeological residue analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 1715–1734.
Hata, T. Y. O., Kobayashi, E., Yamane, K., and Kikuchi, K. (2000). Onion-like graphitic particles observed in wood charcoal. Journal of Wood Science 46, 89–92.
Hauschka, P. V., Lian, J. B., and Gallop, P. M. (1975). Direct identification of the calcium-binding amino acid, γ-carboxyglutamate in mineralized tissue. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 72, 3925–3929.
Hayes, M. H. B. (1998). Humic substances: progress towards more realistic concepts of structures. In: Humic Substances: Structures, Properties and Uses (ed. Davies, G., Ghabbour, E. A., and Khairy, K. A.), pp. 1–27. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.
Hedges, R. E. M. (2001). Overview – dating in archaeology; past, present and future. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 3–8. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Hedges, R. E. M. (2002). Bone diagenesis: an overview of processes. Archaeometry 44, 319–328.
Hedges, R. E. M., Thorp, J. A., and Tuross, N. C. (1995). Is tooth enamel carbonate a suitable material for radiocarbon dating?Radiocarbon 37, 285–290.
Heimann, R. B., and Maggetti, M. (1981). Experiments on simulated burial of calcareous terra sigillata (mineralogical change): preliminary results. British Museum Occasional Paper 19, 163–177.
Hein, A., Kilikoglou, V., and Kassianidou, V. (2007). Chemical and mineralogical examination of metallurgical ceramics from a Late Bronze Age copper smelting site in Cyprus. Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 141–154.
Heinemeier, J., Jungner, H., Lindroos, A., Ringbom, A., Konow, T., and Rud, N. (1997). AMS C-14 dating of lime mortar. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B 123, 487–495.
Heinrich, E. W. (1965). Microscopic Identification of Minerals. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Henderson, J. (2000). The Science and Archaeology of Materials: An Investigation of Inorganic Materials. Routledge, London.
Henderson, J. (2001). Glass and glaze. In: Handbook of Archaeological Science (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 471–482. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Henry, A. G., and Piperno, D. R. (2008). Using plant microfossils from dental calculus to recover human diet: a case study from Tell al-Raqa'i, Syria. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 1943–1950.
Heron, C., and Evershed, R. P. (1993). The analysis of organic residues and the study of pottery use. In: Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 5 (ed. Schiffer, M. B.), pp. 247–284. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Heron, C., and Pollard, A. M. (1988). The analysis of natural resinous materials from Roman amphoras. In: Science and Archaeology, Glasgow 1987: Proceedings of a Conference on the Application of Scientific Methods to Archaeology, vol. 196 (ed. Slater, E. A. and Tate, J. O.), pp. 429–447. British Archaeological Reports, British Series, Oxford.
Herron, C. (2001). Geochemical prospecting. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 565–573. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Herz, N. (1992). Provenance determination of Neolithic to classical Mediterranean marbles by stable isotopes. Archaeometry 34, 185–194.
Hess, D., Coker, D. J., Loutsch, J. M., and Russ, J. (2008). Production of oxalates in vitro by microbes isolated from rock surfaces with prehistoric paints in the Lower Pecos region, Texas. Geoarchaeology 23, 3–11.
Higham, T. F. G., and Horn, P. L. (2000). Seasonal dating using fish otoliths: results from the Shag River Mouth site, New Zealand. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 439–448.
Higuchi, R., Bowman, B., Freiberger, M., Ryder, O. A., and Wilson, A. C. (1984). DNA sequences from the quagga, an extinct member of the horse family. Nature 312, 282–284.
Hill, C., and Forti, P. (1997). Cave Minerals of the World. 2nd edition. National Speleological Society, Huntsville, AL.
Hiller, C. R., Robinson, C., and Weatherell, J. A. (1975). Variation in the composition of developing rat incisor enamel. Calcified Tissue Research 18, 1–12.
Hillman, G. (1996). Late Pleistocene changes in wild plant-foods available to hunter-gatherers of the northern Fertile Crescent: possible preludes to cereal cultivation. In: The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia (ed. Harris, D. R.), pp. 159–203. UCL Press, London.
Hillson, S. (1986). Teeth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Hodder, I. (1999). The Archaeological Process. Blackwell, Oxford.
Hodge, A. J., and Petruska, J. A. (1963). Recent studies with the electron microscope on ordered aggregates of the tropocollagen molecule. In: Aspects of Protein Structure (ed. Ramachandran, G. N.), pp. 289–300. Academic Press, New York.
Hodson, M. J., White, P. J., Mead, A., and Broadley, M. R. (2005). Phylogenetic variation in the silicon composition of plants. Annals of Botany 96, 1027–1046.
Holden, J. L., Phakey, P. P., and Clement, J. G. (1995). Scanning electron microscope observations of incinerated human femoral bone: a case study. Forensic Science International 74, 29–45.
Holliday, V. T. (2004). Soils in Archaeological Research. Oxford University Press, New York.
Hood, M. A., and Meyers, S. P. (1977). Rates of chitin degradation in an estuarine environment. Journal of Oceanography 33, 328–334.
Hughen, K., Lehman, S., Southon, J., Overpeck, J., Marchal, O., Herring, C., and Turnbull, J. (2004). 14C activity and global carbon cycle changes over the past 50,000 years. Science 303, 202–207.
Hull, K. L. (1987). Identification of cultural site formation processes through microdebitage analysis. Antiquity 52, 772–783.
Hull, K. L. (2001). Reasserting the utility of obsidian hydration dating: a temperature-dependent empirical approach to practical temporal resolution with archaeological obsidians. Journal of Archaeological Science 28, 1025–1040.
Humphrey, L. T., Dirks, W., Dean, M. C., and Jeffries, T. E. (2008). Tracking dietary transitions in weanling baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) using strontium/calcium ratios in enamel. Folia Primatalogica 79, 197–212.
Humphreys, G. S., Hunt, P. A., and Buchanan, R. (1987). Wood-ash stone near Sydney, N.S.W.: a carbonate pedological feature in an acidic soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research 25, 115–124.
Huntley, D. J., Godfrey-Smith, D. I., and Thewalt, M. L. W. (1985). Optical dating of sediments. Nature 313, 105–107.
Hustedt, F. (1942). Aerophile Diatomeen in der nordwestdeutschen Flora. Berigte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 60, 55–73.
Hutchinson, G. (1950). Survey of contemporary knowledge of biogeochemistry. 3. The biogeochemistry of vertebrate excretion. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 96, 1–554.
Hutson, S. R., Stanton, T. W., Magnoni, A., Terry, R., and Craner, J. (2007). Beyond the buildings: formation processes of ancient Maya houselots and methods for the study of non-architectural space. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26, 442–473.
Huxley, T. H. (1863). Essays: On Our Knowledge of the Causes of the Phenomena of Organic Nature. J. A. Mays, London.
Ikeya, M. (1978). Electron spin resonance as a method of dating. Archaeometry 33, 153–199.
Inbar, Y., and Chen, Y. (1990). Humic substances formed during the compasting of organic matter. Soil Science Society of America Journal 54, 1316–1323.
Isaac, G. (1968). Traces of Pleistocene hunters: an East African example. In: Man the Hunter (ed. Lee, R. and DeVore, I.), pp. 253–261. Aldine, Chicago.
Jacobs, Z., Wintle, A. G., Roberts, R. G., and Duller, G. A. T. (2008). Equivalent dose distributions of single grains of quartz at Sibudu, South Africa: context, causes and consequences for optical dating of archaeological deposits. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 1808–1820.
James, S. R. (1989). Hominid use of fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene. Current Anthropology 30, 1–11.
Jans, M. M. E., Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., Smith, C. I., Collins, M. J., and Kars, H. (2004). Characterisation of microbial attack on archaeological bone. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 87–95.
Jansma, M. J. (1982). Diatom analysis from some prehistoric sites in the coastal area of the Netherlands. Acta Geologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 25, 229–236.
Jansonius, J., and McGregor, D. C. (1996). Palynology: Principles and Applications. American Association for Palynology Foundation, College Station, TX.
Jodaikin, A., Weiner, S., and Traub, W. (1984). Enamel rod relations in the developing rat incisor. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 89, 324–332.
Johnson, B. J., and Miller, G. H. (1997). Archaeological applications of amino acid racemization. Archaeometry 39, 265–287.
Johnson, B. J., Miller, G. H., Fogel, M. L., and Beaumont, P. B. (1997). The determination of late Quaternary paleoenvironments at Equus cave, South Africa, using stable isotopes and amino acid racemization in ostrich eggshell. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 136, 121–137.
Johnson, B. J., Vogel, M. L., and Miller, G. H. (1998). Stable isotopes in modern ostrich eggshell: a calibration for modern paleoenvironmental applications in semi-arid regions of South Africa. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62, 2451–2461.
Jones, D., and Wilson, M. J. (1986). Biomineralization in crustose lichens. In: Biomineralization in Lower Plants and Animals (ed. Leadbeater, B. S. C. and Riding, R.), pp. 91–105. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Jones, J. D., and Vallentyne, J. R. (1960). Biogeochemistry of organic matter – I. Polypeptides and amino acids in fossils and sediments in relation to geothermometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 21, 1–34.
Jones, M. K., and Colledge, S. (2001). Archaeobotany and the transition to agriculture. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 393–401. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Jones, R. L., and Beavers, A. H. (1963). Some mineralogical and chemical properties of plant opal. Soil Science 96, 375–379.
Jowsey, J. (1961). Age changes in human bone. Clinical Orthopaedics 17, 210–218.
Kalish, J. M. (1991). Determinants of otolith chemistry: seasonal variation in the composition of blood plasma, endolymph and otoliths of bearded rock cod Pseudophycis barbatus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 74, 137–159.
Kandel, A. W., and Conard, N. J. (2005). Production sequences of ostrich eggshell beads and settlement dynamics in the Geelbek Dunes of the Western Cape, South Africa. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 1711–1721.
Karasik, A., and Smilansky, U. (2008). 3D scanning technology as a standard archaeological tool for pottery analysis: practice and theory. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 1148–1168.
Karkanas, P. (2007). Identification of lime plaster in prehistory using petrographic methods: a review and reconsideration of the data on the basis of experimental and case studies. Geoarchaeology 22, 775–796.
Karkanas, P., Bar-Yosef, O., Goldberg, P., and Weiner, S. (2000). Diagenesis in prehistoric caves: the use of minerals that form in situ to assess the completeness of the archaeological record. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 915–929.
Karkanas, P., Rigaud, J.-P., Simek, J., Albert, R., and Weiner, S. (2002). Ash, bones and guano: a study of the minerals and phytoliths in the sediments of Grotte XVI, Dordogne, France. Journal of Archaeological Science 29, 721–732.
Karkanas, P., Koumouzelis, M., Kozolowski, J. K., Sitlivy, V., Sobczyk, K., Berna, F., and Weiner, S. (2004). The earliest evidence for clay hearths: Aurignacian features in Klisoura Cave 1, southern Greece. Antiquity 78, 513–525.
Karkanas, P., Shahack-Gross, R., Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., Barkai, R., Frumkin, A., Gopher, A., and Stiner, M. C. (2007). Evidence for habitual use of fire at the end of the Lower Paleolithic: site formation processes at Qesem Cave, Israel. Journal of Human Evolution 53, 197–212.
Kastner, M., Keene, J. B., and Gieskes, J. M. (1977). Diagenesis of siliceous oozes – I. Chemical controls on the rate of opal-A to opal-CT transformation – an experimental study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41, 1041–1951.
Katz, E. P., and Li, S. (1973). Structure and function of bone collagen fibrils. Journal of Molecular Biology 80, 1–15.
Katzenberg, M. A. (1993). Age differences and population variation in stable isotope variations from Ontario, Canada. In: Prehistoric Human Bone: Archaeology at the Molecular Level (ed. Lambert, J. B. and Grupe, G.), pp. 39–62. Springer, Berlin.
Katzenburg, M. A., and Harrison, R. G. (1997). What's in a bone? Recent advances in archaeological bone chemistry. Journal of Archaeological Science 5, 265–293.
Kaufman, A., Broecker, W. S., Ku, T. L., and Thurber, D. L. (1971). The status of U-series methods of mollusc dating. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 35, 1155–1183.
Kelly, E. F., Amundson, R. G., Marino, B. D., and DeNiro, M. J. (1991). Stable isotope ratios in carbon in phytoliths as a quantitative method of monitoring vegetation and climate change. Quaternary Research 35, 222–233.
Kennish, M. J., and Olsson, R. K. (1975). Effects of thermal discharges on the microstructural growth of Mercenaria mercenaria. Environmental Geology 1, 41–64.
Kenyon, K. M. (1960). Archaeology in the Holy Land. Ernest Benn, London.
Kidwell, S. M., and Holland, S. M. (2002). The quality of the fossil record: implications for evolutionary analyses. Annual Review of Ecological Systematics 33, 561–588.
Kingery, W. D., Bowen, H. K., and Uhlmann, D. R. (1960). Introduction to Ceramics. John Wiley, New York.
Kingery, W. D., and Francl, J. (1954). Fundamental study of clay: XIII, drying behavior and plastic properties. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 37, 596–602.
Kingery, W. D., Vandiver, P. B., and Prickett, M. (1988). The beginnings of pyrotechnology, Part II: production and use of lime and gypsum plaster in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Near East. Journal of Field Archaeology 15, 219–244.
Kirchmann, H., and Witter, E. (1992). Composition of fresh, aerobic and anaerobic farm animal dungs. Bioresource Technology 40, 137–142.
Kitano, Y., and Hood, D. W. (1962). Calcium carbonate crystal forms formed from sea water by inorganic processes. Journal of the Oceanographic Society of Japan 18, 141–145.
Kittrick, J. (1977). Mineral equlibria in the soil system. In: Minerals in Soil Environments (ed. Dixon, J. and Weed, S.), pp. 1–25. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Klein, R. G., Kruz-Uribe, K., Halkett, D., Hart, T., and Parkington, J. E. (1999). Paleoenvironmental and human behavioral implications of the Boegoeberg 1 Late Pleistocene hyena den, northern Cape Province, South Africa. Quaternary Research 52, 393–403.
Knauth, L. P. (1994). Silica: physical behavior, geochemistry and materials applications. Reviews in Mineralogy 29, 233–258.
Knudson, K. J., Frink, L., Hoffman, B., and Price, T. D. (2004). Chemical characterization of Arctic soils: activity area analysis in contemporary Yup'ik fish camps using ICP-AES. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 443–456.
Koehl, M. A. R. (1982). Mechanical design of spicule-reinforced connective tissue: stiffness. Journal of Experimental Biology 98, 239–267.
Koon, H. E. C., Nicholson, R. A., and Collins, M. J. (2003). A practical approach to the identification of low temperature heated bone using TEM. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 1393–1399.
Koren, Z. C. (2005). The first optimal all-Murex all-natural purple dyeing in the eastern Mediterranean in a millennium and a half. In: Dyes in History and Archaeology, 20, 136–149. Archetype, London.
Kramer, C. (1982). Village Ethnoarchaeology. Academic Press, London.
Kramer, I. R. H. (1951). The distribution of collagen fibrils in the dentine matrix. British Dental Journal 91, 1–7.
Kriasakul, M., and Mitterer, R. M. (1978). Isoleucine epimerization in peptides and proteins: kinetic factors and applications to fossil proteins. Science 201, 1011–1014.
Kronick, P. L., and Cooke, P. (1996). Thermal stabilization of collagen fibers by calcification. Connective Tissue Research 33, 275–282.
Kühl, N., and Litt, T. (2003). Quantitative time series reconstruction of Eemian temperature at three European sites using pollen data. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 12, 205–214.
Labeyrie, J., and Delibrias, G. (1964). Dating of old mortars by the carbon-14 method. Nature, 742.
Lalueza Fox, C., Juan, J., and Albert, R. M. (1996). Phytolith analysis on dental calculus, enamel surface, and burial soil: information about diet and paleoenvironment. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 101, 101–113.
Lambert, J. B. (1997). Traces of the Past: Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology through Chemistry. Perseus Books, Reading, UK.
Lambert, J. B., Johnson, S. C., and Poinar, G. O. (1995). Resin from Africa and South America: criteria for distinguishing between fossilized and recent resin based on NMR spectroscopy. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 617, 193–202.
Lammie, D., Bain, M. M., and Wess, T. J. (2005). Microfocus X-ray scattering investigations of eggshell nanotexture. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 12, 721–726.
Lanning, F. C., and Eleuterius, L. N. (1992). Silica and ash in seeds of cultivated grains and native plants. Annals of Botany 69, 151–160.
Lanting, J. N., and Brindley, A. L. (1998). Dating cremated bone: the dawn of a new era. Journal of Irish Archaeology 9, 1–8.
Lanting, J. N., and Plicht, J. (1998). Reservoir effects and apparent 14C ages. Journal of Irish Archaeology 9, 151–165.
Lanting, J. N., Aerts-Bijma, A., and Plicht, H. (2001). Dating of cremated bones. Radiocarbon 43, 249–254.
Law, I. A., and Hedges, R. E. M. (1989). A semi-automated bone pretreatment of older and contaminated samples. Bone 31, 247–253.
Laws, R. M. (1952). A new method of age determination for mammals. Nature 169, 972.
Lee-Thorp, J. (2002). Two decades of progress towards understanding fossilization processes and isotopic signals in calcified minerals. Archaeometry 44, 435–446.
Lees, S. (1987). Considerations regarding the structure of the mammalian mineralized osteoid from viewpoint of the generalized packing model. Connective Tissue Research 16, 281–303.
Legeros, R. Z. (1991). Calcium Phosphates in Oral Biology and Medicine. Karger, Basel, Switzerland.
Legeros, R. Z., and Legeros, J. P. (1984). Phosphate minerals in human tissue. In: Phosphate Minerals (ed. Nriagu, J. O. and Moore, P. B.), pp. 351–385. Springer, Berlin.
Legeros, R. Z., Balmain, N., and Bonel, G. (1987). Age-related changes in mineral of rat and bovine cortical bone. Calcified Tissue International 41, 137–144.
Lehninger, A. L. (1982). Principles of Biochemistry. Worth, New York.
Lehr, J. R., McClellan, G. H., Smith, J. P., and Frasier, A. W. (1968). Characterization of apatites in commercial phosphate rocks. Coll. Int. Phosphates Mineraux Solides, Toulouse 2, 29–44.
Leny, L., and Casteel, R. W. (1975). Simplified procedure for examining charcoal specimens for identification. Journal of Archaeological Science 2, 153–159.
Leute, U. (1987). An Introduction to Physical Methods in Archaeology and History of Art. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
Levi-Kalisman, Y., Raz, S., Weiner, S., Addadi, L., and Sagi, I. (2001). XAS study of the structure of a biogenic “amorphous” calcium carbonate phase. Dalton Transactions 21, 3977–3982.
Lev-Yadun, S. (2007). Wood remains from archaeological excavations: a review with a Near Eastern perspective. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 56, 139–162.
Lewis, I. C. (1982). Chemistry of carbonization. Carbon 20, 519–529.
Libby, W. F., Anderson, E. C., and Arnold, J. R. (1949). Age determination by radiocarbon content: world-wide assay of natural radiocarbon. Science 109, 227–228.
Lieberman, D. E. (1993). Life history variables preserved in dental cementum microstructure. Science 261, 1162–1164.
Lieberman, D. E., and Meadow, R. H. (1992). The biology of cementum increments (with an archaeological application). Mammal Review 22, 57–77.
Lindroos, A., Heinemeier, J., Ringbom, A., Brasken, M., and Sveinbjornsdottir, A. (2007). Mortar dating using AMS C-14 and sequential dissolution: Examples from medieval, non-hydraulic lime mortars from the Aland Islands, SW Finland. Radiocarbon 49, 47–67.
Lippmann, F. (1973). Sedimentary Carbonate Minerals. Springer, Berlin.
Liritzis, I. (1994). A new dating method by thermoluminescence of carved megalithic stone building. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des sciences 319, 603–610.
Littmann, E. W. (1957). Ancient Mesoamerican mortars, plasters and stuccos: Comalcalco, Part I. American Antiquity 23, 135–140.
Liu, D., Wagner, H. D., and Weiner, S. (2000). Bending and fracture of compact circumferential and osteonal lamellar bone of the baboon tibia. Journal Material Sciences Material and Medicine 11, 49–60.
Liu, D., Weiner, S., and Wagner, H. D. (1999). Anisotropic mechanical properties of lamellar bone using miniature cantilever bending specimens. Journal of Biomechanics 32, 647–654.
Livingstone Smith, A. (2001). Bonefire II: the return of pottery firing temperatures. Journal of Archaeological Science 28, 991–1003.
Longinelli, A. (1965). Oxygen isotopic composition of orthophosphate from shells of living marine organisms. Nature 207, 716.
Longinelli, A. (1984). Oxygen isotopes in mammal bone phosphate: a new tool for paleohydrological and paleoclimatalogical research?Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 385–390.
Loucaidies, S., Cappellen, P., and Behrends, T. (2008). Dissolution of biogenic silica from land to ocean: role of salinity and pH. Limnology and Oceanography 53, 1614–1621.
Lowenstam, H. A., and Fitch, J. E. (1981). Vaterite formation of higher teleost fishes. Paper presented at the 62nd annual meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Lowenstam, H. A., and Weiner, S. (1989). On Biomineralization. Oxford University Press, New York.
Lozinski, J. (1973). Rare earth elements in fossil bones. Mineralogia Polonica 2, 29–35.
Lucas, P. W. (2004). Dental Functional Morphology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Luckenback, A. H., Holland, C. G., and Allen, R. O. (1975). Soapstone artifacts: tracing prehistoric trade patterns in Virginia. Science 187, 57–58.
Luke, C., Tycott, R. H., and Scott, R. W. (2006). Petrographic and stable isotope analyses of late classic Ulúa marble vases and potential sources. Archaeometry 48, 13–29.
Lux, A., Luxová, M., Hattori, T., Inanaga, S., and Sugimoto, Y. (2002). Silicification in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars with different drought resistance. Physiologia Plantarum 115, 87–92.
Luxán, M. P., Dorrego, F., and Laborde, A. (1995). Ancient gypsum mortars from St Engracia (Zaragoza, Spain): characterization, identification of additives and treatments. Cement and Concrete Research 25, 1755–1765.
Luz, B., and Kolodny, Y. (1989). Oxygen isotope variations in bone phosphate. Applied Geochemistry 4, 317–323.
Luz, B., Kolodny, Y., and Horowitz, M. (1984). Fractionation of oxygen isotopes between mammalian bone-phosphate and environmental drinking water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 1689–1693.
Maby, J. C. (1932). The identification of wood and wood charcoal fragments. Analyst 57, 2–8.
Macphail, R. I., Cruise, G. M., Allen, M. J., Linderholm, J., and Reynolds, P. (2004). Archaeological soil and pollen analysis of experimental floor deposits; with special reference to Butser Ancient Farm, Hampshire, UK. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 175–191.
Madejova, J. (2003). FTIR techniques in clay mineral studies. Vibrational Spectroscopy 31, 1–10.
Madella, M., Jones, M. K., Goldberg, P., Goren, Y., and Hovers, E. (2002). The exploitation of plant resources by Neanderthals in Amud Cave (Israel): the evidence from phytolith studies. Journal of Archaeological Science 29, 703–719.
Madella, M., Alexandre, A., and Ball, T. (2005). International code for phytolith nomenclature. Annals of Botany 96, 253–260.
Maggetti, M. (1982). Phase analysis and its significance for technology and origin. In: Archaeological Ceramics (ed. Olin, J. S. and Franklin, A. D.), pp. 121–133. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Mahamid, J., Sharir, A., Addadi, L., and Weiner, S. (2008). Amorphous calcium phosphate is a major component of the forming fin bones of zebrafish: indications for an amorphous precursor phase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 12748–12753.
Makarewicz, C., and Tuross, N. (2006). Foddering by Mongolian pastoralists is recorded in the stable carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d13N) isotopes of caprine dentinal collagen. Journal of Archaeological Science 33, 862–870.
Mangerud, J. (1972). Radiocarbon dating of marine shells, including a discussion of apparent age of recent shells from Norway. Boreas 1, 143–172.
Maniatis, Y., and Tite, M. S. (1981). Technological examination of Neolithic–Bronze Age pottery from central and southeast Europe and from the Near East. Journal of Archaeological Science 8, 59–76.
Mannion, A. M. (2007). Fossil diatoms and their significance in archaeological research. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 6, 131–147.
Marín-Arroyo, A. B., Fosse, P., and Vigne, J.-D. (2009). Probable evidences of bone accumulation by Pleistocene bearded vulture at the archaeological site of El Mirón Cave (Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 284–296.
Maritan, L., Mazzoli, C., and Freestone, I. (2007). Modeling changes in mollusc shell internal microstructure during firing: implications for temperature estimation in shell-bearing property. Archaeometry 49, 529–541.
Marshall, G. W., Habelitz, S., Gallagher, R., Balooch, M., Balooch, G., and Marshall, S. J. (2001). Nanomechanical properties of hydrated carious human dentin. Journal of Dental Research 80, 1768–1771.
Marxen, J. C., Becker, W., Finke, D., Hasse, B., and Epple, M. (2003). Early mineralization in Biomphalaria glabrata: microscopic and structural results. Journal of Molluscan Studies 69, 113–121.
Mason, B. (1958). Principles of Geochemistry. 3rd edition. John Wiley, New York.
Mata, M. P., Peacor, D. L., and Gallart-Marti, M. D. (2002). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) applied to ancient pottery. Archaeometry 44, 155–176.
Matthews, W., French, C., Lawrence, T., and Cutler, D. (1996). Multiple surfaces: the micromorphology. In: On the Surface: Catalhoyuk 1993–95 (ed. Hodder, I.), pp. 301–342. MacDonald Institute for Research and British Institute for Archaeology, Ankara, Cambridge.
Matthews, W., French, C. A. I., Lawrence, T., Cutler, D. F., and Jones, M. K. (1997). Microstratigraphic traces of site formation processes and human activities. World Archaeology 29, 281–308.
Mazar, A., Namdar, D., Panitz-Cohen, N., Neumann, R., and Weiner, S. (2008). Iron Age beehives in Tel Rehov in the Jordan Valley. Antiquity 82, 629–639.
Mbida, C. M., van Neer, W., Doutrelepont, H., and Vrydaghs, L. (2000). Evidence for banana cultivation and animal husbandry during the first millennium b.c. in the forest of southern Cameroon. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 151–162.
McConnell, D. (1952). The crystal chemistry of carbonate apatites and their relation to calcified tissues. Journal of Dental Research 31, 53–63.
McConnell, D. (1969). The mineralogy of the apatites and their relation to biologic precipitation. Proceedings of the North American Paleontological Convention, 1525–1535.
McDonnell, J. G. (2001). Pyrotechnology. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 493–505. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
McGeehin, J., Burr, G. S., Jull, A. J. T., Reines, D., Gosse, J., Davis, P. T., Muhs, D., and Southon, J. R. (2001). Stepped combustion 14C dating of sediment: a comparison with established techniques. Radiocarbon 43, 255–261.
McKinley, J. I., and Bond, J. M. (2001). Cremated bone. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 281–292. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
McNaughton, S. J., and Tarrants, J. L. (1983). Grass leaf silicification: natural selection for an inducible defense against herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 80, 790–791.
Meldrum, F. C., and Cölfen, H. (2008). Controlling mineral morphologies in biological and synthetic systems. Chemical Reviews 108, 4332–4432.
Mendelovici, E. (1997). Comparative study of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments on the structures of clay minerals. Journal of Thermal Analysis 49, 1385–1397.
Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Joron, J., Schiegl, S., Bar-Yosef, O., and Weiner, S. (1995). Thermoluminescence dating and the problem of geochemical evolution of sediments. Israel Journal of Chemistry 35, 137–141.
Mercier, N., Valladas, H., Froget, L., Joron, J.-L., Reyss, J.-L., Weiner, S., Goldberg, P., et al. (2007). Hayonim cave: a TL-based chronology for this Levantine Mousterian sequence. Journal Archaeological Science 24, 1064–1077.
Meredith, N., Sheriff, M., Setchell, D., and Sivanson, S. (1996). Measurements of the microhardness and Young's modulus of human enamel and dentin using an indentation technique. Archives of Oral Biology 41, 539–545.
Michel, V., Ildefonse, P., and Morin, G. (1996). Assessment of archaeological bone and dentine preservation from Lazaret Cave (Middle Pleistocene) in France. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 126, 109–119.
Middleton, J. (1844). On fluorine in bones, its source and its application to the determination of bone age. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London 4, 431–433.
Millard, A. R. (2000). A model for the effect of weaning on nitrogen isotope ratios in humans. In: Perspectives in Amino Acid and Protein Geochemistry (ed. Goodfriend, G. A., Collins, M. J., Fogel, M. L., Macko, S. A., and Wehmiller, J. F.), pp. 51–59. Oxford University Press, New York.
Miller, G. H., Beaumont, P. B., Jull, A. J. T., and Johnson, B. (1992). Pleistocene geochronology and paleothermometry from protein diagenesis in ostrich eggshells: implications for the evolution of modern humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 337, 149–157.
Miller, J. (1954). The microradiographic appearance of dentin. British Dental Journal 97, 7–9.
Miller, N. F. (1996). Seed eaters of the ancient Near East: human or herbivore?Current Anthropology 37, 521–528.
Miller Rosen, A., and Weiner, S. (1994). Identifying ancient irrigation: a new method using opaline phytoliths from emmer wheat. Journal of Archaeological Science 21, 125–132.
Milliman, J. D. (1974). Marine Carbonates. Springer, New York.
Mills, M. G. L., and Mills, M. E. J. (1977). An analysis of bones collected at hyaena breeding dens in the Gemsbok National Parks (Mammalia: Carnivora). Annals of the Transvaal Museum 30, 145–155.
Minnis, P. E. (1981). Seeds in archaeological sites: sources and some interpretive problems. American Antiquity 46, 143–152.
Mithen, S., Jenkins, E., Jamjoum, K., Niumat, S., Nortcliff, S., and Finlayson, B. (2008). Experimental crop growing in Jordan to develop methodology for the identification of ancient crop irrigation. World Archaeology 40, 7–25.
Moffat, D., and Butler, R. J. (1986). Rare earth element distribution patterns in Shetland steatite – consequences for artifact provenancing studies. Archaeometry 28, 101–115.
Moore, P. B. (1984). Crystallochemical aspects of the phosphate minerals. In: Phosphate Minerals (ed. Nriagu, J. O. and Moore, P. B.), pp. 155–170. Springer, Berlin.
Morariu, V. V., Bogdan, M., and Ardelean, I. (1977). Ancient pottery: its pore structure. Archaeometry 19, 187–192.
Morgenstein, M., and Redmount, C. A. (2005). Using portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for on-site analysis of ceramic sherds at El Hibeh, Egypt. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 1613–1623.
Moropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., and Bisbikou, K. (2000). Investigation of the technology of historic mortars. Journal of Cultural Heritage 1, 45–58.
Morris, R. W., and Kittleman, L. R. (1967). Piezoelectric properties of otoliths. Science 158, 368–370.
Müller, W., Fricke, H., Halliday, A. N., McCulloch, M. T., and Wartho, J. (2003). Origin and migration of the Alpine Iceman. Science 302, 862–866.
Murayama, E., Herbomel, P., Kayakami, A., Takeda, H., and Nagasawa, H. (2005). Otolith matrix proteins OMP-1 and Otolin-1 are necessary for normal otolith growth and their anchoring onto the sensory maculae. Mechanisms of Development 122, 791–803.
Namdar, D., Neumann, R., Sladezki, Y., Haddad, N., and Weiner, S. (2007). Alkane composition variations between darker and lighter colored comb beeswax. Apidologie 38, 453–461.
Namdar, D., Neumann, R., Goren, Y., and Weiner, S. (2009). The contents of unusual cone-shaped vessels (cornets) from the Chalcolithic of the Southern Levant. Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 629–636.
Nanci, A. (2003). Ten Cate's Oral Histology. 6th edition. Mosby, St. Louis, MO.
Nash, S. E. (1999). Time, Trees, and Prehistory. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Navazo, M., Colina, A., Domínguez-Bella, S., and Benito-Calvo, A. (2008). Raw stone material supply for Upper Pleistocene settlements in Sierra de Atapuerca (Buergos, Spain): flint characterization using petrographic and geochemical techniques. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 1961–1973.
Nesse, W. D. (1991). Introduction to Optical Mineralogy. Oxford University Press, New York.
Newesely, H. (1989). Fossil bone apatite. Applied Geochemistry 4, 233–245.
Nichols, G. J., Cripps, J. A., Collinson, M. E., and Scott, A. C. (2000). Experiments in waterlogging and sedimentology of charcoal: results and implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164, 43–56.
Nicholson, R. A. (1993). A morphological investigation of burnt animal bone and an evaluation of its utility in archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science 20, 411–428.
Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., and Hedges, R. E. M. (1997). Dissolution experiments on modern and diagenetically altered bone and their effects of the infrared splitting factor. Bulletin de Societe Geologique Francaise 168, 485–490.
Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., and Hedges, R. E. M. (1999). Bone porosity and the use of mercury intrusion porosimetry in bone diagenesis studies. Archaeometry 41, 165–174.
Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., Hedges, R. E. M., Mann, T., and Collins, M. J. (2000). A preliminary investigation of the application of differential scanning calorimetry to the study of collagen degradation in archaeological bone. Thermochimica Acta 365, 129–139.
Nielsen-Marsh, C. M., Gandhi, H., Shapiro, B., Cooper, A., Hauschka, P. V., and Collins, M. J. (2002). Sequence preservation of osteocalcin protein and mitochondrial DNA in bison bones older than 55 ka. Geology 30, 1099–1102.
Nocete, F., Álex, E., Nieto, J. M., Sáez, R., and Bayona, M. R. (2005). An archaeological approach to regional environmental pollution in the south-western Iberian Peninsula related to third millenium BC mining and metallurgy. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 1566–1576.
Noonan, J. P., Coop, G., Kudaravalli, S., Smith, D., Krause, J., Alessi, J., Chen, F., et al. (2006). Sequencing and analysis of Neanderthal genomic DNA. Science 314, 1113–1118.
Norris, E., Norris, C., and Steen, J. B. (1975). Regulation and grinding ability of grit in the gizzard of Norwegian Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus). Poultry Science 54, 1839–1843.
Norton, D. A., and Ogden, J. (1987). Dendrochronology: a review with emphasis on New Zealand applications. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 10, 77–95.
Nriagu, O. J. (1976). Phosphate-clay mineral relations in soils and sediments. Canadian Journal Earth Sciences 13, 717–736.
Nriagu, O. J. (1984). Phosphate minerals: their properties and general modes of occurrence. In: Phosphate Minerals (ed. Nriagu, J. O. and Moore, P. B.), pp. 1–136. Springer, Berlin.
Ntinou, M. (2002). Charcoal analysis at Sarakini: An ethnoarchaeological case study. In: El paisaje en el norte de Grecia desde el Tardiglaciar al Antlántico: Formaciones vegetales, Recursos y Usos. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1038, 115–129.
Nudelman, F., Chen, H. H., Goldberg, H. A., Weiner, S., and Addadi, L. (2007). Lessons from biomineralization: comparing the growth strategies of mollusk shell prismatic and nacreous layers in Atrina rigida. Faraday Discussions 136, 9–25.
Oades, J. M. (1989). An introduction to organic matter in mineral soils. In: Minerals in Soil Environments, vol. 1 (ed. Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B.), pp. 89–159. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.
Oakley, K. P. (1948). Fluorine and relative dating of bones. Advancement of Science 16, 336–337.
Oakley, K. P. (1970). On man's use of fire, with comments on tool-making and hunting. In: Social Life of Early Man (ed. Washburn, S. L.), pp. 176–193. Aldine, Chicago.
Oberlin, A. (1984). Carbonization and graphitization. Carbon 22, 521–541.
O'Connell, J. F. (1987). Alyawara site structure and its archaeological implications. American Antiquity 52, 74–108.
Odriozola, C. P., and Pérez, M. H. (2006). The manufacturing process of 3rd millennium BC bone based incrusted pottery decoration from the Middle Guadiana river basin (Badajoz, Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 1794–1803.
Olson, E. A., and Broecker, W. S. (1958). Sample contamination and reliability of radiocarbon dates. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series II 20, 593–604.
Olszta, M. J., Cheng, X., Jee, S. S., Kumar, R., Kim, Y.-Y., Kaufman, M. J., Douglas, E. P., and Gower, L. B. (2007). Bone structure and formation: a new perspective. Material Science and Engineering R 58, 77–116.
Orme, B. (1974). Twentieth-century prehistorians and the idea of ethnographic parallels. Man 9, 199–212.
Osawa, E., Hirose, Y., Kimura, A., and Shibuya, M. (1997). Fullerenes in Chinese ink: a correction. Fullerene Science and Technology 5, 177–194.
Ostwald, W. Z. (1879). Studies on the formation and transformation of solid phases. Physical Chemistry 22, 289–330.
Ostwald, W. Z. (1896). Lehrbruck der Allgemeinen Chemie. Leipzig, Germany.
Ozawa, T. (1965). A new method of analyzing thermogravimetric data. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 38, 1881–1886.
Pääbo, S. (1985). Molecular cloning of ancient Egyptian mummy DNA. Nature 314, 644–645.
Pääbo, S., Higuchi, R. G., and Wilson, A. C. (1989). Ancient DNA and the polymerase chain reaction: The emerging field of molecular archaeology. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264, 9709–9712.
Panella, G. (1971). Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns. Science 173, 1124–1126.
Panshin, A. J., and DeZeeuw, C. (1970). Textbook of Wood Technology. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Paris, O., Zollfrank, C., and Zickler, G. A. (2005). Decomposition and carbonisation of wood biopolymers – a microstructural study of soft wood pyrolysis. Carbon 43, 53–66.
Park, R., and Epstein, S. (1961). Metabolic fractionation of C12 & C13 in plants. Plant Physiology 36, 133–138.
Parker, F. S. (1971). Infrared Spectroscopy in Biochemistry, Biology, and Medicine. Plenum Press, New York.
Parker, R. B., and Toots, H. (1970). Minor elements in fossil bone. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 81, 925–932.
Peacock, D. P. S. (1967). The heavy mineral analysis of pottery: a preliminary report. Archaeometry 10, 97–100.
Pearsall, D. M. (1978). Phytolith analysis of archaeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative Ecuador. Science 199, 177–178.
Peregrine, P. N. (2004). Cross-cultural approaches in archaeology: comparative ethnology, comparative archaeology, and archaeoethnology. Journal of Archaeological Research 12, 281–309.
Perlman, I., and Asaro, F. (1969). Pottery analysis by neutron activation. Archaeometry 11, 21–52.
Pernicka, E., Begemann, F., Schmitt-Strecker, S., Todorova, H., and Kuleff, I. (1997). Prehistoric copper in Bulgaria: its composition and provenance. Eurasia Antiqua 3, 41–180.
Perry, C. C. (2003). Silicification: the process by which organisms capture and mineralize silica. In: Biomineralization: Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, vol. 54 (ed. Dove, P. M., DeYoreo, J. J., and Weiner, S.), pp. 291–327. Mineralogical Society of America / Geochemical Society, Washington, DC.
Person, A., Bocherens, H., Saliege, J. F., Paris, F., Zeitoun, V., and Gerard, M. (1995). Early diagenetic evolution of bone phosphate – an X-ray-diffractometry analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 22, 211–221.
Picon, M. (1976). Remarques préliminares sur deux types d'altération de la composition chimique des céramiques an cours du temps. Figlina 1, 159–166.
Pike, A. W. G., Hedges, R. E. M., and Calsteren, P. (2002). U-series dating of bone using the diffusion-adsorption model. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 66, 4273–4286.
Piperno, D. R. (1988). Phytolith Analysis: An Archaeological and Geological Perspective. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Piperno, D. R. (2006). Phytoliths: A Comprehensive Guide for Archaeologists and Paleoecologists. Altamira Press, Lanham, MD.
Piperno, D. R., Weiss, E., Holst, I., and Nadel, D. (2004). Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Paleolithic revealed by starch grain analysis. Nature 430, 670–673.
Plummer, T. W., Kinyua, A. M., and Potts, R. (1994). Provenancing of hominid and mammalian fossils from Kanjera, Kenya, using EDXRF. Journal of Archaeological Science 21, 553–563.
Pobeguin, T. (1943). Les oxalates de calcium chez quelques angiospermes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique 4, 1–95.
Pokroy, B., Qunitana, J. P., Caspi, E. N., Berner, A., and Zolotoyabko, E. (2004). Anisotropic lattice distortions in biogenic aragonite. Nature Materials 3, 900–902.
Politi, Y., Metzler, R. A., Abrecht, M., Gilbert, B., Wilt, F. H., Sagi, I., Addadi, L., Weiner, S., and Gilbert, P. U. P. A. (2008). Transformation mechanism of amorphous calcium carbonate into calcite in the sea urchin larval spicule. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 17362–17366.
Pollard, A. M., and Heron, C. (2008). Archaeological Chemistry. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.
Posner, A. S., Harper, R. A., and Muller, S. A. (1965). Age changes in the crystal chemistry of bone apatite. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 131, 737–742.
Post, P. W., and Donner, D. D. (2005). Frostbite in a pre-Columbian mummy. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 37, 187–191.
Prescott, J. R., and Robertson, G. B. (1997). Sediment dating by luminescence: a review. Radiation Measurements 27, 893–922.
Price, T. D., Grupe, G., and Schröter, P. (1994). Reconstruction of migration patterns in the Bell Beaker period by stable strontium isotope analysis. Applied Geochemistry 9, 413–417.
Price, T. D., Burton, J. H., and Bentley, R. A. (2002). The characterization of biologically available strontium isotope ratios for the study of prehistoric migration. Archaeometry 44, 117–135.
Priestley, J. (1770). Experiments and observations on charcoal. Philosophical Transactions 14, 211–227.
Qian, Y., Engel, M. H., Goodfriend, G. A., and Macko, S. A. (1995). Abundance and stable isotopic composition of amino acids in molecular weight fractions of fossil and artificially aged mollusk shells. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59, 1113–1124.
Quitmyer, I. R., and Jones, D. S. (1997). The sclerochronology of hard clams, Mercenaria spp., from the south eastern U.S.A.: a method for elucidating the zooarchaeological records of seasonal resource procurement and seasonality in prehistoric shell middens. Journal of Archaeological Science 24, 825–840.
Ramaswamy, K., and Kamalakkannan, M. (1995). Infrared study of the influence of temperature on clay minerals. Journal of Thermal Analysis 44, 629–638.
Rapp, G., and Hill, C. L. (1998). Geoarchaeology. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Rebollo, N. R., Cohen-Ofri, I., Popovitz-Biro, R., Bar-Yosef, O., Meignen, L., Goldberg, P., Weiner, S., and Boaretto, E. (2008). Structural characterization of charcoal exposed to high and low pH: implications for 14C sample preparation and charcoal preservation. Radiocarbon 50, 289–307.
Reiche, I., Vignaud, C., and Menu, M. (2002). The crystallinity of ancient bone and dentine: new insights by transmission electron microscopy. Archaeometry 44, 447–459.
Reiche, I., Favre-Quattropani, L., Vignaud, C., Bocherens, H., Charlet, L., and Menu, M. (2003). A multi-analytical study of bone diagenesis: the Neolithic site of Bercy (Paris, France). Measurement Science Technology 14, 1608–1619.
Reilly, P. (1989). Data visualization in archaeology. IBM Systems Journal 28, 569–570.
Reimer, P. J., Baillie, M. G. L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J. W., Bertrand, P. G., Blackwell, C. E., et al. (2004a). Radiocarbon calibration from 0–26 cal kyr BP. Radiocarbon 46, 1029–1058.
Reimer, P. J., Baillie, M. G. L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J. W., Bertrand, C., Blackwell, P. G., et al. (2004b). IntCal04:Calibration issue. Radiocarbon 46, 1029–1058.
Reinhard, K. J., and Danielson, D. R. (2005). Pervasiveness of phytoliths in prehistoric southwestern diet and implications for regional and temporal trends for dental microwear. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 981–988.
Renfrew, C., and Bahn, P. (1991). Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice. Thames and Hudson, London.
Renfrew, C., Dixon, J., and Cann, J. (1966). Obsidian and early cultural contact in the Near East. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 32, 30–72.
Rey, C., Collins, B., Goehl, T., Dickson, I. R., and Glimcher, M. J. (1989). The carbonate environment in bone mineral: a resolution-enhanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study. Calcified Tissue International 45, 157–164.
Rey, C., Renugopalakrishnan, V., Collins, B., and Glimcher, M. J. (1991). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of the carbonate ions in bone mineral during aging. Calcified Tissue International 49, 251–258.
Rey, C., Miquel, J. L., Facchini, L., Legrand, A. P., and Glimcher, M. J. (1995). Hydroxyl groups in bone mineral. Bone 16, 583–586.
Rheren, T., and Pernicka, E. (2007). Coins, artefacts and isotopes – archaeometallurgy and archaeometry. Archaeometry 50, 232–248.
Rhoads, D. C., and Lutz, R. A. (1980). Skeletal Growth of Aquatic Organisms. Plenum Press, New York.
Rhode, D. (2003). Coprolites from Hidden Cave revisited: evidence for site occupation history, diet and sex of occupants. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 909–922.
Rice, P. (1987). Pottery Analysis: A Source Book. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Righi, D., and Meunier, A. (1995). Origin of clays by rock weathering and soil formation. In: Origin and Mineralogy of Clays and the Environment (ed. Velde, B.), pp. 43–161. Springer, Berlin.
Riley, T. (2008). Diet and seasonality in the Lower Pecos: evaluating coprolite data sets with cluster analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 2726–2741.
Rink, W. J., Schwarcz, H. P., Weiner, S., Goldberg, P., Stiner, M. C., Meignen, L., and Bar-Yosef, O. (2004). Age of the Mousterian industry at Hayonim Cave, northern Israel, using electron spin resonance and 230Th/234U methods. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 953–964.
Robbins, L. H. (1973). Turkana material culture viewed from an archaeological perspective. World Archaeology 5, 209–214.
Robinson, R. A. (1952). An electron microscopy study of the crystalline inorganic components of bone and its relationship to the organic matrix. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 34, 389–434.
Robinson, R. A. (1979). Bone tissue: composition and function. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal 145, 10–24.
Rogers, A. K. (2008). Obsidian hydration dating: accuracy and resolution limitations imposed by intrinsic water variability. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 2009–2016.
Rollo, F., Ermini, L., Luciani, S., Marota, I., Olivieri, C., and Luiselli, D. (2006). Fine characterization of the Iceman's mtDNA haplogroup. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130, 557–564.
Rosen, A. (1986). Cities of Clay – The Geoarchaeology of Tells. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Rosen, A. M. (1987). Phytolith studies at Shiqmim. In: Shiqmim I: Studies Concerning Chalcolithic Societies in the Northern Negev Desert, Israel (1982–1984) (ed. T. E. Levy). British Archaeological Reports International Series 356, 243–249.
Rosen, A. M. (1992). Preliminary identification of silica skeletons from Near Eastern archaeological sites. In: Phytolith Systematics: Emerging Issues (ed. Rapp, G. and Mulholland, S. C.), pp. 129–147. Plenum Press, New York.
Rosen, A. M., and Weiner, S. (1994). Identifying ancient irrigation: a new method using opaline phytoliths from emmer wheat. Journal of Archaeological Science 21, 125–132.
Russ, J., Hyman, M., Shafer, H. J., and Rowe, M. W. (1990). Radiocarbon dating of prehistoric rock paintings by selective oxidation of organic carbon. Nature 348, 710–711.
Rypkema, H. A., Lee, W. E., Galaty, M. L., and Haws, J. (2007). Rapid, in-stride soil phosphate measurement in archaeological survey: a new method tested in Loudoun County, Virginia. Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 1859–1867.
Sahin, N. (2004). Isolation and characterization of mesophilic, oxalate-degrading Streptomyces from plany rhizosphere and forest soils. Naturwissenschaften 91, 498–502.
Salamon, M., Tuross, N., Arensburg, B., and Weiner, S. (2005). Relatively well preserved DNA is present in the crystal aggregates of fossil bones. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 13783–13788.
Saleh, N., Deutsch, D., and Gil-Av, E. (1993). Racemization of aspartic acid in the extracellular matrix proteins of primary and secondary dentin. Calcified Tissue International 53, 103–110.
Sangster, A. G., and Parry, D. W. (1969). Some factors in relation to bulliform cell silicification in the grass leaf. Annals of Botany 33, 315–323.
Sangster, A. G., and Parry, D. W. (1981). Ultrastructure of silica deposits in higher plants. In: Silicon and Siliceous Structures in Biological Systems (ed. Simpson, T. L. and Volcani, B. E.), pp. 383–407. Springer, New York.
Sanson, G. D., Kerr, S. A., and Gross, K. A. (2006). Do silica phytoliths really wear mammalian teeth?Journal of Archaeological Science 34, 526–531.
Saxon, A., and Higham, C. (1969). A new research method for economic prehistorians. American Antiquity 34, 303–311.
Sayre, E. V., and Dodson, R. W. (1957). Neutron activation study of Mediterranean potsherds. American Journal of Archaeology 61, 35–41.
Scheffer, T. C., and Cowling, E. B. (1966). Natural resistance of wood to microbial deterioration. Annual Review of Phytopathology 4, 147–170.
Schieber, J., Krinsley, D., and Riciputi, L. (2000). Diagenetic origin of quartz silt in mudstones and implications for silica cycling. Nature 406, 981–985.
Schiegl, S., Lev-Yadun, S., Bar-Yosef, S., El Goresy, A., and Weiner, S. (1994). Siliceous aggregates from prehistoric wood ash: a major component of sediments in Kebara and Hayonim caves (Israel). Israel Journal Earth Sciences 43, 267–278.
Schiegl, S., Goldberg, P., Bar-Yosef, O., and Weiner, S. (1996). Ash deposits in Hayonim and Kebara caves, Israel: macroscopic, microscopic and mineralogical observations, and their archaeological implications. Journal Archaeological Science 23, 763–781.
Schiegl, S., Goldberg, P., Pfretzschner, H. U., and Conard, N. J. (2003). Paleolithic burnt bone horizons from the Swabian Jura: distinguishing between in situ fire places and dumping areas. Geoarchaeology 18, 541–565.
Schiffer, M. B. (1983). Toward the identification of formation processes. American Antiquity 48, 675–706.
Schiffer, M. B. (1986). Radiocarbon dating and the “old wood” problem: the case of the Hohokam chronology. Journal of Archaeological Science 13, 13–30.
Schiffer, M. B. (1987). Formation Processes of the Archaeological Record. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Schmidt, M., Botz, R., Rickert, D., Bohrmann, G., Hall, S. R., and Mann, S. (2001). Oxygen isotopes of marine diatoms and relations to opal-A maturation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, 201–211.
Schmidt, M. W. I., Skjemstad, J. O., and Jäger, C. (2002). Carbon isotope geochemistry and nanomorphology of soil black carbon: black chernozemic soils in central Europe originate from ancient biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16, 70–1–70-8.
Schmidt, W. J. (1936). Uber die Kristallorientierung im Zahnschmelz. Naturwissenschaften 24, 361.
Schoeninger, M. J. (1979). Diet and status at Chalcatzingo: some empirical and technical aspects of strontium analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 51, 295–310.
Schoeninger, M. J., and DeNiro, M. J. (1984). Nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 625–639.
Schubert, P. (1986). Petrographic modal analysis – a necessary complement to chemical analysis of ceramic course ware. Archaeometry 28, 163–178.
Schultz, T. P., Curry Templeton, M., and McGinnis, G. D. (1985). Rapid determination of lignocellulose by diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry 57, 2867–2869.
Schurr, M. R., and Gregory, D. A. (2002). Fluoride dating of faunal materials by ion-selective electrode: high resolution relative dating at an early agricultural period site in the Tucson basin. Antiquity 67, 281–299.
Schwarcz, H. P. (1980). Absolute age determination of archaeological sites by uranium series dating of travertines. Archaeometry 22, 3–24.
Schwarcz, H. P., and Grün, R. (1992). Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of the origin of modern man. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 337, 145–148.
Schwarcz, H. P., and Rink, W. J. (2001). Dating methods for sediments of caves and rockshelters with examples from the Mediterranean region. Geoarchaeology 16, 355–371.
Schwedt, A., and Mommsen, H. (2007). On the influence of drying and firing of clay on the formation of trace element profiles within pottery. Archaeometry 49, 495–509.
Schwedt, A., Mommsen, H., and Zacharias, N. (2004). Post-depositional elemental alterations in pottery: Neutron activation analyses of core and surface samples. Archaeometry 46, 85–101.
Scott, A. C. (2000). The pre-Quaternary history of fire. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 164, 281–329.
Scott, E. M., Bryant, C., Cook, G. T., and Naysmith, P. (2003). Is there a fifth radiocarbon international intercomparison (VIRI)?Radiocarbon 45, 493–495.
Scurfield, G., and Michell, A. J. (1973). Crystals in woody stems. Botanical Journal of the Linnaen Society 66, 277–289.
Scurfield, G., Anderson, C. A., and Segnit, E. R. (1974). Silica in woody stems. Australian Journal of Botany 22, 211–229.
Sealy, J. (2001). Body tissue chemistry and paleodiet. In: Handbook of Archaeological Sciences (ed. Brothwell, D. R. and Pollard, A. M.), pp. 269–279. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Segal, I., Nathan, Y., Zbenovich, B., and Barzilay, E. (2005). Geochemical characterization of flint and chert artifacts from the Modi'in area. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences 54, 229–236.
Shahack-Gross, R., and Finkelstein, I. (2008). Subsistence practices in an arid environment: a geoarchaeological investigation in an Iron Age site, the Negev Highlands, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 965–982.
Shahack-Gross, R., Shemesh, A., Yakir, D., and Weiner, S. (1996). Oxygen isotopic composition of opaline phytoliths: potential for terrestrial climatic reconstruction. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, 3949–3953.
Shahack-Gross, R., Bar-Yosef, O., and Weiner, S. (1997). Black-colored bones in Hayonim Cave, Israel: differentiating between burning and oxide staining. Journal of Archaeological Science 24, 439–446.
Shahack-Gross, R., Marshall, F., and Weiner, S. (2003). Geo-ethnoarchaeology of pastoral sites: the identification of livestock enclosures in abandoned Maasai settlements. Journal of Archaeological Science 30, 439–459.
Shahack-Gross, R., Berna, F., Karkanas, P., and Weiner, S. (2004). Bat guano and preservation of archaelogical remains in cave sites. Journal of Archaeological Science 31, 1259–1272.
Shahack-Gross, R., Albert, R. M., Gilboa, A., Nagar-Hilman, O., Sharon, I., and Weiner, S. (2005). Geoarchaeology in an urban context: the uses of space in a Phoenician monumental building at Tel Dor (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 1417–1431.
Shahack-Gross, R., Ayalon, A., Goldberg, P., Goren, Y., Ofek, B., Rabinovich, R., and Hovers, E. (2008). Formation processes of cemented features in karstic cave sites revealed using stable oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses: a case study at Middle Paleolithic Amud Cave, Israel. Geoarchaeology 23, 43–62.
Shemesh, A. (1990). Crystallinity and diagenesis of sedimentary apatites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54, 2433–2438.
Shimoda, S., Aoba, T., Moreno, E. C., and Miake, Y. (1990). Effect of solution composition on morphological and structural features of carbonated calcium apatites. Journal of Dental Research 69, 1731–1740.
Shipman, P., Foster, G. F., and Schoeninger, M. (1984). Burnt bones and teeth: an experimental study of colour, morphology, crystal structure and shrinkage. Journal of Archaeological Science 11, 307–325.
Shoval, S. (1993). The burning temperature of a Persian-period pottery kiln at Tel Michal, Israel, estimated from the composition of slag-like material formed in its wall. Journal of Thermal Analysis 39, 1157–1168.
Shoval, S., Ginott, Y., and Nathan, Y. (1991). A new method for measuring the crystallinity index of quartz by infrared spectroscopy. Mineralogical Magazine 55, 579–582.
Shoval, S., Graft, M., Beck, P., and Kirsh, Y. (1993). Thermal behavior of limestone and monocrystalline calcite tempers during firing and their use in ancient vessels. Journal of Thermal Analysis 40, 263–273.
Shoval, S., Yofe, O., and Nathan, Y. (2003). Distinguishing between natural and recarbonated calcite in oil shales. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 71, 883–892.
Siani, G., Paterne, M., Michel, E., Sulpizio, R., Sbrana, A., Arnold, M., and Haddad, G. (2001). Mediterranean sea surface radiocarbon reservoir age changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Science 294, 1917–1920.
Sillen, A. (1991). Solubility profiles of synthetic apatites and of modern and fossil bones. Journal of Archaeological Science 18, 385–397.
Sillen, A., and Smith, P. (1984). Weaning patterns are reflected in strontium-calcium ratios of juvenile skeletons. Journal of Archaeological Science 11, 237–245.
Sillen, A., Hall, G., and Armstrong, R. (1998). 87Sr/86Sr ratios in modern and fossil food-webs of the Sterkfontian Valley: implications for early hominid habitat preference. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 62, 2463–2478.
Simkiss, K. (1968). The structure and formation of the shell and shell membranes. In: Egg Quality: A Study of the Hen's Egg (ed. Carter, T. C.), pp. 3–25. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh.
Simkiss, K., and