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  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: September 2012



The following appendix contains two hundred terms used for the comparison of the languages within the North Eastern Sudanic (NES) language group. It is not limited to a list of cognates but facilitates an etymology of each term. The reconstructed forms of each group within North Eastern Sudanic are also provided and are the result of comparisons a full discussion of which is beyond the scope of this volume but can be found in Rilly (2010:420–529).

The reconstructions for proto-NES are of three kinds. Level Ⓐ is based on three branches: Eastern (which includes Nara and Nubian), Taman, and Nyima. The second level, Ⓑ, uses only two of these branches, while the third level, Ⓒ, is reconstructed only with the help of the Eastern Group.

The entries under Nara were taken from Reinisch ( 1874 ), Thompson ( 1976 ), Bender ( 1968 ), Hayward ( 2000 ), or Abushush & Hayward (2002) or collected by Claude Rilly in 2006. Where appropriate their reference is added using the initial(s) of their name: R, T, B, H, AH, and CR, respectively. Tones on liquids such as /l/, as suggested by Hayward, are written after the sign (e.g., l´). The various dialectal differences, if known, are indicated with a lowercase initial: h (Higir), m (Mogoreeb), k (Koyta), and s (Saantoorta). Most of these differences were collected by Claude Rilly with informants in Eritrea and France.