1. , Energy and substrate requirements of the placenta and fetus. Proc Nutr Soc (1991), 50:321–36.
2. , Metabolic interrelationships of placenta and fetus. Placenta (1995), 16:19–30.
3. , , and , Fetal requirements and placental transfer of nitrogenous compounds. In , , , eds., Fetal and Neonatal Physiology, 4th edn (Philadelphia: Elsevier/W. B. Saunders Co., in press, 2008).
4. , , , and , Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth. Horm Res (2006), 65 Suppl 3:50–8.
5. , , , , , , et al., An evaluation of fetal glucogenesis in intrauterine growth-retarded pregnancies. Metab Clin Exp (1993), 42:860–4.
6. , , , , , and , Localisation of glucose transport in the ruminant placenta: implications for sequential use of transporter isoforms. Placenta (2005), 626–405.
7. , , , and , Asymmetrical transport of glucose across the in vitro perfused human placenta. Placenta (2003), 24:27–33.
8. and , Intrauterine growth retardation: morphometry of the microvillous membrane of the human placenta. Placenta (1998), 9:47–55.
9. and , Transport of sugars across human placental membranes measured by light scattering. Placenta (1999), 20:167–74.
10. and , Effect of maternal glucose concentration on uteroplacental glucose consumption and transfer in pregnant sheep. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med (1988), 190:63–9.
11. , , , and . Model of placental glucose consumption and glucose transfer. Am J Physiol (1990), 258:R569–77.
12. , , , and , Gestational maturation of placental glucose transfer capacity in sheep. Am J Physiol (1991), 261:R697–704.
13. and , Developmental increases in glucose transporter concentration in the sheep placenta. Am J Physiol (1997), 273:R1132–41.
14. , Recent observations on the regulation of fetal metabolism by glucose. J Phys (2006), 572:17–24.
15. , , , , , , et al., Impact of conceptus mass on glucose disposal rate in pregnant women. Am J Physiol (1993), 264:E514–E518.
16. , , , , and , Effects of fetal intravenous glucose challenge in normal and growth retarded fetuses. Horm Metab Res (1990), 22:426–30.
17. and , Fetal glucose metabolism and oxygen consumption during sustained hypoglycemia. Metabolism (1990), 39:193–202.
18. , , , and , Increased insulin sensitivity and maintenance of glucose utilization rates in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2007), 293:E1716–1725.
19. , , , , and , Placental glucose transport in heat-induced fetal growth retardation. Am J Physiol (1992), 263:R578–R585.
20. , , , , , , et al., Glucose and lipid metabolism in small for gestational age infants at 48 hours of age. Pediatrics (2003), 111:804–9.
21. , , , and , The endocrine pancreas in small-for-dates infants. Br J Obstet Gynaecol (1977), 84:751–3.
22. , , , and , Diminished beta-cell replication contributes to reduced beta-cell mass in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol (2005), 288:R1297–R1305.
23. , , , and , Nitrogen balance of healthy Dutch women before and during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr (2002), 75:1078–83.
24. , Chemical composition and nutritional needs of the fetus at different stages of gestation. In: Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Lactation, eds. , (Bern: Hans Huber, 1980), pp. 39–48.
25. and , Energy and protein intake in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2003), CD000032.
26. , Protein metabolism in pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr (2000), 71:1249S–55S.
27. , , , and , A comparison of amino acid arteriovenous differences across the liver and placenta of the fetal lamb. Am J Physiol (1989), 257:E909–E915.
28. , , and , Transport and metabolism of amino acids in placenta. Endocrine (2002), 19:23–41.
29. , , , , and , Ontogenetic changes in the rates of protein synthesis and leucine oxidation during fetal life. Pediatr Res (1987), 22:688–92.
30. , , , , and , Development and polarization of cationic amino acid transporters and regulators in the human placenta. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol (2000), 278:C1162–C1171.
31. , and , Effect of hyperinsulinemia on amino acid utilization and oxidation independent of glucose metabolism in the ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2006), 291:E1333–E1340.
32. , , , , , and , Protein anabolic effects of insulin and IGF-I in the ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2003), 284:E748–E756.
33. , , , and , IGF-I and insulin regulate eIF4F formation by different mechanisms in muscle and liver in the ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2002), 283:E593–E603.
34. , , , , , , et al., Fetal hyperinsulinemia increases farnesylation of p21 Ras in fetal tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab (2001), 281:E217–E223.
35. and , Molecular mechanisms through which amino acids mediate signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care (2004), 7:39–44.
36. , , , , , , et al., Placental transport of leucine, phenylalanine, glycine, and proline in intrauterine growth-restricted pregnancies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab (2001), 86:5427–32.
37. , , , , , , et al., Association between the activity of the system A amino acid transporter in the microvillous plasma membrane of the human placenta and severity of fetal compromise in intrauterine growth restriction. Pediatr Res (1997), 42:514–9.
38. , , , , and , The placenta in pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction: studies on exchange surface areas, diffusion distances and villous membrane diffusive conductances. Placenta (2007), 28:233–8.
39. , Adult consequences of fetal growth restriction. Clin Obstet Gynecol (2006), 49:270–83.
40. , Nutrition and development of the fetus: carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In: Nutrition in Pediatrics, eds. , , and (Basic Science and Clinical Applications), 4th edn (Hamilton, Canada: BC Decker, in press, 2008).
41. , , , , , , Gestational and hormonal regulation of human placental lipoprotein lipase. J Lipid Res (2006), 47:2551–61.
42. , Placental metabolism and transport of lipid. Fed Proc (1986), 45:2519–23.
43. , , , and , Contribution of type II phospholipase A2 to in vitro phospholipase A2 enzymatic activity in human term placenta. J Endocrinol (1998), 157:25–31.
44. , , , and , Decreased maternal lipolysis in intrauterine growth restriction in the third trimester. BJOG (2006), 113:159–64.
45. and , Cellular fatty acid-binding proteins: their function and physiological significance. Prog Lipid Res (1996), 35:243–82.
46. , Implications of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental, fetal and postnatal development – a review. Trophoblast Res (2002), 16:S9–19.
47. , , , and , Essential fatty acids in pregnancy and early human development. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol (1995), 61:57–62.
48. , , and , Fetal lipid requirements: implications in fetal growth retardation. In: Placental Function and Fetal Nutrition, ed. (Philadelphia: Nesttec, Vevey/Lippincott-Raven, 1997), pp. 157–65.
49. , , , , , Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants. Eur J Pediatr (1998), 157:146–52.
50. , Antagonistic effects of dietary arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, J Nutr (1996), 126:1086S–91S.
51. , , , , and , Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics (2003), 111:e39–44.
52. , , , , and , Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid formation in neonates: effect of gestational age and intrauterine growth. Pediatr Res (2000), 47:127–35.
53. , , , and ., First year growth of preterm infants fed standard compared to marine oil ω-3 supplemented formula. Lipids (1992), 27:901–7.
54. , , , and , Visual acuity development in healthy preterm infants: effect of marine oil supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr (1993), 58:35–42.
55. , , , , and , Ontogeny of the expression of leptin and its receptor in the murine fetus and placenta. Br J Nutr (2000), 83:317–26.