Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: September 2013

Chapter 27 - Surgery in the patient with renal disease

from Section 8 - Renal disease

Summary

Introduction

Kidney disease encompasses a wide spectrum of disorders, ranging from those with normal glomerular filtration rates (GFR) but with urinary abnormalities (nephrotic syndrome or nephritic syndrome), to those with GFR impairments. Patients with a long-standing history (months to years) of renal disease are deemed to have chronic kidney disease (CKD). A staging system has been developed by the National Kidney Foundation to categorize CKD by GFR levels: Stage 1 (GFR ≥ 90 mL/min, but with persistent urinary abnormalities such as proteinuria); Stage 2, mild CKD (GFR 60–89 mL/min); Stage 3, moderate CKD (GFR 30–59 mL/min); Stage 4, severe CKD (GFR 15–29 mL/min); and finally Stage 5, kidney failure or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (GFR < 15 mL/min or on some form of renal replacement therapy). There is clinical rationale in dividing CKD into these stages; patients with more advanced stages, especially those at stage 3 or higher, have higher rates of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalizations [1]. In contrast to established kidney disease, acute kidney injury (AKI), previously termed “acute renal failure,” reflects renal dysfunction that arises in the span of hours to days. AKI can develop in those with previously normal kidney function or can be superimposed upon existing CKD. More advanced CKD stages 3 through 5 and AKI are most commonly associated with perioperative complications, and these patients will be the focus of this chapter.

References
Go, AS, Chertow, GM, Fan, D et al. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1296–305.
US Renal Data System, USRDS 2010 Annual Data Report. Atlas of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States; 2011.
Coresh, J, Selvin, E, Stevens, LA et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. J Am Med Assoc 2007; 298: 2038–47.
Hsu, CY, Chertow, GM, McCulloch, CE et al. Nonrecovery of kidney function and death after acute on chronic renal failure. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 891–8.
Lo, LJ, Go, AS, Chertow, GM et al. Dialysis-requiring acute renal failure increases the risk of progressive chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2009; 76: 893–9.
Kellerman, PS.Perioperative care of the renal patient. Arch Intern Med 1994; 154: 1674–88.
Bechtel, JF, Detter, C, Fischlein, T et al. Cardiac surgery in patients on dialysis: decreased 30-day mortality, unchanged overall survival. Ann Thorac Surg 2008; 85: 147–53.
Rahmanian, PB, Adams, DH, Castillo, JG et al. Early and late outcome of cardiac surgery in dialysis-dependent patients: single-center experience with 245 consecutive patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 135: 915–22.
Thourani, VH, Sarin, EL, Kilgo, PD et al. Short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing valve surgery with end-stage renal failure receiving chronic hemodialysis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012; 144: 117–23.
Diez, C, Mohr, P, Kuss, O et al. Impact of preoperative renal dysfunction on in-hospital mortality after solitary valve and combined valve and coronary procedures. Ann Thorac Surg 2009; 87: 731–6.
Howell, NJ, Keogh, BE, Bonser, RS et al. Mild renal dysfunction predicts in-hospital mortality and post-discharge survival following cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2008; 34: 390–5; discussion 395.
Eknoyan, G, Beck, GJ, Cheung, AK et al. Effect of dialysis dose and membrane flux in maintenance hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2002; 347(25): 2010–19.
Wang, AY, Lam, CW, Chan, IH et al. Sudden cardiac death in end-stage renal disease patients: a 5-year prospective analysis. Hypertension 2010; 56: 210–16.
Wanner, C, Krane, V, Marz, W et al. Atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 238–48.
Goldenberg, I, Moss, AJ, McNitt, S et al. Relations among renal function, risk of sudden cardiac death, and benefit of the implanted cardiac defibrillator in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Am J Cardiol 2006; 98: 485–90.
Pun, PH, Smarz, TR, Honeycutt, EF et al. Chronic kidney disease is associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death among patients with coronary artery disease. Kidney Int 2009; 76: 652–8.
Herzog, CA, Littrell, K, Arko, C et al. Clinical characteristics of dialysis patients with acute myocardial infarction in the United States: a collaborative project of the United States Renal Data System and the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction. Circulation 2007; 116: 1465–72.
Sosnov, J, Lessard, D, Goldberg, RJ et al. Differential symptoms of acute myocardial infarction in patients with kidney disease: a community-wide perspective. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47: 378–84.
Rostand, SG, Brunzell, JD, Cannon, RO et al. Cardiovascular complications in renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 1991; 2: 1053–62.
Rostand, SG, Kirk, KA, Rutsky, EA.Dialysis-associated ischemic heart disease: insights from coronary angiography. Kidney Int 1984; 25: 653–9.
Rostand, SG, Kirk, KA, Rutsky, EA.The epidemiology of coronary artery disease in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: implications for management. Contrib Nephrol 1986; 52: 34–41.
Schmidt, A, Stefenelli, T, Schuster, E et al. Informational contribution of noninvasive screening tests for coronary artery disease in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37: 56–63.
Foley, RN, Parfrey, PS, Harnett, JD et al. Clinical and echocardiographic disease in patients starting end-stage renal disease therapy. Kidney Int 1995; 47: 186–92.
Foley, RN, Parfrey, PS, Sarnak, MJ.Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9 (12 Suppl): S16–23.
Nally, JV. Cardiac disease in chronic uremia: investigation. Adv Ren Replace Ther 1997; 4: 225–33.
Agarwal, R.Blood pressure and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Hypertension 2010; 55: 762–8.
Isbel, NM, Haluska, B, Johnson, DW et al. Increased targeting of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease does not improve atheroma burden or cardiovascular function. Am Heart J 2006; 151: 745–53.
Karthikeyan, V, Ananthasubramaniam, K.Coronary risk assessment and management options in chronic kidney disease patients prior to kidney transplantation. Curr Cardiol Rev 2009; 5: 177–86.
West, JC, Napoliello, DA, Costello, JM et al. Preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography versus cardiac arteriography for risk assessment prior to renal transplantation. Transpl Int 2000; 13 (Suppl 1): S27–30.
Le, A, Wilson, R, Douek, K et al. Prospective risk stratification in renal transplant candidates for cardiac death. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 24: 65–71.
Dahan, M, Viron, BM, Poiseau, E et al. Combined dipyridamole-exercise stress echocardiography for detection of myocardial ischemia in hemodialysis patients: an alternative to stress nuclear imaging. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 737–44.
Holley, JL, Fenton, RA, Arthur, RS.Thallium stress testing does not predict cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation. Am J Med 1991; 90: 563–70.
Marwick, TH, Steinmuller, DR, Underwood, DA et al. Ineffectiveness of dipyridamole SPECT thallium imaging as a screening technique for coronary artery disease in patients with end-stage renal failure. Transplantation 1990; 49: 100–3.
Mistry, BM, Bastani, B, Solomon, H et al. Prognostic value of dipyridamole thallium-201 screening to minimize perioperative cardiac complications in diabetics undergoing kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation. Clin Transplant 1998; 12: 130–5.
Manske, CL, Thomas, W, Wang, Y et al. Screening diabetic transplant candidates for coronary artery disease: identification of a low risk subgroup. Kidney Int 1993; 44: 617–21.
McFalls, EO, Ward, HB, Moritz, TE et al. Coronary-artery revascularization before elective major vascular surgery. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2795–804.
Poldermans, D, Schouten, O, Vidakovic, R et al. A clinical randomized trial to evaluate the safety of a noninvasive approach in high-risk patients undergoing major vascular surgery: the DECREASE-V Pilot Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 49: 1763–9.
Fleisher, LA, Beckman, JA, Brown, KA et al. ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and care for noncardiac surgery: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines on Perioperative Cardiovascular Evaluation for Noncardiac Surgery) developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, and Society for Vascular Surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50: 1707–32.
Cohen, MC, Aretz, TH.Histological analysis of coronary artery lesions in fatal postoperative myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Pathol 1999; 8: 133–9.
Poldermans, D, Boersma, E, Bax, JJ et al. Correlation of location of acute myocardial infarct after noncardiac vascular surgery with preoperative dobutamine echocardiographic findings. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88: 1413–14, A6.
Abe, S, Yoshizawa, M, Nakanishi, N et al. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients receiving hemodialysis. Am Heart J 1996; 131: 1137–44.
Sharma, R, Pellerin, D, Gaze, DC et al. Dobutamine stress echocardiography and the resting but not exercise electrocardiograph predict severe coronary artery disease in renal transplant candidates. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 2207–14.
Brown, KA, Rimmer, J, Haisch, C.Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography. Am J Cardiol 1989; 64: 1017–21.
Cottier, C, Pfisterer, M, Muller-Brand, J et al. Cardiac evaluation of candidates for kidney transplantation: value of exercise radionuclide angiocardiography. Eur Heart J 1990; 11: 832–8.
Iqbal, A, Gibbons, RJ, McGoon, MD et al. Noninvasive assessment of cardiac risk in insulin-dependent diabetic patients being evaluated for pancreatic transplantation using thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Clin Transplant 1991; 5: 13–19.
Morrow, CE, Schwartz, JS, Sutherland, DE et al. Predictive value of thallium stress testing for coronary and cardiovascular events in uremic diabetic patients before renal transplantation. Am J Surg 1983; 146: 331–5.
Philipson, JD, Carpenter, BJ, Itzkoff, J et al. Evaluation of cardiovascular risk for renal transplantation in diabetic patients. Am J Med 1986; 81: 630–4.
Suki, WN.Use of diuretics in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int Suppl 1997; 59: S33–5.
Vandenberg, BF, Rossen, JD, Grover-McKay, M et al. Evaluation of diabetic patients for renal and pancreas transplantation: noninvasive screening for coronary artery disease using radionuclide methods. Transplantation 1996; 62: 1230–5.
Boudreau, RJ, Strony, JT, duCret, RP et al. Perfusion thallium imaging of type I diabetes patients with end stage renal disease: comparison of oral and intravenous dipyridamole administration. Radiology 1990; 175: 103–5.
Trochu, JN, Cantarovich, D, Renaudeau, J et al. Assessment of coronary artery disease by thallium scan in type-1 diabetic uremic patients awaiting combined pancreas and renal transplantation. Angiology 1991; 42: 302–7.
Bates, JR, Sawada, SG, Segar, DS et al. Evaluation using dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus before kidney and/or pancreas transplantation. Am J Cardiol 1996; 77: 175–9.
De Lima, JJ, Sabbaga, E, Vieira, ML et al. Coronary angiography is the best predictor of events in renal transplant candidates compared with noninvasive testing. Hypertension 2003; 42: 263–8.
Herzog, CA, Marwick, TH, Pheley, AM et al. Dobutamine stress echocardiography for the detection of significant coronary artery disease in renal transplant candidates. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 1080–90.
Reis, G, Marcovitz, PA, Leichtman, AB et al. Usefulness of dobutamine stress echocardiography in detecting coronary artery disease in end-stage renal disease. Am J Cardiol 1995; 75: 707–10.
Tita, C, Karthikeyan, V, Stroe, A et al. Stress echocardiography for risk stratification in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing renal transplantation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2008; 21: 321–6.
Hase, H, Tsunoda, T, Tanaka, Y et al. Risk factors for de novo acute cardiac events in patients initiating hemodialysis with no previous cardiac symptom. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 1142–8.
Siedlecki, A, Foushee, M, Curtis, JJ et al. The impact of left ventricular systolic dysfunction on survival after renal transplantation. Transplantation 2007; 84: 1610–17.
Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative meta-analysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. Br Med J 2002; 324(7329): 71–86.
Greenberg, A.Diuretic complications. Am J Med Sci 2000; 319: 10–24.
Inoue, M, Okajima, K, Itoh, K et al. Mechanism of furosemide resistance in analbuminemic rats and hypoalbuminemic patients. Kidney Int 1987; 32: 198–203.
Akcicek, F, Yalniz, T, Basci, A et al. Diuretic effect of frusemide in patients with nephrotic syndrome: is it potentiated by intravenous albumin?Br Med J 1995; 310(6973): 162–3.
Chalasani, N, Gorski, JC, Horlander, JC et al. Effects of albumin/furosemide mixtures on responses to furosemide in hypoalbuminemic patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 1010–16.
Fliser, D, Zurbruggen, I, Mutschler, E et al. Coadministration of albumin and furosemide in patients with the nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 629–34.
Gentilini, P, Casini-Raggi, V, Di Fiore, G et al. Albumin improves the response to diuretics in patients with cirrhosis and ascites: results of a randomized, controlled trial. J Hepatol 1999; 30: 639–45.
Brunkhorst, FM, Engel, C, Bloos, F et al. Intensive insulin therapy and pentastarch resuscitation in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 125–39.
Bunn, F, Trivedi, D, Ashraf, S.Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 1: CD001319.
Perel, P, Roberts, I.Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4: CD000567.
Schortgen, F, Girou, E, Deye, N et al. The risk associated with hyperoncotic colloids in patients with shock. Intensive Care Med 2008; 34: 2157–68.
Westphal, M, James, MF, Kozek-Langenecker, S et al. Hydroxyethyl starches: different products – different effects. Anesthesiology 2009; 111: 187–202.
Auerbach, AD, Goldman, L.Beta-blockers and reduction of cardiac events in noncardiac surgery: scientific review. J Am Med Assoc 2002; 287: 1435–44.
Mangano, DT, Layug, EL, Wallace, A et al. Effect of atenolol on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity after noncardiac surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1713–20.
Poldermans, D, Boersma, E, Bax, JJ et al. The effect of bisoprolol on perioperative mortality and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery. Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1789–94.
Devereaux, PJ, Beattie, WS, Choi, PT et al. How strong is the evidence for the use of perioperative beta blockers in non-cardiac surgery? Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br Med J 2005; 331: 313–21.
Juul, AB, Wetterslev, J, Gluud, C et al. Effect of perioperative beta blockade in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery: randomised placebo controlled, blinded multicentre trial. Br Med J 2006; 332: 1482.
Devereaux, PJ, Yang, H, Yusuf, S et al. Effects of extended-release metoprolol succinate in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (POISE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008; 371(9627): 1839–47.
Arora, P, Rajagopalam, S, Ranjan, R et al. Preoperative use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers is associated with increased risk for acute kidney injury after cardiovascular surgery. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 1266–73.
Comfere, T, Sprung, J, Kumar, MM et al. Angiotensin system inhibitors in a general surgical population. Anesth Analg 2005; 100: 636–44.
Coriat, P, Richer, C, Douraki, T et al. Influence of chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on anesthetic induction. Anesthesiology 1994; 81: 299–307.
Raja, SG, Fida, N.Should angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor antagonists be omitted before cardiac surgery to avoid postoperative vasodilation?Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2008; 7: 470–5.
Marik, PE, Varon, J.Perioperative hypertension: a review of current and emerging therapeutic agents. J Clin Anesth 2009; 21: 220–9.
Yee, J, Parasuraman, R, Narins, RG.Selective review of key perioperative renal-electrolyte disturbances in chronic renal failure patients. Chest 1999; 115 (5 Suppl): 149S–57S.
Rindone, JP, Sloane, EP.Cyanide toxicity from sodium nitroprusside: risks and management. Ann Pharmacother 1992; 26: 515–19.
Chang, TI, Paik, J, Greene, T et al. Intradialytic hypotension and vascular access thrombosis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 1526–33.
Burke, JF, Francos, GC.Surgery in the patient with acute or chronic renal failure. Med Clin North Am 1987; 71: 489–97.
Bia, MJ, DeFronzo, RA.Extrarenal potassium homeostasis. Am J Physiol 1981; 240: F257–68.
Einhorn, LM, Zhan, M, Hsu, VD et al. The frequency of hyperkalemia and its significance in chronic kidney disease. Arch Intern Med 2009; 169: 1156–62.
Salem, MM, Rosa, RM, Batlle, DC.Extrarenal potassium tolerance in chronic renal failure: implications for the treatment of acute hyperkalemia. Am J Kidney Dis 1991; 18: 421–40.
Martin, RS, Panese, S, Virginillo, M et al. Increased secretion of potassium in the rectum of humans with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 1986; 8: 105–10.
Ferrannini, E, Taddei, S, Santoro, D et al. Independent stimulation of glucose metabolism and Na+-K+ exchange by insulin in the human forearm. Am J Physiol 1988; 255: E953–8.
Allon, M, Takeshian, A, Shanklin, N.Effect of insulin-plus-glucose infusion with or without epinephrine on fasting hyperkalemia. Kidney Int 1993; 43: 212–17.
Allon, M, Shanklin, N.Effect of bicarbonate administration on plasma potassium in dialysis patients: interactions with insulin and albuterol. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 28: 508–14.
Blumberg, A, Weidmann, P, Shaw, S et al. Effect of various therapeutic approaches on plasma potassium and major regulating factors in terminal renal failure. Am J Med 1988; 85: 507–12.
Pirenne, J, Lledo-Garcia, E, Benedetti, E et al. Colon perforation after renal transplantation: a single-institution review. Clin Transplant 1997; 11: 88–93.
Sterns, RH, Rojas, M, Bernstein, P et al. Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective?J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 733–5.
Watson, M, Abbott, KC, Yuan, CM.Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 1723–6.
Cundy, T, Dissanayake, A.Severe hypomagnesaemia in long-term users of proton-pump inhibitors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008; 69: 338–41.
Kuipers, MT, Thang, HD, Arntzenius, AB.Hypomagnesaemia due to use of proton pump inhibitors – a review. Neth J Med 2009; 67: 169–72.
Hoorn, EJ, van der Hoek, J, de Man, RA et al. A case series of proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56: 112–16.
Van Der Klooster, JM, Van Der Wiel, HE, Van Saase, JL et al. Asystole during combination chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the acute tumor lysis syndrome. Neth J Med 2000; 56: 147–52.
Levin, NW, Hoenich, NA.Consequences of hyperphosphatemia and elevated levels of the calcium-phosphorus product in dialysis patients. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2001; 10: 563–8.
Schiller, LR, Santa Ana, CA, Sheikh, MS et al. Effect of the time of administration of calcium acetate on phosphorus binding. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 1110–13.
Sheikh, MS, Maguire, JA, Emmett, M et al. Reduction of dietary phosphorus absorption by phosphorus binders. A theoretical, in vitro, and in vivo study. J Clin Invest 1989; 83: 66–73.
Cannata-Andia, JB, Fernandez-Martin, JL.The clinical impact of aluminium overload in renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2002; 17 (Suppl 2): 9–12.
Molitoris, BA, Froment, DH, Mackenzie, TA et al. Citrate: a major factor in the toxicity of orally administered aluminum compounds. Kidney Int 1989; 36: 949–53.
Kumar, VA, Yeun, JY, Vu, JT et al. Extended daily dialysis (EDD) rapidly reduces serum phosphate levels in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute renal failure (ARF). Am Soc Artif Internal Organs 2001; 47: 150.
Tan, HK, Bellomo, R, M'Pis, DA et al. Phosphatemic control during acute renal failure: intermittent hemodialysis versus continuous hemodiafiltration. Int J Artif Organs 2001; 24: 186–91.
Crook, MA, Hally, V, Panteli, JV.The importance of the refeeding syndrome. Nutrition 2001; 17: 632–7.
Hemstreet, BA.Use of sucralfate in renal failure. Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35: 360–4.
Mechanick, JI, Brett, EM.Endocrine and metabolic issues in the management of the chronically critically ill patient. Crit Care Clin 2002; 18: 619–41, viii.
Gallacher, SJ, Ralston, SH, Dryburgh, FJ et al. Immobilization-related hypercalcaemia – a possible novel mechanism and response to pamidronate. Postgrad Med J 1990; 66: 918–22.
Cruz, DN, Perazella, MA.Biochemical aberrations in a dialysis patient following parathyroidectomy. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 29: 759–62.
Goyal, P, Puri, GD, Pandey, CK et al. Evaluation of induction doses of propofol: comparison between endstage renal disease and normal renal function patients. Anaesth Intensive Care 2002; 30: 584–7.
Mitchell, JH, Wildenthal, K, Johnson, RL. The effects of acid-base disturbances on cardiovascular and pulmonary function. Kidney Int 1972; 1: 375–89.
Orchard, CH, Kentish, JC.Effects of changes of pH on the contractile function of cardiac muscle. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: C967–81.
Posner, JB, Plum, F.Spinal-fluid pH and neurologic symptoms in systemic acidosis. N Engl J Med 1967; 277: 605–13.
Adrogue, HJ, Madias, NE.Management of life-threatening acid-base disorders. First of two parts. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 26–34.
Narins, RG, Cohen, JJ.Bicarbonate therapy for organic acidosis: the case for its continued use. Ann Intern Med 1987; 106: 615–18.
Rose, BD, Post, TW.Metabolic acidosis. In Clinical Physiology of Acid–Base and Electrolyte Disorders. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001, pp. 578–646.
Holmdahl, MH, Wiklund, L, Wetterberg, T et al. The place of THAM in the management of acidemia in clinical practice. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000; 44: 524–7.
Hadimioglu, N, Saadawy, I, Saglam, T et al. The effect of different crystalloid solutions on acid-base balance and early kidney function after kidney transplantation. Anesth Analg 2008; 107: 264–9.
Swartz, RD, Rubin, JE, Brown, RS et al. Correction of postoperative metabolic alkalosis and renal failure by hemodialysis. Ann Intern Med 1977; 86: 52–5.
Hakim, RM, Levin, N.Malnutrition in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 21: 125–37.
Lowrie, EG, Lew, NL.Death risk in hemodialysis patients: the predictive value of commonly measured variables and an evaluation of death rate differences between facilities. Am J Kidney Dis 1990; 15: 458–82.
Don, BR, Kaysen, GA.Assessment of inflammation and nutrition in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Nephrol 2000; 13: 249–59.
Rocco, MV, Blumenkrantz, MJ.Nutrition. In Daugirdas, JT, Blake, PG, Ing, TS, eds. Handbook of Dialysis. Philadelphia: Little Brown & Co.; 2001, pp. 420–45.
National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative. Clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35 (6 Suppl 2): S1–140.
Feinstein, EI, Kopple, JD, Silberman, H et al. Total parenteral nutrition with high or low nitrogen intakes in patients with acute renal failure. Kidney Int Suppl 1983; 16: S319–23.
Eschbach, JW, Adamson, JW.Anemia of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney Int 1985; 28: 1–5.
Eschbach, JW, Egrie, JC, Downing, MR et al. Correction of the anemia of end-stage renal disease with recombinant human erythropoietin. Results of a combined phase I and II clinical trial. N Engl J Med 1987; 316: 73–8.
Besarab, A, Bolton, WK, Browne, JK et al. The effects of normal as compared with low hematocrit values in patients with cardiac disease who are receiving hemodialysis and epoetin. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 584–90.
Pfeffer, MA, Burdmann, EA, Chen, CY et al. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 2019–32.
Singh, AK, Szczech, L, Tang, KL et al. Correction of anemia with epoetin alfa in chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 2085–98.
National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative: Clinical practice guidelines for anemia of chronic kidney disease: update 2000. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37 (1 Suppl 1): S182–238.
Eberst, ME, Berkowitz, LR.Hemostasis in renal disease: pathophysiology and management. Am J Med 1994; 96: 168–79.
Escolar, G, Cases, A, Bastida, E et al. Uremic platelets have a functional defect affecting the interaction of von Willebrand factor with glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. Blood 1990; 76: 1336–40.
Koch, M, Gradaus, F, Schoebel, FC et al. Relevance of conventional cardiovascular risk factors for the prediction of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients on renal replacement therapy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12: 1187–91.
Rabelink, TJ, Zwaginga, JJ, Koomans, HA et al. Thrombosis and hemostasis in renal disease. Kidney Int 1994; 46: 287–96.
Noris, M, Remuzzi, G.Uremic bleeding: closing the circle after 30 years of controversies?Blood 1999; 94: 2569–74.
Steiner, RW, Coggins, C, Carvalho, AC.Bleeding time in uremia: a useful test to assess clinical bleeding. Am J Hematol 1979; 7: 107–17.
Lindsay, RM, Friesen, M, Aronstam, A et al. Improvement of platelet function by increased frequency of hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 1978; 10: 67–70.
Hedges, SJ, Dehoney, SB, Hooper, JS et al. Evidence-based treatment recommendations for uremic bleeding. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2007; 3: 138–53.
Mannucci, PM.Hemostatic drugs. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 245–53.
Vigano, G, Gaspari, F, Locatelli, M et al. Dose-effect and pharmacokinetics of estrogens given to correct bleeding time in uremia. Kidney Int 1988; 34: 853–8.
Moschella, SL, Kay, J, Mackool, BT et al. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 35–2004. A 68-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and thickening of the skin. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2219–27.
Joffe, P, Thomsen, HS, Meusel, M.Pharmacokinetics of gadodiamide injection in patients with severe renal insufficiency and patients undergoing hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Acad Radiol 1998; 5: 491–502.
Mendoza, FA, Artlett, CM, Sandorfi, N et al. Description of 12 cases of nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2006; 35: 238–49.
Cowper, SE, Su, LD, Bhawan, J et al. Nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. Am J Dermatopathol 2001; 23: 383–93.
Perazella, MA.How should nephrologists approach gadolinium-based contrast imaging in patients with kidney disease?Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 649–51.
Grobner, T.Gadolinium – a specific trigger for the development of nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis?Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 1104–8.
Saitoh, T, Hayasaka, K, Tanaka, Y et al. Dialyzability of gadodiamide in hemodialysis patients. Radiat Med 2006; 24: 445–51.
Miller, CF.Renal failure. In Breslow, MJ, Miller, CF, Rogers, MC, eds. Perioperative management. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Co.; 1990, pp. 327–42.
Bihorac, A, Yavas, S, Subbiah, S et al. Long-term risk of mortality and acute kidney injury during hospitalization after major surgery. Ann Surg 2009; 249: 851–8.
Chertow, GM, Lazarus, JM, Paganini, EP et al. Predictors of mortality and the provision of dialysis in patients with acute tubular necrosis. The Auriculin Anaritide Acute Renal Failure Study Group. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: 692–8.
Borthwick, E, Ferguson, A.Perioperative acute kidney injury: risk factors, recognition, management, and outcomes. Br Med J 2010; 341: c3365.
Carvounis, CP, Nisar, S, Guro-Razuman, S.Significance of the fractional excretion of urea in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure. Kidney Int 2002; 62: 2223–9.
Tsai, JJ, Yeun, JY, Kumar, VA et al. Comparison and interpretation of urinalysis performed by a nephrologist versus a hospital-based clinical laboratory. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46: 820–9.
Bellomo, R, Ronco, C, Kellum, JA et al. Acute renal failure – definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group. Crit Care 2004; 8: R204–12.
Mehta, RL, Kellum, JA, Shah, SV et al. Acute Kidney Injury Network: report of an initiative to improve outcomes in acute kidney injury. Crit Care 2007; 11: R31.
Bagshaw, SM, George, C, Bellomo, R.A comparison of the RIFLE and AKIN criteria for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008; 23: 1569–74.
Devarajan, P.NGAL in acute kidney injury: from serendipity to utility. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 52: 395–9.
Rose, BD.Postischemic and postoperative acute tubular necrosis. In Rose, BD, ed. Up To Date, Vol. 10.3. Wellesley, MA: Up to Date; 2002, pp. 320–42.
Myers, BD, Miller, DC, Mehigan, JT et al. Nature of the renal injury following total renal ischemia in man. J Clin Invest 1984; 73: 329–41.
Dawson, JL.Post-operative renal function in obstructive jaundice: effect of a mannitol diuresis. Br Med J 1965; 1: 82–6.
Abelha, FJ, Botelho, M, Fernandes, V et al. Determinants of postoperative acute kidney injury. Crit Care 2009; 13: R79.
Thakar, CV, Arrigain, S, Worley, S et al. A clinical score to predict acute renal failure after cardiac surgery. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 162–8.
Sajja, LR, Mannam, G, Chakravarthi, RM et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting with or without cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with preoperative non-dialysis dependent renal insufficiency: a randomized study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133: 378–88.
Wardle, EN.Acute renal failure and multiorgan failure. Nephron 1994; 66: 380–5.
Patrono, C, Dunn, MJ.The clinical significance of inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. Kidney Int 1987; 32: 1–12.
Perazella, MA, Eras, J.Are selective COX-2 inhibitors nephrotoxic?Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35: 937–40.
Auron, M, Harte, B, Kumar, A et al. Renin-angiotensin system antagonists in the perioperative setting: clinical consequences and recommendations for practice. Postgrad Med J 2011; 87: 472–81.
Bakris, GL, Weir, MR.Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-associated elevations in serum creatinine: is this a cause for concern?Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 685–93.
Oster, JR, Materson, BJ.Renal and electrolyte complications of congestive heart failure and effects of therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Arch Intern Med 1992; 152: 704–10.
Humes, HD.Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int 1988; 33: 900–11.
Meyer, RD.Risk factors and comparisons of clinical nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides. Am J Med 1986; 80: 119–25.
Moore, RD, Smith, CR, Lipsky, JJ et al. Risk factors for nephrotoxicity in patients treated with aminoglycosides. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100: 352–7.
Zager, RA.Studies of mechanisms and protective maneuvers in myoglobinuric acute renal injury. Lab Invest 1989; 60: 619–29.
Zager, RA.Rhabdomyolysis and myohemoglobinuric acute renal failure. Kidney Int 1996; 49: 314–26.
Don, B, Rodriguez, RA, Humphreys, MH.Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001, pp. 1299–1326.
Bywaters, EG, Beall, D.Crush injuries with impairment of renal function. 1941. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: 322–32.
Better, OS, Stein, JH.Early management of shock and prophylaxis of acute renal failure in traumatic rhabdomyolysis. N Engl J Med 1990; 322(12): 825–9.
Zager, RA.Combined mannitol and deferoxamine therapy for myohemoglobinuric renal injury and oxidant tubular stress. Mechanistic and therapeutic implications. J Clin Invest 1992; 90(3): 711–19.
Eneas, JF, Schoenfeld, PY, Humphreys, MH.The effect of infusion of mannitol-sodium bicarbonate on the clinical course of myoglobinuria. Arch Intern Med 1979; 139(7): 801–5.
Barrett, BJ.Contrast nephrotoxicity. J Am Soc Nephrol 1994; 5(2): 125–37.
Solomon, R.Contrast-medium-induced acute renal failure. Kidney Int 1998; 53(1): 230–42.
Morcos, SK, Thomsen, HS, Webb, JA.Dialysis and contrast media. Eur Radiol 2002; 12(12): 3026–30.
Aspelin, P, Aubry, P, Fransson, SG et al. Nephrotoxic effects in high-risk patients undergoing angiography. N Engl J Med 2003; 348(6): 491–9.
Rudnick, MR, Goldfarb, S, Wexler, L et al. Nephrotoxicity of ionic and nonionic contrast media in 1196 patients: a randomized trial. The Iohexol Cooperative Study. Kidney Int 1995; 47(1): 254–61.
Solomon, R, Werner, C, Mann, D et al. Effects of saline, mannitol, and furosemide to prevent acute decreases in renal function induced by radiocontrast agents. N Engl J Med 1994; 331(21): 1416–20.
Weisbord, SD, Palevsky, PM.Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with volume expansion. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3(1): 273–80.
Zagler, A, Azadpour, M, Mercado, C et al. N-acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized trials. Am Heart J 2006; 151(1): 140–5.
Pannu, N, Manns, B, Lee, H et al. Systematic review of the impact of N-acetylcysteine on contrast nephropathy. Kidney Int 2004; 65(4): 1366–74.
Nallamothu, BK, Shojania, KG, Saint, S et al. Is acetylcysteine effective in preventing contrast-related nephropathy? A meta-analysis. Am J Med 2004; 117(12): 938–47.
Marenzi, G, Assanelli, E, Marana, I et al. N-acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy in primary angioplasty. N Engl J Med 2006; 354(26): 2773–82.
Zoungas, S, Ninomiya, T, Huxley, R et al. Systematic review: sodium bicarbonate treatment regimens for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151(9): 631–8.
Merten, GJ, Burgess, WP, Gray, LV et al. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2004; 291(19): 2328–34.
Diaz-Sandoval, LJ, Kosowsky, BD, Losordo, DW.Acetylcysteine to prevent angiography-related renal tissue injury (the APART trial). Am J Cardiol 2002; 89(3): 356–8.
Tepel, M, van der Giet, M, Schwarzfeld, C et al. Prevention of radiographic-contrast-agent-induced reductions in renal function by acetylcysteine. N Engl J Med 2000; 343(3): 180–4.
Boccalandro, F, Amhad, M, Smalling, RW et al. Oral acetylcysteine does not protect renal function from moderate to high doses of intravenous radiographic contrast. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2003; 58(3): 336–41.
Briguori, C, Manganelli, F, Scarpato, P et al. Acetylcysteine and contrast agent-associated nephrotoxicity. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40(2): 298–303.
Durham, JD, Caputo, C, Dokko, J et al. A randomized controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine to prevent contrast nephropathy in cardiac angiography. Kidney Int 2002; 62(6): 2202–7.
Lassnigg, A, Donner, E, Grubhofer, G et al. Lack of renoprotective effects of dopamine and furosemide during cardiac surgery. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11(1): 97–104.
Friedrich, JO, Adhikari, N, Herridge, MS et al. Meta-analysis: low-dose dopamine increases urine output but does not prevent renal dysfunction or death. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142(7): 510–24.
Szerlip, HM.Renal-dose dopamine: fact and fiction. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115(2): 153–4.
Landoni, G, Biondi-Zoccai, GG, Tumlin, JA et al. Beneficial impact of fenoldopam in critically ill patients with or at risk for acute renal failure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Am J Kidney Dis 2007; 49(1): 56–68.
Nigwekar, SU, Hix, JK.The role of natriuretic peptide administration in cardiovascular surgery-associated renal dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009; 23(2): 151–60.
Finfer, S, Chittock, DR, Su, SY et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2009; 360(13): 1283–97.
Thomas, G, Rojas, MC, Epstein, SK et al. Insulin therapy and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a systematic review. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22(10): 2849–55.
Molnar, AO, Coca, SG, Devereaux, PJ et al. Statin use associates with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury after major elective surgery. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22(5): 939–46.
Waikar, SS, Brunelli, SM.Peri-surgical statins lessen acute kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22(5): 797–9.
Stallwood, MI, Grayson, AD, Mills, K et al. Acute renal failure in coronary artery bypass surgery: independent effect of cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg 2004; 77(3): 968–72.
Wijeysundera, DN, Beattie, WS, Djaiani, G et al. Off-pump coronary artery surgery for reducing mortality and morbidity: meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005; 46(5): 872–82.
Myers, BD, Moran, SM.Hemodynamically mediated acute renal failure. N Engl J Med 1986; 314(2): 97–105.
Schulman, G, Fogo, A, Gung, A et al. Complement activation retards resolution of acute ischemic renal failure in the rat. Kidney Int 1991; 40(6): 1069–74.
Hakim, RM, Wingard, RL, Parker, RA.Effect of the dialysis membrane in the treatment of patients with acute renal failure. N Engl J Med 1994; 331(20): 1338–42.
Schiffl, H, Lang, SM, Konig, A et al. Biocompatible membranes in acute renal failure: prospective case-controlled study. Lancet 1994; 344(8922): 570–2.
Hertel, J, Keep, DM, Caruana, RJ.Anticoagulation. In Daugirdas, JT, Blake, PG, Ing, TS, eds. Handbook of Dialysis. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001, pp. 182–98.
Troppmann, C, Pierce, JL, Gandhi, MM et al. Higher surgical wound complication rates with sirolimus immunosuppression after kidney transplantation: a matched-pair pilot study. Transplantation 2003; 76(2): 426–9.
Connolly, SJ, Kates, RE.Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetylprocainamide. Clin Pharmacokinet 1982; 7(3): 206–20.
Vlasses, PH, Ferguson, RK, Rocci, ML et al. Lethal accumulation of procainamide metabolite in severe renal insufficiency. Am J Nephrol 1986; 6(2): 112–16.
Maton, PN, Burton, ME.Antacids revisited: a review of their clinical pharmacology and recommended therapeutic use. Drugs 1999; 57(6): 855–70.
Pruchnicki, MC, Coyle, JD, Hoshaw-Woodard, S et al. Effect of phosphate binders on supplemental iron absorption in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol 2002; 42(10): 1171–6.
Cheng, JW, Charland, SL, Shaw, LM et al. Is the volume of distribution of digoxin reduced in patients with renal dysfunction? Determining digoxin pharmacokinetics by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Pharmacotherapy 1997; 17(3): 584–90.
Borga, O, Hoppel, C, Odar-Cederlof, I et al. Plasma levels and renal excretion of phenytoin and its metabolites in patients with renal failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1979; 26(3): 306–14.
Levey, AS, Bosch, JP, Lewis, JB et al. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130(6): 461–70.
Hu, KT, Matayoshi, A, Stevenson, FT.Calculation of the estimated creatinine clearance in avoiding drug dosing errors in the older patient. Am J Med Sci 2001; 322(3): 133–6.
Cranshaw, J, Holland, D.Anaesthesia for patients with renal impairment. Br J Hosp Med 1996; 55(4): 171–5.
Sladen, RN.Anesthetic considerations for the patient with renal failure. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2000; 18(4): 863–82.
Conzen, PF, Nuscheler, M, Melotte, A et al. Renal function and serum fluoride concentrations in patients with stable renal insufficiency after anesthesia with sevoflurane or enflurane. Anesth Analg 1995; 81(3): 569–75.
Nishimori, A, Tanaka, K, Ueno, K et al. Effects of sevoflurane anaesthesia on renal function. J Int Med Res 1997; 25(2): 87–91.
Litz, RJ, Hubler, M, Lorenz, W et al. Renal responses to desflurane and isoflurane in patients with renal insufficiency. Anesthesiology 2002; 97(5): 1133–6.
Roberts, RJ, Barletta, JF, Fong, JJ et al. Incidence of propofol-related infusion syndrome in critically ill adults: a prospective, multicenter study. Crit Care 2009; 13(5): R169.
Beathard, GA, Urbanes, A, Litchfield, T et al. The risk of sedation/analgesia in hemodialysis patients undergoing interventional procedures. Semin Dial 2011; 24(1): 97–103.
Brown, JH, Vites, NP, Testa, HJ et al. Value of thallium myocardial imaging in the prediction of future cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1993; 8(5): 433–7.
Dahan, M, Viron, BM, Faraggi, M et al. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of combined dipyridamole-exercise thallium imaging in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1998; 54(1): 255–62.
Camp, AD, Garvin, PJ, Hoff, J et al. Prognostic value of intravenous dipyridamole thallium imaging in patients with diabetes mellitus considered for renal transplantation. Am J Cardiol 1990; 65(22): 1459–63.