Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 22
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: August 2012

Chapter 5 - Managing the Risks from Climate Extremes at the Local Level

from Section III


Executive Summary

Disasters are most acutely experienced at the local level (high agreement, robust evidence). The reality of disasters in terms of loss of life and property occurs in local places and to local people. These localized impacts can then cascade to have national and international consequences. In this chapter, local refers to a range of places, social groupings, experience, management, institutions, conditions, and sets of knowledge that exist at a sub-national scale. [5.1]

Developing strategies for disaster risk management in the context of climate change requires a range of approaches, informed by and customized to specific local circumstances (high agreement, robust evidence). These differences and the context (national to global, urban to rural) in which they are situated shape local vulnerability and local impacts. [5.1]

The impacts of climate extremes and weather events may threaten human security at the local level (high agreement, medium evidence). Vulnerability at the local level is attributed to social, political, and economic conditions and drivers including localized environmental degradation and climate change. Addressing disaster risk and climate extremes at the local level requires attention to much wider issues relating to sustainable development. [5.1]

While structural measures provide some protection from disasters, they may also create a false sense of safety (high agreement, robust evidence). Such measures result in increased property development, heightened population density, and more disaster exposure. Current regulations and design levels for structural measures may be inadequate under conditions of climate change. [5.3.2]

Aall, C., K., Groven, and G., Lindseth, 2007: The scope of action for local climate policy: The case of Norway. Global Environmental Politics, 7(2), 83–101.
ActionAid, 2005: People-Centered Governance: Reducing Disaster for Poor and Excluded People. ActionAid International, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Adeola, F.O., 2009: Katrina cataclysm: Does duration of residency and prior experience affect impacts, evacuation, and adaptation behavior among survivors?Environment and Behavior, 41(4), 459–489.
Adger, W.N., 2000: Social and ecological resilience: Are they related?Progress in Human Geography, 24(3), 347–364.
Adger, W.N., 2003: Social capital, collective action, and adaptation to climate change. Economic Geography, 79(4), 387–404.
Adger, W.N. and K., Brown, 2009: Adaptation, vulnerability and resilience: Ecological and social perspectives. In: Companion to Environmental Geography [Castree, N., D., Demeritt, D., Liverman, and B., Rhoads (eds.)]. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 109–122.
Adger, W.N. and P.M., Kelly, 1999: Social vulnerability to climate change and the architecture of entitlements. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 4(3-4), 253–266.
Adger, W.N., P.M., Kelly, A., Winkels, L.Q., Huy, and C., Locke, 2002: Migration, remittances, livelihood trajectories, and social resilience. Ambio, 31(4), 358–366.
Adger, W.N., K., Brown, J., Fairbrass, A., Jordan, J., Paavola, S., Rosendo, and G., Seyfang, 2003: Governance for sustainability: Towards a ‘thick’ analysis of environmental decision-making. Environment and PlanningA, 35, 1095–1110.
Adger, W.N., N.W., Arnell, and E.L., Tompkins, 2005: Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global Environmental Change, 15(1), 77–86.
Adger, W.N., J., Paavola, S., Huq, and M.J., Mace (eds.), 2006: Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Adger, W.N., S., Agrawala, M.M.Q., Mirza, C., Conde, K., O'Brien, J., Pulhin, R., Pulwarty, B., Smit, and K., Takahashi, 2007: Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity. In: Climate Change 2007. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Parry, M.L., O.F., Canziani, J.P., Palutikof, P.J. Van Der, Linde, and C.E., Hanson (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 717–743.
Adger, W.N., S., Dessai, M., Goulden, M., Hulme, I., Lorenzoni, D.R., Nelson, L.O., Naess, J., Wolf, and A., Wreford, 2010: Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?Climatic Change, 93(3-4), 335–354.
Aerts, J., D., Major, M., Bowman, and P., Dircke, 2009: Connecting Delta Cities. Coastal Cities, Flood Risk Management and Adaptation to Climate. VU University Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 90 pp.
Agrawal, A., 2010: Local institutions and adaptation to climate change. In: Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Equity and Vulnerability in a Warming World [Mearns, R. and A., Norton (eds.)]. World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 173–198.
Agrawal, A., C., McSweeney, and N., Perrin, 2008: Social Development Notes. Local Institutions and Climate Change Adaptation - the Social Dimensions of Climate Change. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Alcamo, J., L., Acosta-Michlik, A., Carius, F., Eierdanz, R., Klein, D., Krömker, and D., Tänzler, 2008: A new approach to quantifying and comparing vulnerability to drought. Regional Environmental Change, 8(4), 137–149.
Alexander, D., 2002: Principles of Emergency Planning and Management. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Allen, K., 2006: Community-based disaster preparedness and climate adaptation: Local capacity-building in the Philippines. Disasters, 30(1), 81–101.
Amin, S., A.S., Rai, and G., Topa, 2001: Does Microcredit Reach and Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh. Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Anderson, S., J., Morton, and C., Toulmin, 2010: Climate change for agrarian societies in drylands: Implications and future pathways. In: Social Dimensions of Climate Change: Equity and Vulnerability in a Warming World [Mearns, R. and A., Norton (eds.)]. World Bank, Washington, DC, pp. 199–230.
Anning, D. and D., Dominey-Howes, 2009: Valuing climate change impacts on Sydney beaches to inform coastal management decisions: A research outline. Management of Environmental Quality, 20(4), 408–421.
ANTHC, 2011: Climate Change & Health Impact Assessment Reports. Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium,
Aragon-Durand, F., 2007: Urbanization and flood vulnerability in the peri-urban interface of Mexico City. Disasters, 31(4), 477–494.
Ariyabandu, M.M., 2006: Gender issues in recovery from the December 2004 Indian ocean tsunami: The case of Sri Lanka. Earthquake Spectra, 22(3), 759–775.
Armitage, D., M., Marschke, and R., Plummer, 2008: Adaptive co-management and the paradox of learning. Global Environmental Change, 18, 86–98.
Ascher, W., 1978: Forecasting: An appraisal for policy-makers and planners. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD, 256 pp.
Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre, 2005: A Primer. Integrated Flood Risk Management in South East Asia. Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.
Babugura, A.A., 2008: Vulnerability of children and youth in drought disasters: A case study of Botswana. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 126–157.
Balaban, V., 2006: Psychological assessment of children in disasters and emergencies. Disasters, 30, 178–198.
Bamdad, N., 2005: The Role of Community Knowledge in Disaster Management: The Bam Earthquake Lesson in Iran. Institute of Management and Planning Studies, Tehran, Iran.
Bankoff, B., 2007: Living with risk: Coping with disasters. Education about Asia, 12(2), 26–29.
Bankoff, G., G., Frerks, and D., Hilhorst (eds.), 2004: Mapping vulnerability: Disasters, Development & People. Earthscan, London, UK.
Barbier, E.B., E.W., Koch, B.R., Silliman, S.D., Hacker, E., Wolanski, J., Primavera, E.F., Granek, S., Polasky, S., Aswani, L.A., Cramer, D.M., Stoms, C.J., Kennedy, D., Bael, C.V., Kappel, G.M.E., Perillo, and D.J., Reed, 2008: Coastal ecosystem-based management with nonlinear ecological functions and values. Science, 319, 321–323.
Bari, F., 1998: Gender, disaster and empowerment: A case study from Pakistan. In: The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Through Women's Eyes [Enarson, E.P. and B.H., Morrow (eds.)]. Praeger, Westport, CT, pp. 125–132.
Barnett, J., 2003: Security and climate change. Global Environmental Change, 13(1), 7–17.
Barnett, J. and W.N., Adger, 2007: Climate change, human security and violent conflict. Political Geography, 26, 639–655.
Barnett, J. and M., Webber, 2009: Accommodating Migration to Promote Adaptation to Climate Change. Commission on Climate Change and Development, Stockholm, Sweden.
Baro, M. and T., Deubel, 2006: Persistent hunger: Perspectives on vulnerability, famine, and food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35, 521–538.
Barrett, C.B., 2002: Food security and food assistance programs. In: Handbook of Agricultural Economics [Gardner, B. and G., Rausser (eds.)]. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Barrett, E.J., M., Martinez-Cosio, and C.Y.B., Ausbrooks, 2008: The school as a source of support for Katrina-evacuated youth. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 202–236.
Bartlett, S., 2008: The implications of climate change for children in lower-income countries. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 71–98.
Bateman, J.M. and B., Edwards, 2002: Gender and evacuation: A closer look at why women are more likely to evacuate for hurricanes. Natural Hazards Review, 3(3), 107–117.
Battista, F. and S., Baas, 2004: Consolidated Report on Case Studies and Workshop Findings. The Role of Local Institutions in Reducing Vulnerability to Recurrent Natural Disasters and in Sustainable Livelihoods Development. Rural Institutions and Participation Service, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
Baumhardt, F., R., Lasage, P., Suarez, and C., Chadza, 2009: Farmers become filmmakers: Climate change adaptation in Malawi. Participatory Learning and Action, 60, 129–138.
Beamon, B.M. and B., Balcik, 2008: Performance measurement in humanitarian supply chains. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 21(1), 4–25.
Berke, P.R. and T., Beatley, 1992: A national assessment of earthquake mitigation: Implications for land use planning and public policy. Earthquake Spectra, 8, 1–17.
Berkes, F., 2008: Sacred Ecology. 2nd ed. Routledge, New York, NY.
Berkes, F., 2009: Evolution of co-management: Role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(5), 1692–1702.
Berkes, F. and D., Jolly, 2001: Adapting to climate change: Social-ecological resilience in a Canadian western Arctic community. Ecology and Society, 5(2), 18.
Berkhout, F., 2002: Technological regimes, path dependency and the environment. Global Environmental Change, Part A: Human and Policy Dimensions, 12(1), 1–4.
Berkhout, F., J., Hertin, and D., Gann, 2006: Learning to adapt: Organisational adaptation to climate change impacts. Climatic Change, 78(1), 135–156.
Bermejo, P.M., 2006: Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience. Journal of Public Health Policy, 27(1), 13–21.
Bernard, S.M., J.M., Samet, A., Grambsch, K.L., Ebi, and I., Romieu, 2001: The potential impacts of climate variability and change on air pollution-related health effects in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 199–209.
Berube, A. and B., Katz, 2005: Katrina's Window: Confronting Concentrated Poverty Across America. The Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, Washington, DC.
Birkland, T.A., 1997: After disaster: Agenda Setting, Public Policy, and Focusing Events. Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC.
Birkmann, J., 2006: Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. United Nations Publications, New York, NY.
Birkmann, J., M.A., Garschagen, F., Krass, and N., Quang, 2010: Adaptive urban governance–new challenges for the second generation of urban adaptation strategies to climate change. Sustainability Science, 5(2), 185–206.
Bizikova, L., T., Neale, and I., Burton, 2008: Canadian Communities' Guidebook for Adaptation to Climate Change. Including an Approach to Generate Mitigation Co-Benefits in the Context of Sustainable Development. 1st ed. Environment Canada and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 100 pp.
Bohle, H.-G., 2001: Vulnerability and criticality: Perspectives from social geography. Newsletter of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, 2/2001.
Bohle, H., T., Downing, and M., Watts, 1994: Climate change and social vulnerability: Toward a sociology and geography of food insecurity. Global Environmental Change, 4(1), 371–396.
Borden, K.A. and S.L., Cutter, 2008: Spatial patterns of natural hazards mortality in the United States. International Journal of Health Geographics, 7(64).
Boruff, B.J. and S.L., Cutter, 2007: The environmental vulnerability of Caribbean island nations. Geographical Review, 97(1), 24–45.
Botzen, W.J.W. and J.C.J.M., van den Bergh, 2008: The insurance against climate change and flooding in The Netherlands: Present, future, and comparison with other countries. Risk Analysis, 28(2), 413–426.
Botzen, W., J., Aerts, and J., van den Bergh, 2009: Willingness of homeowners to mitigate climate risk through insurance. Ecological Economics, 68, 2265–2277.
Bourque, L., J., Siegel, M., Kano, and M., Wood, 2006: Weathering the storm: The impact of hurricanes on physical and mental health. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604, 129–151.
Bowden, M., R.W., Kates, P.A., Kay, W.E., Riebsame, R.A., Warrick, D.L., Johnson, H.A., Gould, and D., Weiner, 1981: The effect of climatic fluctuations on human populations: Two hypotheses. In: Climate and History: Studies in Past Climates and their Impact on Man [Wigley, T.M., M.J., Ingrams, and G., Farmer (eds.)] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 479–513.
Boyd, R. and M.E., Ibarrarán, 2009: Extreme climate events and adaptation: An exploratory analysis of drought in Mexico. Environment and Development Economics, 14(3), 371–396.
Brauer, M., 1999: Health impacts of biomass air pollution. In: Health Guidelines for Vegetation Fire Events [Goh, K.-T., D.H., Schwela, J.G., Goldammer, and O., Simpson (eds.)]. World Health Organization, Singapore.
Brenkert, A.L. and E.L., Malone, 2005: Modeling vulnerability and resilience to climate change: A case study of India and Indian states. Climatic Change, 72(1-2), 57–102.
Brondizio, E., E., Ostrom, and O., Young, 2009: Connectivity and the governance of multilevel social-ecological systems: The role of social capital. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 34, 253–278.
Brooks, N., 2003: Vulnerability, Risk and Adaptation: A Conceptual Framework. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Brown, D.L., 1999: Disparate effects of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1994 Northridge earthquakes on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction: Importance of superimposition of triggers. American Heart Journal, 7(5), 830–836.
Brown, O., 2008: Migration and Climate Change. International Organization for Migration, Geneva, Switzerland.
Brulle, R., 2010: From environmental campaigns to advancing the public dialogues: Environmental communication for civic engagement. Environmental Communication, 4(1), 82–98.
Buckland, J. and M., Rahman, 1999: Community-based disaster management during the 1997 Red River flood in Canada. Disasters, 23(3), 174–191.
Buhaug, H., 2010: Climate not to blame for African civil wars. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(38), 16477–16482.
Bulkeley, H., 2006: A changing climate for spatial planning?Planning Theory and Practice, 7(2), 203–214.
Bull-Kamanga, L., K., Diagne, A., Lavell, E., Leon, F., Lerise, H., MacGregor, A., Maskrey, M., Meshack, M., Pelling, H., Reid, D., Satterthwaite, J., Songsore, K., Westgate, and A., Yitambe, 2003: From everyday hazards to disasters: The accumulation of risk in urban areas. Environment and Urbanization, 15(1), 193–203.
Bullock, J., G., Haddow, and K., Haddow, 2009: Global Warming, Natural Hazards, and Emergency Management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 282 pp.
Burby, R.J. (ed.), 1998: Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Communities. Joseph Henry Press/National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 356 pp.
Burby, R.J., 2000: Creating hazard resilient communities through land-use planning. Natural Hazards Review, 1(2), 99–106.
Burby, R.J., 2006: Hurricane Katrina and the paradoxes of government disaster policy: Bringing about wise government decisions for hazardous areas. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(1), 171–191.
Burby, R.J., May, P.J. with Berke, P. R., L.C., Dalton, S.P., French, and E.J., Kaiser, 1997: Making Government Plan: State Experiments in Managing Land Use. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Burch, S. and J., Robinson, 2007: A framework for explaining the links between capacity and action in response to global climate change. Climate Policy, 7(4), 304–316.
Burke, M.B., E., Miguel, S., Satyanath, J.A., Dykema, and D.B., Lobell, 2009: Warming increases the risk of civil war in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(49), 20670–20674.
Burton, C. and S.L., Cutter, 2008: Levee failures and social vulnerability in the Sacramento–San Joaquin delta area, California. Natural Hazards Review, 9(3), 136–149.
Burton, I., R.W., Kates, and G.F., White, 1993: The Environment as Hazard. 2nd ed. Guilford Press, New York, NY.
Burton, I., J., Soussan, and A., Hammill, 2003: Livelihoods and Climate Change, Combining Disaster Risk Reduction, Natural Resource Management and Climate Change Adaptation in a New Approach to the Reduction of Vulnerability and Poverty. A Conceptual Framework Paper Prepared by the Task Force on Climate Change, Vulnerable Communities and Adaptation, International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, Canada.
Burton, I., L., Bizikova, T., Dickinson, and Y., Howard, 2007: Integrating adaptation into policy: Upscaling evidence from local to global. Climate Policy, 7(4), 371–376.
Buvinić, M., G., Vega, M., Bertrand, A., Urban, R., Grynspan, and G., Truitt, 1999: Hurricane Mitch: Women's Needs and Contributions. Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC.
Byg, A. and J., Salick, 2009: Local perspectives on a global phenomenon – climate change in eastern Tibetian villages. Global Environmental Change, 19, 156–166.
Bynander, F., L., Newlove, and B., Ramberg, 2005: Sida and the Tsunami of 2004 – A Study of Organizational Crisis Response. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
Cabrera, V.E., N.E., Breuer, and P.E., Hildebrand, 2008: Participatory modeling in dairy farm systems: A method for building consensual environmental sustainability using seasonal climate forecasts. Climatic Change, 89, 395–409.
Cahill, K., 2007: The Pulse of Humanitarian Assistance. Fordham University Press, New York, NY.
Campbell, J.R., 1990: Disasters and development in historical context: Tropical cyclone response in the Banks Islands of northern Vanuatu. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 8(3), 401–424.
Campbell, J.R., 2006: Traditional Disaster Reduction in Pacific Island Communities. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd., Avalon, New Zealand.
Campbell, J.R., 2010a: An overview of natural hazard planning in the Pacific island region. The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies, 2010(1).
Campbell, J.R., 2010b: Climate-induced community relocation in the Pacific: The meaning and importance of land. In: Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives [McAdam, J. (ed.)]. Hart Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 57–79.
Campbell-Lendrum, D., A., Pruss-Ustun, and C., Corvalan, 2003: How much disease could climate change cause? In: Climate Change and Health: Risks and Responses [Campbell-Lendrum, D., C., Corvalan, K., Ebi, A., Githeko, and J., Scheraga (eds.)]. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 133–158.
Cardona, O.D., 2007: Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management: Program for Latin America and the Caribbean: Summary Report. Inter-America Development Bank, Washington, DC.
Carney, E. (ed.), 1998: Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What Contributions Can We Make?Department for International Development, London, UK.
Carraro, L., S., Khan, S., Hunt, G., Rawle, M., Robinson, M., Antoninis, and L., Street, 2003: Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: Current Weaknesses an Possible Improvements. Oxford Policy Management, Department for International Development, Glasgow, Scotland.
Carter, M.R., P.D., Little, T., Mogues, and W., Negatu, 2007: Poverty traps and natural disasters in Ethiopia and Honduras. World Development, 35(5), 835–856.
Cash, D.W. and S.C., Moser, 2000: Linking global and local scales: Designing dynamic assessment and management processes. Global Environmental Change, 10(2), 109–120.
Chambers, R. and G., Conway, 1992: Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Practical Concepts for the 21st Century. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
Chantarat, S., C.B., Barrett, A.G., Mude, and C.G., Turvey, 2007: Using weather index insurance to improve drought response for famine prevention. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 89(5), 1262–1268.
Cheong, S., 2010: Initial responses to the MT Hebei-Spirit oil spill. Marine Technology Society Journal, 44(1), 69–74.
Cheong, S., 2011a: Guest editorial: Coastal adaptation. Climatic Change, 106(1), 1–4.
Cheong, S., 2011b: Policy solutions in the U.S.Climatic Change, 106(1), 57–70.
Cherry, K.E. (ed.), 2009: Lifespan Perspectives on Natural Disasters: Coping with Katrina, Rita, and Other Storms. Springer, New York, NY.
Christoplos, I., 2006: The Elusive “Window of Opportunity” For Risk Reduction in Post-Disaster Recovery. In: ProVention Consortium Forum 2006, Bangkok, Thailand, 2-3 Feb 2006.
Churchill, C. (ed.), 2006: Protecting the Poor: A Microinsurance Compendium. International Labor Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Churchill, C., 2007: Insuring the low-income market: Challenges and solutions for commercial insurers. Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance–Issues and Practice, 32(3), 401–412.
Clark, G., S., Moser, S., Ratick, K., Dow, W., Meyer, S., Emani, W., Jin, J., Kasperson, R., Kasperson, and H., Schwartz, 1998: Assessing the vulnerability of coastal communities to extreme storms: The case of Revere, MA, USA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 3(1), 59–82.
Clifton, D. and F., Gell, 2001: Saving and protecting lives by empowering women. Gender and Development, 9(1), 8–18.
Clot, N. and J., Carter, 2009: Disaster Risk Reduction: A Gender and Livelihood Perspective. Swiss Agency for Cooperation and Development, Berne, Switzerland, 13 pp.
Comfort, L.K., 1993: Integrating information technology into international crisis management and policy. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 1, 15–26.
Comfort, L., B., Wisner, S., Cutter, R., Pulwarty, K., Hewitt, A., Oliver-Smith, J., Wiener, M., Fordham, W., Peacock, and F., Krimgold, 1999: Reframing disaster policy: The global evolution of vulnerable communities. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 1, 39–44.
Cooper, J.A.G. and J., McKenna, 2008: Social justice in coastal erosion management: The temporal and spatial dimensions. Geoforum, 39, 294–306.
Corbett, J., 1988: Famine and household coping strategies. World Development, 16(9), 1099–1112.
Cova, T.J., F.A., Drews, L.K., Siebeneck, and A., Musters, 2009: Protective actions in wild-fires: Evacuate or shelter in place?Natural Hazards Review, 10(4), 151–162.
Cox, J.R., C., Rosenzweig, W.D., Solecki, R., Goldberg, and P.L., Kinney, 2007: Social Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Neighborhood Analysis of the Northeast U.S. Megaregion. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA.
Crabbé, P. and M., Robin, 2006: Institutional adaptation of water resource infrastructures to climate change in eastern Ontario. Climatic Change, 78(1), 103–133.
Cuny, F., 1983: Disasters and Development. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.
Cupples, J., 2007: Gender and hurricane Mitch: Reconstructing subjectivities after disaster. Disasters, 21(2), 155–175.
Curtis, A., J.W., Mills, and M., Leitner, 2007: Katrina and vulnerability: The geography of stress. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 18(2), 315–330.
Curtis, A., A., Duval-Diop, and J., Novak, 2010: Identifying spatial patterns of recovery and abandonment in the post-Katrina holy cross neighborhood of New Orleans. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 37(1), 45–56.
Cutter, S.L., 1996: Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in Human Geography, 20, 529–539.
Cutter, S.L. (ed.), 2001: American Hazardscapes: The Regionalization of Hazards and Disasters. Joseph Henry Press/National Academies of Science, Washington, DC.
Cutter, S.L. and M.M., Smith, 2009: Fleeing from the hurricane's wrath: Evacuation and the two Americas. Environment, 51(2), 26–36.
Cutter, S.L., J.T., Mitchell, and M.S., Scott, 2000: Revealing the vulnerability of people and places: A case study of Georgetown County, South Carolina. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(4), 713–737.
Cutter, S.L., B.J., Boruff, and W.L., Shirley, 2003: Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 84(1), 242–261.
Dale, A. and L., Newman, 2010: Social capital: A necessary and sufficient condition for sustainable community development?Community Development Journal, 45(1), 5–21.
Darcy, J. and C., Hofmann, 2003: Humanitarian Needs Assessment and Decision-Making. HPG Report, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), London, UK, 1–74 pp.
Das, S. and J., Vincent, 2009: Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(18), 7357–7360.
Dash, N. and H., Gladwin, 2007: Evacuation decision making and behavioral responses: Individual and household. Natural Hazards Review, 8(3), 69–77.
Davidson, C.H., C., Johnson, L., Gonzalo, N., Dikmen, and A., Sliwinski, 2007: Truths and myths about community participation in post-disaster housing projects. Habitat International, 31(1), 100–115.
Davies, M., 2009: DFID Social Transfers Evaluation Summary Report. Department for International Development, London, UK.
Davies, M. and J., Leavy, 2007: Connecting social protection and climate change adaptation. IDS in Focus, 2.
De Sherbinin, A., A., Schiller, and A., Pulsipher, 2007: The vulnerability of global cities to climate hazards. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 39–64.
De Ville de Groyet, C., 2000: Stop propagating disaster myths. Lancet, 356(9231), 762–764.
Dekens, J., 2007: Local Knowledge for Disaster Preparedness: A Literature Review. Hillside Press, Kathmandu, Nepal, 85 pp.
DeLucena, A.F.P., A.S., Szklo, R., Schaeffer, R.R., de Souza, B. S. M. C., Borba, I. V. L., da Costa, A.O.P., Júnior, and S. H. F., da Cunha, 2009: The vulnerability of renewable energy to climate change in Brazil. Energy Policy, 37(3), 879–888.
Depradine, C.A. and E.H., Lovell, 2004: Climatological variables and the incidence of dengue fever in Barbados. International Journal of Dengue Fever in Barbados, 14, 429–441.
Dershem, L. and D., Gzirishvili, 1999: Informal social support networks and household vulnerability: Empirical findings from Georgia. World Development, 26(10), 1827–1838.
DeSalvo, K., D., Hyre, D., Ompad, A., Menke, L., Tynes, and P., Muntner, 2007: Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in a New Orleans workforce following Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 84(2), 142–152.
Development Initiatives, 2009: Global Humanitarian Assistance. Development Initiatives, Wells, Somerset, UK.
Devereux, S. and S., Coll-Black, 2007: DFID Social Transfers Evaluation. Review of Evidence and Evidence Gaps on the Effectiveness and Impacts of DFID-Supported Pilot Social Transfer Schemes. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
Devereux, S. and R., Sabates-Wheeler, 2004: Transformative Social Protection. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
DFID, 2006: Eliminating World Poverty: Making Governance Work for the Poor: A White Paper on International Development. Department for International Development, London, UK.
Díaz, J., C., López, J.C., Alberdi, A., Jordán, R., García, E., Hernández, and A., Otero, 2002: Heat waves in Madrid 1986-1997: Effects on the health of the elderly. International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health, 75(163-170).
diFalco, S. and E., Bulte, 2009: Social Capital and Weather Shocks in Ethiopia: Climate Change and Culturally-Induced Poverty Traps. London School of Economics, London, UK.
Dixit, A., A., Pokhrel, and M., Moench, 2008: From Risk to Resilience: Costs and Benefits of Flood Mitigation in the Lower Bagmati Basin: Case of Nepal Terai and North Bihar. ISET-Nepal and ProVention, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Dolan, A.H. and I.J., Walker, 2004: Understanding vulnerability of coastal communities to climate change related risks. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Coastal Symposium, Itajai, Brazil, 2004. Journal of Coastal Research, S39.
Dorosh, P., S., Malik, and M., Krausova, 2010: Rehabilitating Agriculture and Promoting Food Security Following the 2010 Pakistan Floods Insights from South Asian Experience. IFPRI Discussion Paper, World Bank/International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 26 pp.
Douglas, I., K., Alam, M., Maghenda, Y., Mcdonnell, L., Mclean, and J., Campbell, 2009: Unjust waters: Climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. In: Adapting Cities to Climate Change [Bicknell, J., D., Dodman, and D., Satterthwaite (eds.)]. Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 201–224.
Dow, K. and S.L., Cutter, 1998: Crying wolf: Repeat responses to hurricane evacuation orders. Coastal Management, 26(4), 237–252.
Dow, K. and S.L., Cutter, 2000: Public orders and personal opinions: Household strategies for hurricane risk assessment. Environmental Hazards, 2(4), 143–155.
Dow, K. and S.L., Cutter, 2002: Emerging hurricane evacuation issues: Hurricane Floyd and South Carolina. Natural Hazards Review, 3(1), 12–18.
Downton, M.W. and R.A., Pielke Jr., 2005: How accurate are disaster loss data? The case of U.S. flood damage. Natural Hazards, 35, 211–228.
Doyle, M.W., E.H., Stanley, D.G., Havlick, M.J., Kaiser, G., Steinbach, W.L., Graf, G.E., Galloway, and J.A., Riggsbee, 2008: Aging infrastructure and ecosystem restoration. Science, 319(5861), 286–287.
Drabek, T.E., 1986: Human System Responses to Disaster: An Inventory of Sociological Findings. Springer Verlag, New York, NY.
Drabek, T.E., 1999: Understanding disaster warning responses. Social Science Journal, 36(3), 515–523.
Dube, O.P. and S., Sekhwela, 2008: Indigenous knowledge, institutions and practices for coping with variable climate in the Limpopo Basin of Botswana. In: Climate change and adaptation [Leary, N., J., Adejuwon, and V., Barros (eds.)]. Earthscan, Sterling, UK, pp. 71–89.
Dulal, H., G., Brodnig, G., Onoriose, and H., Thakur, 2010: Capitalising on Assets: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in Nepal. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Dynes, R., 2006: Social capital: Dealing with community emergencies. Homeland Security Affairs, 2(2), 1–26.
Eakin, H. and L.A., Bojorquez-Tapia, 2008: Insights into the composition of household vulnerability from multicriteria decision analysis. Global Environmental Change, 18(1), 112–127.
Ebi, K.L., 2008: Community-based adaptation to the health impacts of climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5), 501–507.
Edmonds, A. and S.L., Cutter, 2008: Planning for pet evacuations during disasters. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 5(1), 33.
Eisenman, D.P., K.M., Cordasco, S., Asch, J.F., Golden, and D., Glik, 2007: Disaster planning and risk communication with vulnerable communities: Lessons from hurricane Katrina. American Journal of Public Health, 97(S1), S109–S115.
Eisensee, T. andD., Stromberg, 2007: News droughts, news floods, and U.S. disaster relief. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(2), 693–728.
Elliott, J.R. and J., Pais, 2006: Race, class, and Hurricane Katrina: Social differences in human responses to disaster. Social Science Research, 35, 295–321.
Ellis, F., 2000: The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 51(2), 289–302.
Ellis, F. and E., Allison, 2004: Livelihood Diversification and Natural Resource Access. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy.
Enarson, E., 2000: We will make meaning out this: Women's cultural responses to the Red River valley flood. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 18(1), 39–64.
Enarson, E., 2009: Gender Mainstreaming in Emergency Management. Prairie Women's Health Centre of Excellence, Toronto, Canada.
Enarson, E., 2010: Gender. In: Social Vulnerability to Disasters [Phillips, B.D., D.S.K., Thomas, A., Fothergill, and L., Blinn-Pike (eds.)]. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 123–154.
Enarson, E. and B.H., Morrow, 1997: A gendered perspective: The voices of women. In: Hurricane Andrew: Ethnology, Gender, and the Sociology of Disasters [Peacock, W.G., B.H., Morrow, and H., Gladwin (eds.)]. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 116–140.
Enarson, E. and B.H., Morrow (eds.), 1998: The Gendered Terrain of Disaster: Through Women's Eyes. Praeger, Westport, CT.
Ensor, J. and R., Berger, 2009: Understanding Climate Change Adaptation: Lesson from Community-Based Approaches. Practical Action Publishing, Bourton-on-Dunsmore, UK.
Ensor, M.O., 2008: Displaced once again: Honduran migrant children in the path of Katrina. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 280–302.
Ericksen, N.J., 1986: Creating Flood Disasters? New Zealand's Need for a New Approach to Urban Flood Hazard. Ministry of Works and Development, Wellingon, NZ.
Ericksen, N.J., J., Dixon, and P., Berke, 2000: Managing natural hazards under the resource management act. In: Environmental Planning and Management in New Zealand [Memon, A. and Perkins, H. (ed.)]. Dunmore Press, Palmerston North, UK, pp. 123–132.
Ericksen, N.J., K., O'Brien, and L., Rosentrater, 2008: Climate Change in Eastern and Southern Africa: Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation. GECHS Report. University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
Farrington, J. and R., Slater, 2009: ODI Social Protection Cash Transfers Series. Lump Sum Cash Transfers in Developmental and Post-Emergency Contexts: How Well have they Performed?Overseas Development Institute, London, UK, 1–26 pp.
Fearnside, P., 1995: Hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon as sources of “greenhouse” gases. Environmental Conservation, 22, 7–19.
Fekete, A., 2009: Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany. Natural Hazards and Earth Systems Science, 9, 393403.
FEMA, 1997: Multi Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Few, R. and F., Matthies, 2006: Flood hazards and health. Earthscan, London, UK.
Finan, T.J. and D.R., Nelson, 2001: Making rain, making roads, making do: Public and private responses to drought in Ceará, Brazil. Climate Research, 19, 97–108.
Finch, C., C.T., Emrich, and S.L., Cutter, 2010: Disaster disparities and differential recovery in New Orleans. Population and Environment, 31, 179–202.
Fischer, G., H., van Velthuizen, M., Shah, and F.O., Nachtergaele, 2002: Global Agro-Ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
Fischhoff, B., 1992: What forecasts (seem to) mean. International Journal of Forecasting, 10, 387–403.
Fischhoff, B., 2007: Nonpersuasive communication about matters of greatest urgency: Climate change. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(21), 7204–7208.
Ford, J., B., Smit, and J., Wandel, 2006: Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: A case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Global Environmental Change, 16(2), 145–160.
Forsyth, T. and A., Walker, 2008: Forest Guardians, Forest Destroyers: The Politics of Environmental Knowledge in Northern Thailand. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, pp. 302.
Fothergill, A., 1996: Gender, risk, and disaster. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 14(1), 33–56.
Fothergill, A., 1999: Women's role in disaster. American Behavioral Science Review, 7(2), 125–143.
Fothergill, A., 2004: Heads above Water: Gender, Class and Family in the Grand Forks Flood. SUNY Press, Albany, NY.
Fritze, J., G., Blashki, S., Burke, and J., Wieseman, 2008: Hope, despair and transformation: Climate change and the promotion of mental health and well-being. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 2, 1–12.
Froukh, M.L., 2001: Decision-support system for domestic water demand forecasting and management. Water Resources Management, 15(6), 363–382.
Frumkin, H. and A.J., McMichael, 2008: Climate change and public health: Thinking, communicating, acting. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5), 403–410.
Fuchs, R., 2009: Cities at Risk: Developing Adaptive Capacity for Climate Change in Asia's Coastal Megacities. International START Secretariat and the East West Center, Washington, DC and Honolulu, HI.
Fulu, E., 2007: Gender, vulnerability, and the experts: Responding to the Maldives tsunami. Development and Change, 38(5), 843–864.
Gaillard, J.C. and M.L.C.J.D., Pangilinan, 2010: Participatory mapping for raising disaster risk awareness among the youth. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 18(3), 175–179.
Gall, M., K.A., Borden, and S.L., Cutter, 2009: When do losses count? Six fallacies of natural hazards loss data. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90(6), 799–809.
Galloway, G.E.J., 2007: New directions in floodplain management. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 31(3), 351–357.
Galloway, G.E.J., 2009: Corps of Engineers responses to the changing national approach to the floodplain management since the 1993 Midwest flood. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 130(1), 5–12.
Galloway, G.E., D.F., Boesch, and R.R., Twilley, 2009: Restoring and protecting coastal Louisiana. Issues in Science and Technology, 25(2).
Gedan, K.B., M.L., Kirwan, E., Wolanski, E.B., Barbier, and B.R., Silliman, 2011: The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: Answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change, 106(1), 7–29.
Geiser, U. and S., Rist, 2009: Decentralization meets local complexity: Conceptual entry points, field-level findings, and insights gained. In: Decentralization Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralization and Access to Natural Resources In South Asia And Latin America [Geiser, U. and S., Rist (eds.)]. Geographica Bernesia/Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR)North-South, Berne, Switzerland, pp. 15–55.
Gething, P.W., D.L., Smith, A.P., Patil, A.J., Tatem, R.W., Snow, and S.I., Hay, 2010: Climate change and the global malaria recession. Nature, 465, 342–345.
Godschalk, D.R., R., Norton, C., Richardson, and D., Salvesen, 2000: Avoiding coastal hazard areas: Best state mitigation practices. Environmental Geosciences, 7(1), 13–22.
Gornitz, V.N., R.C., Daniels, T.W., White, and K.R., Birdwell, 1994: The development of a coastal assessment database: Vulnerability to sea-level rise in the U.S. southeast. Journal of Coastal Research, 12, 327–338.
Greater London Authority, 2010: The Draft Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for London: Public Consultation Draft. Greater London Authority, London, UK.
Greene, S., n.d.: Community Owned Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment. World Vision, Nairobi, Kenya.
Grothmann, T. and A., Patt, 2005: Adaptive capacity and human cognition: The process of individual adaptation to climate change. Global Environmental Change, Part A: Human and Policy Dimensions, 15(3), 199–213.
Guha-Sapir, D. and R., Below, 2002: The Quality and Accuracy of Disaster Data: A Comparative Analysis of Three Global Data Sets, ProVention Consortium, Geneva, Switzerland.
Haimes, Y., B., Horowitz, J., Lambert, J., Santos, C., Lian, and K., Crowther, 2005: Inoperability input-output model for interdependent infrastructure sectors. I: Theory and methodology. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 11, 67–79.
Hallegatte, S., 2008: An adaptive regional input-output model and its application to the assessment of the economic cost of Katrina. Risk Analysis, 28(3), 779–799.
Hallegatte, S. and P., Dumas, 2009: Can natural disasters have positive consequences? Investigating the role of embodied technical change. Ecological Economics, 68(3), 777–786.
Hallegatte, S., F., Henriet, and J., Corfee-Morlot, 2008a: The Economics of Climate Change Impacts and Policy Benefits at City Scale: A Conceptual Framework. OECD, Paris, France.
Hallegatte, S., N., Patmore, O., Mestre, P., Dumas, J., Corfee-Morlot, C., Herweijer, and R.M., Wood, 2008b: Assessing Climate Change Impacts, Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge Risk in Port Cities: A Case Study on Copenhagen. OECD, Paris, France.
Hallegatte, S., N., Ranger, O., Mestre, P., Dumas, J., Corfee-Morlot, C., Herweijer, and R. Muir, Wood, 2011: Assessing climate change impacts, sea level rise and storm surge risk in port cities: A case study on Copenhagen. Climatic Change, 104(1), 113–137.
Hamilton, J.P. and S.J., Halvorson, 2007: The 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Mountain Research and Development, 27(4), 296–301.
Hammar-Klose, E. and R., Thieler, 2001: Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: A Preliminary Database for the US Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Of Mexico Coasts. USGS, Woods Hole, MA.
Handmer, J.W., 1987: Guidelines for floodplain acquisition. Applied Geography, 7(3), 203–221.
Hartman, C. and G.D., Squires (eds.), 2006: There is no such thing as a natural disaster: Race, class, and Hurricane Katrina. Routledge, New York, NY.
Hasan, A., 2007: The urban resource center, Karachi. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 275–292.
Heal, G., 1997: Discounting and climate change; an editorial comment. Climatic Change, 37(2), 335–343.
Heinrichs, D., R., Aggarwal, J., Barton, E., Bharucha, C., Butsch, M., Fragkias, P., Johnston, F., Kraas, K., Krellenberg, A., Lampis, and O.G., Ling, 2009: Adapting Cities to Climate Change: Opportunities and Constraints (Findings from Eight Cities). Paper presented at Fifth Urban Research Symposium, Marseilles, France, 28-30 June 2009. World Bank, Washington DC.
Heinz Center, 1999: The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards: Implications for Risk Assessment and Mitigation. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Heinz Center, 2002: Human Links to Coastal Disasters. The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, Washington, DC.
Hellmuth, M.E., D.E., Osgood, U., Hess, A., Moorhead, and H., Bhojwani (eds.), 2009: Index Insurance And Climate Risk: Prospects for Development and Disaster Management. Climate and Society No. 2, International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), Columbia University, New York, NY.
Helms, B., 2006: Access For All: Building Inclusive Financial Systems. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Herweijer, C., N., Ranger, and R.E.T., Ward, 2009: Adaptation to climate change: Threats and opportunities for the insurance industry. The Geneva Papers, 34(3), 360–380.
Hess, U. and J., Syroka, 2005: Weather-Based Insurance in Southern Africa: The Case of Malawi. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Hewings, G.J.D. andR., Mahidhara, 1996: Economic impacts: Lost income, ripple effects, and recovery. In: The Great Flood of 1993: Causes, Impacts, Responses [Changnon, S.A. (ed.)]. Westview, Boulder, CO, pp. 205–217.
Hewitt, K., 1997: Regions of risk: A geographical introduction to disasters. Longman, Harlow, UK, 389 pp.
Hillhorst, D., 2002: Being good or doing good? Quality and accountability of humanitarian NGOs. Disasters, 26(3), 193–212.
Höppe, P. and E., Gurenko, 2006: Scientific and economic rationales for innovative climate insurance solutions. Climate Policy, 6(6), 607–620.
Hordijk, M. and I., Baud, 2011: Inclusive adaptation: Linking participatory learning and knowledge management to urban resilience. Local Sustainability, 1(3), 111–121.
Horne, C., 2001: Sociological perspectives on the emergence of norms. In: Social Norms [Hechter, M. and K.-., Opp (eds.)]. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY, pp. 3–34.
Hudson, P.F., H., Middelkoop, and E., Stouthamer, 2008: Flood management along the lower Mississippi and Rhine rivers (the Netherlands) and the continuum of geomorphic adjustment. Geomorphology, 101(2), 209–236.
Hughes, D.M., 2001: Cadastral politics: The making of community-based resource management in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Development and Change, 32(4), 741–768.
Hugo, G., 1996: Environmental concerns and international migration. The International Migration Review, 30(1), 105–131.
Hugo, G., 2010: Climate change-induced mobility and the existing migration regime in Asia and the Pacific. In: Climate Change and Displacement. Multidisciplinary Perspectives [McAdam, J. (ed.)]. Hart, Oxford, UK, pp. 9–35.
Humanitarian Accountability Partnership International, 2011: 2010 Humanitarian Accountability Report. Humanitarian Accountability Partnership International, Geneva, Switzerland, 1 pp.
Hunter, L.M., 2005: Migration and environmental hazards. Population and Environment, 26(4), 273–302.
Huq, S., S., Kovats, H., Reid, and D., Satterthwaite, 2007: Reducing risks to cities from disasters and climate change. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 39–64.
Hwang, S., J., Xi, Y., Cao, X., Feng, and X., Qia, 2007: Anticipation of migration and psychological stress and the Three Gorges dam project, China. Social Science and Medicine, 65(5), 1012–1024.
Hwang, S., Y., Cao, and J., Xi, 2010: Project-induced migration and depression: A panel analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 70(11), 1765–1772.
Hyder, A.A., S., Maman, J.E., Nyoni, S.A., Khasiani, N., Teoh, Z., Premji, and S., Sohani, 2005: The pervasive triad of food security, gender inequity and women's health: Exploratory research from Sub-Saharan Africa. African Health Sciences, 5(4), 328–334.
ICIMOD, 2009: Biodiversity and Climate Change. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
IDRC, 2002: Population and Health in Developing Countries–Volume 1: Population, Health and Survival at INDEPTH Sites. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.
IFRC, 1991: Working with Women in Emergency Relief and Rehabilitation Programmes. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Geneva, Switzerland.
Inderberg, T.H. and P.O., Eikeland, 2009: Limits to adaptation: Analysing institutional constraints. In: Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values and Governance [Adger, W.N., I., Lorenzoni, and K., O'Brien (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 433–447.
Ingram, J., G., Franco, C.R., Rio, and B., Khazai, 2006: Post-disaster recovery dilemmas: Challenges in balancing short-term and long-term needs for vulnerability reduction. Environmental Science and Policy, 9(7-8), 607–613.
Intercooperation, 2008: Mali: Highlighting local coping strategies for drought. In: Gender Perspectives: Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction into Climate Change Adaptation Good Practices and Lessons Learned. United Nations Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 57–61.
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D., Qin, M., Manning, Z., Chen, M., Marquis, K.B., Averyt, M., Tignor and H.L., Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Iserson, K.V. and J.C., Moskop, 2007: Triage in medicine, part I: Concept, history, and types. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 49(3), 275–281.
Jacobs, L., F., Cook, and M., Carpini, 2009: Talking Together: Public Deliberation and Political Participation in America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Jha, A.K., J.D., Barenstein, P.M., Phelps, D., Pittet, and S., Sena, 2010: Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing After Natural Disasters. World Bank, Washington, DC, 370 pp.
Jones, L., S., Jaspars, S., Pavanello, E., Ludi, R., Slater, A., Arnall, N., Grist, and S., Mtisi, 2010: Responding to a Changing Climate: Exploring how Disaster Risk Reduction, Social Protection and Livelihoods Approaches Promote Features of Adaptive Capacity. ODI, London, UK.
Kabat, P., R.E., Schulze, M.E., Hellmuth, and J.A., Veraart (eds.), 2002: Coping with Impacts of Climate Variability and Climate Change in Water Management: A Scoping Paper. DWC-Report no. DWCSSO-01(2002), International Secretariat of the Dialogue on Water and Climate, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 114 pp.
Kallis, G., 2008: Droughts. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 33, 85–118.
Kang, S.J., S.J., Lee, and K.H., Lee, 2009: A study on the implementation of non-structural measures to reduce urban flood damage. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 8(2), 385–392.
Kasperson, R.E. and J.X., Kasperson, 2001: Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Social Justice. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Kasperson, R.E., O., Renn, P., Slovic, H.S., Brown, J., Emel, R., Goble, J.X., Kasperson, and S., Ratick, 1988: The social amplification of risk: A conceptual framework. Risk Analysis, 2, 177–187.
Kates, R.W., 2000: Cautionary tales: Adaptation and the global poor. Climatic Change, 45, 5–17.
Kates, R.W., C.E., Colten, S., Laska, and S.P., Leatherman, 2006: Reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A research perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 14653–14660.
Kawachi, I. and L., Berkman, 2000: Social cohesion, social capital, and health. In: Social Epidemiology [Kawachi, I. and L., Berkman (eds.)]. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 174–190.
Kazama, S., A., Sato, and S., Kawagoe, 2009: Evaluating the cost of flood damage based on changes in extreme rainfall in Japan. Sustainability Science, 4(1), 61–69.
Keraminiyage, K., S., Jayasena, R., Haigh, and D., Amaratunga (eds.), 2008: Post Disaster Recovery Challenges in Sri Lanka. School of the Built Environment, University of Salford, UK.
Kingsford, R.T., 2000: Ecological impacts of dams, water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia. Austral Ecology, 25(2), 109–127.
Koelle, K., M., Pascual, and M.D., Yunus, 2004: Pathogen adaptation to seasonal forcing and climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 272(1566), 971–977.
Kovác, G. and K.M., Spens, 2007: Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 37(2), 99–114.
Kraas, F., S., Aggarwal, M., Coy, G., Heiken, E., de Mulder, B., Marker, K., Nenonen, and W., Yu, 2005: Megacities–our Global Urban Future. Earth Sciences for Society Foundation, International Year for Planet Earth, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Kreps, G.A., 1985: Disaster and the social order. Sociological Theory, 3, 49–64.
Kristjanson, P., R., Reid, N., Dickson, W., Clark, D., Romney, R., Puskur, S., MacMillan, and D., Grace, 2009: Linking international agricultural research knowledge with action for sustainable development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(13), 5047–5052.
Kryspin-Watson, J., J., Arkedis, and W., Zakout, 2006: Mainstreaming Hazard Risk Management into Rural Projects. Disaster Risk Management. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Kull, D., 2006: Financial services for disaster risk management for the poor. In: MicroFinance and Disaster Risk Reduction [Bhatt, M. and P.G.D., Chakrabarti (eds.)]. Knowledge World, Delhi, India, pp. 39–64.
Kunreuther, H.C., E.O, Michel-Kerjan, with N.A., Doherty, M.F., Grace, R.W., Klein, and M.V., Pauly, 2009: At War With the Weather: Managing Large-Scale Risks in a New Era of Catastrophes. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Laczko, F. and C., Aghazarm (eds.), 2009: Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence. International Organization for Migration, Geneva, Switzerland.
Lafferty, K.D., 2009: The ecology of climate change and infectious diseases. Ecology, 90, 888–900.
Lambin, E.F., B.L., Turner, H.J., Geist, S.B., Agbola, A., Angelsen, J.W., Bruce, O.T., Coomes, R., Dirzo, G., Fischer, C., Folke, P.S., George, K., Homewood, J., Imbernon, R., Leemans, X., Li, E.F., Moran, M., Mortimore, P.S., Ramakrishnan, J.F., Richards, H., Skånes, W., Steffen, G.D., Stone, U.S., Svedin, T.A., Veldkamp, C., Vogel, and J., Xu, 2001: The causes of land-use and land-cover change: Moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change, 11(4), 261–269.
Lambrew, J.M. and D.E., Shalala, 2006: Federal health policy response to Hurricane Katrina: What it was and what it should have been. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 1394–1397.
Langsdale, S.M., A., Beall, J., Carmichael, S.J., Cohen, C.B., Forster, and T., Neale, 2009: Exploring the implications of climate change on water resources through participatory modeling: Case study of the Okanagan Basin, British Columbia. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 135(5), 373–382.
Lauten, A.W. and K., Lietz, 2008: A look at standards gap: Comparing child protection responses in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and the Indian Ocean tsunami. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 158–201.
Leach, M., R., Mearns, and I., Scoones, 1999: Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management. World Development, 27(2), 225–247.
Lecomte, E. and K., Gahagan, 1998: Hurricane insurance protection in Florida. In: Paying the Price: The Status and Role of Insurance Against Natural Disasters in the United Sates [Kunreuther, H. and R., Roth Sr., (eds.)]. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC, pp. 97–124.
Leiserowitz, A., 2007: Communicating the risks of global warming: American risk perceptions, affective images and interpretive communities. In: Creating a Climate for Change [Moser, S. and L., Dilling, L., (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 44–63.
Lichterman, J.D., 2000: A “community as resource” strategy for disaster response. Public Health Reports, 115(2-3), 262–265.
Lin, N., 2001: Building a network theory of social capital. In: Social capital: Theory and research [Lin, N., K.S., Cook, and R.S., Burt (eds.)]. Transaction Press, New Brunswick, NJ, pp. 3–30.
Lindell, M.K. and R.W., Perry, 1992: Behavioral Foundations of Community Emergency Management. Hemisphere Publishing Corp., Washington, DC.
Lindell, M.K. and R.W., Perry, 1996: Identifying and managing conjoint threats. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 50, 31–46.
Lindell, M.K. and R.W., Perry, 2004: Communicating Environmental Risk in Multiethnic Communities. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Lindell, M.K. and C.S., Prater, 2003: Assessing community impacts of natural disasters. Natural Hazards Review, 4, 176–185.
Lindell, M.K. and D.J., Whitney, 2000: Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption. Risk Analysis, 20, 13–25.
Lindell, M.K., J., Lu, and C.S., Prater, 2005: Household decision making and evacuation in response to Hurricane Lili. Natural Hazards Review, 6(4), 171–179.
Linnerooth-Bayer, J. and R., Mechler, 2009: Insurance Against Losses from Natural Disasters in Developing Countries. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York, NY and Geneva, Switzerland.
Linnerooth-Bayer, J., C., Bals, and R., Mechler, 2010: Insurance as part of a climate adaptation strategy. In: Making Climate Change Work for Us [Hulme, M. and H., Neufeldt (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 340–366.
Lloyds of London, 2008: Coastal Communities and Climate Change: Maintaining Future Insurability. 360 Degree Risk Project Report, Lloyd's of London, London, UK.
Lonsdale, K.G., T., Downing, R., Nicholls, D., Parker, M.C., Uyarra, R., Dawson, and J., Hall, 2008: Plausible responses to the threat of rapid sea-level rise for the Thames estuary. Climatic Change, 91(1-2), 145–169.
Luna, E., 2001: Disaster mitigation and preparedness: The case of NGOs in the Philippines. Disasters, 25(3), 216–226.
Lunch, N. and C., Lunch, 2006: Insights into Participatory Video: A Handbook for The Field. Insight, Oxford, UK.
Lund, J.R. and R.U., Reed, 1995: Drought water rationing and transferable rations. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 121(6), 429–437.
Lundqvist, L.J. and C.V., Borgstede, 2008: Whose responsibility? Swedish local decision makers and the scale of climate change abatement. Urban Affairs Review, 43(3), 299–324.
Macchi, M., G., Oveido, S., Gotheil, K., Cross, A., Boedhihartono, C., Wolfangel, and M., Howell, 2008: Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Climate Change. IUCN Issues Paper, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Maibach, E., C., Roser-Renouf, and A., Leiserowitz, 2008: Communication and marketing as climate change - intervention assets: A public health perspective. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5), 488–500.
Manyena, S.B., M., Fordham, and A., Collins, 2008: Disaster resilience and children: Managing food security in Zimbabwe's Binga District. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 303–331.
Marx, S., E., Wever, B., Orlove, A., Leiserowitz, D., Krantz, C., Roncoli, and J., Phillips, 2007: Communication and mental processes: Experiential and analytic processing of uncertain climate information. Global Environmental Change, 17, 47–58.
Masozera, M., M., Bailey, and C., Kerchner, 2007: Distribution of impacts of natural disasters across income groups: A case study of New Orleans. Ecological Economics, 63(2-3), 299–306.
May, P. and R., Burby, 1998: Making sense out of regulatory reform. Law and Policy, 20(2), 158–182.
McAdoo, B., A., Moore, and J., Baumwoll, 2009: Indigenous knowledge and the near field population. Natural Hazards, 48, 73–82.
McCall, M., 2008: Participatory Mapping and Participatory GIS (PGIS) for CRA, Community DRR and Hazard Assessment. ProVention Consortium, CRA Toolkit, Participation Resources, Geneva, Switzerland.
McCall, M.K., 2010: Local participation in mapping, measuring and monitoring for community carbon forestry. In: Community Forest monitoring for the Carbon Market: Opportunities Under REDD [Skutch, M. (ed.)]. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 31–44.
McCormick, S., 2009: From “politico-scientists” to democratizing science movements: The changing climate of citizens and science. Organization and Environment, 22(1), 34–51.
McCormick, S., 2010: Hot or not? Obstacles to the emergence of climate-induced illness movements. In: Social Movements and Health Care in the United States [Zald, J.B.-.a.S.L.M. (ed.)]. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
McCormick, S., 2011: Damming the Amazon: Local movements and transnational struggles over water. Society & Natural Resources, 24(1), 34–48.
McGee, T.K. and S., Russell, 2003: “It's just a natural way of life…” an investigation of wildfire preparedness in rural Australia. Environmental Hazards, 5(1-2), 1–12.
McGregor, D., D., Simon, and D., Thompson (eds.), 2006: The Peri-Urban Interface: Approaches to Sustainable Natural and Human Resource Use. Earthscan, London, UK.
McGuire, L., E., Ford, and C., Okoro, 2007: Natural disasters and older US adults with disabilities: implications for evacuation. Disasters, 31(1), 49–56.
McKinsey Group, 2009: Shaping Climate Resilient Development: A Framework for Decision Making. Climate Works Foundation, Global Environment Facility, European Commission, McKinsey & Company, Rockefeller Foundation, and Swiss Re, 164 pp.
McLeman, R. and B., Smit, 2006: Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Climatic Change, 76, 31–53.
McMichael, A.J., R.E., Woodruff, and S., Hales, 2006: Climate change and human health: Present and future risks. Lancet, 367, 859–869.
McMichael, A.J., S., Friel, A., Nyong, and C., Corvalan, 2008: Global environmental change and health: Impacts, inequalities, and the health sector. British Medical Journal, 336, 191–194.
McTaggart-Cowan, R., L.F., Brosart, C.A., Davis, E.H., Atallah, J.R., Gyakum, and K.A., Emanuel, 2006: Analysis of Hurricane Catarina (2004). Monthly Weather Review, 134(11), 3029–3053.
Meehl, G.A., T.F., Stocker, W.D., Collins, P., Friedlingstein, A.T., Gaye, J.M., Gregory, A., Kitoh, R., Knutti, J.M., Murphy, A., Noda, S.C.B., Raper, I.G., Watterson, A.J., Weaver, and Z-., Zhao, 2007: Global climate projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D., Qin, M., Manning, Z., Chen, M., Marquis, K.B., Averyt, M., Tignor and H.L., Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, pp. 747–845.
Méheux, K., D., Dominey-Howes, and K., Lloyd, 2010: Operational challenges to community participation in post-disaster damage assessments: Observations from Fiji. Disasters, 34(4), 1102–1122.
Mercer, J., I., Kelman, K., Lloyd, and S., Suchet-Pearson, 2008: Reflections on use of participatory research for disaster risk reduction. Area, 40(2), 172–183.
Middlekoop, K., L., Meyer, J., Smit, R., Wood, and L., Bekker, 2006: Design and evaluation of a drama-based intervention to promote voluntary counseling and HIV testing in a South African community. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(8), 524–526.
Milbert, E., 2006: Slums, slum dwellers and multilevel governance. European Journal of Development Research, 18(2), 299–318.
Mileti, D.S., 1999: Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards In the United States. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC.
Mileti, D.S. and C., Fitzpatrick, 1993: The Great Earthquake Experiment: Risk Communication and Public Action. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Mileti, D.S. and P.W., O'Brien, 1992: Warnings during disaster: Normalizing communicated risk. Social Problems, 39, 40–57.
Mileti, D.S. and L.A., Peek, 2002: Understanding individual and social characteristics in the promotion of household disaster preparedness. In: New Tools for Environmental Protection: Education, Information, and Voluntary Measures [Dietz, T. and P.C., Stern (eds.)]. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, pp. 125–140.
Mileti, D.S. and J.H., Sorensen, 1990: Communication of Emergency Public Warnings: A Social Science Perspective and State-Of-The-Art Assessment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Mills, M.A., D., Edmonson, and C.L., Park, 2007: Trauma and stress response among Hurricane Katrina evacuees. American Journal of Public Health, 97(S1), S116–S123.
Mirza, M.M.Q., 2003: Climate change and extreme weather events: Can developing countries adapt?Climate Policy, 3, 233–248.
Mitchell, J.K., 1988: Confronting natural disasters: An international decade for natural hazard reduction. Environment, 30(2), 25–29.
Mitchell, J.K. (ed.), 1999: Crucibles of Hazard: Mega-cities and Disasters in Transition. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan.
Mitchell, J.K., 2003: European river floods in a change world. Risk Analysis, 23, 567–574.
Mitchell, T. and M., van Aalst, 2008: Convergence of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation. UK Department for International Development, London, UK.
Mitchell, T., K., Haynes, W., Choong, N., Hall, and K., Oven, 2008: The role of children and youth in communicating disaster risk. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 254–279.
Moench, M. and A., Dixit (eds.), 2004: Adaptive Capacity and Livelihood Resilience: Adaptive Strategies for Responding To Floods and Droughts in South Asia. Institute for Social and Environmental Transition, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Moench, M. and Risk to Resilience Study Team, 2008: From Risk to Resilience: Understanding the Costs and Benefits of Disaster Risk Reduction Under Changing Climatic Conditions. Working Paper 9, ProVention and ISET, Geneva, Switzerland.
Montz, B.E. and G.A., Tobin, 2008: Living large with levees: Lessons learned and lost. Natural Hazards Review, 9(3), 150–157.
Morgan, J., 1994: Sudanese refugees in Koboko. Gender and Development, 2(1), 41–44.
Morrow, B.H. and E., Enarson, 1996: Hurricane Andrew through women's eyes: Issues and recommendations. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 14(1), 5–22.
Moser, S.C., 2009: Whether our are levers are long enough and the fulcrum strong? Exploring the soft underbelly of adaptation decisions and actions. In: Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values, Governance [Adger, W.N., I., Lorenzoni, and K., O'Brien (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 313–334.
Moser, S. and L., Dilling, 2007: Creating a Climate for Change: Communicating Climate Change and Facilitating Social Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Moser, S.C. and J.A., Ekstrom, 2010: A framework to diagnose barriers to climate change adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(51), 22026–22031.
Moynihan, D.P., 2009: The network governance of crisis response: Case studies of incident command systems. Public Administration Review, 19(4), 895–915.
Mukheibir, P. and G., Ziervogel, 2007: Developing a municipal adaptation plan (MAP) for climate change: The city of Cape Town. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 143–158.
Munich Re Group, 2004: Megacities–Megarisks: Trends and Challenges for Insurance and Risk Management. Munich Re Group, Munich, Germany.
Mustafa, D., 1998: Structural causes of vulnerability to flood hazard in Pakistan. Economic Geography, 74(3), 289–305.
Mutton, D. and C.E., Haque, 2004: Human vulnerability, dislocation and resettlement: Adaptation processes of river-bank erosion-induced displacees in Bangladesh. Disasters, 28(1), 41–62.
Myers, C.A., T., Slack, and J., Singlemann, 2008: Social vulnerability and migration in the wake of disaster: The case of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population and Environment, 29, 271–291.
Nakagawa, Y. and R., Shaw, 2004: Social capital: A missing link to disaster recovery. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 22(1), 5–34.
Nelson, E., G., Mendoza, J., Regetz, S., Polasky, H., Tallis, D.R., Cameron, K.M.A., Chan, G.C., Daily, J., Goldstein, P.M., Kareiva, E., Lonsdorf, R., Naidoo, T.H., Ricketts, and M.R., Shaw, 2009: Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment, 7(1), 4–11.
Neria, Y., S., Galea, and F.H., Norris (eds.), 2009: Mental Health and Disasters. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Neumayer, E. and T., Plümper, 2007: The gendered nature of natural disasters: The impact of catastrophic events on the gender gap in life expectancy, 1981-2002. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 97(3), 551–566.
Ngo, E.B., 2001: When disasters and age collide: Reviewing vulnerability of the elderly. Natural Hazards Review, 2(2), 80–89.
Nicholls, R., R.S.J., Tol, and A., Vafeidis, 2008: Global estimates of the impact of a collapse of the west Antarctic ice sheet: An application of FUND. Climatic Change, 91(1-2), 171–190.
Nicholson-Cole, S., 2004: Representing climate change futures: A critique on the use of images for visual communication. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 29, 255–273.
Niepold, F., D., McConville, and D., and Herring, , 2008: The role of narrative and geospatial visualization in fostering climate literate citizens. Physical Geography, 29, 255–273.
NOAA, 2007: Construction Setbacks. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, Washington, DC.
Nordås, R. and N.P., Gleditsch, 2007: Climate change and conflict. Political Geography, 26, 627–638.
Nordhaus, W.D., 2007: Review: A review of the “Stern review on the economics of climate change.”Journal of Economic Literature, 45(3), 686–702.
Nordstrom, K.F., 2000: Beaches and Dunes of Developed Coasts. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Nordstrom, K.F., 2008: Beach and Dune Restoration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Norgaard, K., 2009: Cognitive and Behavioral Challenges in Responding to Climate Change. The World Bank, Washington, DC.
North, D.C., 1990: Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Noy, I. and T., Vu, 2010: The economics of natural disasters in a developing country: The case of Vietnam. Journal of Asian Economics, 21, 345–354.
NRC, 1989: Improving Risk Communication. National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
NRC, 2006: Facing Hazards and Disasters: Understanding Human Dimensions. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
NRC, 2007: Tools and Methods for Estimating Populations at Risk from Natural Disasters and Complex Humanitarian Crises. National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Oba, G., 2001: The importance of pastoralists' indigenous coping strategies for planning drought management in the arid zone of Kenya. Nomadic Peoples, 5(1), 89–119.
Obasi, G.O.P., 2005: The impacts of ENSO in Africa. In: Climate Change and Africa [Low, P.S. (ed.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 218–230.
O'Brien, G., T., Devisscher, and P., O'Keefe, 2011: The Adaptation Continuum: Groundwork for the Future. Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.
O'Brien, K., R., Leichenko, U., Kelkar, H., Venema, G., Aandahl, H., Tompkins, A., Javed, S., Bhadwal, S., Barg, L., Nygaard, and J., West, 2004: Mapping vulnerability to multiple stressors: Climate change and globalization in India. Globa Environmental Change, 14(4), 303–313.
O'Brien, P. and D.S., Mileti, 1992: Citizen participation in emergency response following the Loma Prieta earthquake. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 10(1), 71–89.
Oettlé, N., A., Arendse, B., Koelle, and A., Van Der Poll, 2004: Community exchange and training in the Suid Bokkeveld: A UNCCD pilot project to enhance livelihoods and natural resource management. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 99(1-3), 115–125.
O'Keefe, P., K., Westgate, and B., Wisner, 1976: Taking the naturalness out of natural disasters. Nature, 260(5552), 566–567.
Okuyama, Y., 2004: Modeling spatial economic impacts of an earthquake: Input-output approaches. Disaster Prevention and Management, 13, 297–306.
Oloruntoba, R., 2005: A wave of destruction and the waves of relief: Issues, challenges and strategies. Disaster Prevention and Management, 14(4), 506–521.
Olsen, G.R., N., Carstensen, and K., Høyen, 2003: Humanitarian crises: What determines the level of emergency assistance? Media coverage, donor interests and the aid business. Disasters, 27(2), 109–126.
Olshansky, R.B. and J.D., Kartez, 1998: Managing land use to build resilience. In: Cooperating with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land Use Planning for Sustainable Communities [Burby, R. (ed.)]. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC, pp. 167–201.
Olson, R., 2000: Towards a politics of disaster: Losses, values, agendas and blame. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 18, 265–287.
O'Neill, M.S. and K.L., Ebi, 2009: Temperature extremes and health: Impacts of climate variability and change in the United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 51(1), 13–25.
Opperman, J.J., G.E., Galloway, J., Fargione, J.F., Mount, B.D., Richter, and S., Secchi, 2009: Sustainable floodplains through large-scale reconnection to rivers. Science, 326, 1487–1488.
Osman-Elasha, B., 2006a: Project AF14,-Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change. Environmental Strategies to Increase Human Resilience to Climate Change: Lessons for Eastern and Northern Africa, Final Report. International START Secretariat, Washington, DC.
Osman-Elasha, B., 2006b: Human Resilience to Climate Change: Lessons for Eastern and Northern Africa. International START Secretariat, Washington, DC.
Osman-Elasha, B. and T.E., Downing, 2007: Lessons Learned in Preparing Nationa Adaptation Programmes of Action in Eastern and Southern Africa. SEI Oxford Working Paper, Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford, UK.
Osman-Elasha, B. and A. El, Sanjak, 2009: Global climate changes: Impacts on water resources and human security in africa. In: Environment and Conflict in Africa: Reflections on Darfur [Leroy, M. (ed.)]. University for Peace/Africa Programme, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 406–427.
Osman-Elasha, B., N., Goutbi, E., Spanger-Siegfried, W., Dougherty, A., Hanafi, S., Zakieldeen, A., Sanjak, H.A., Atti, and H.M., Elhassan, 2006: Adaptation Strategies to Increase Human Resilience Against Climate Variability and Change: Lessons from the Arid Regions of Sudan. AIACC, International START Secretariat, Washington, DC.
Oxfam, 2009: Exposed: Social Vulnerability and Climate Change in the US Southeast. Oxfam America, Boston, MA.
Pahl-Wostl, C., J., Sendzimir, P., Jeffrey, J., Aerts, G., Berkamp, and K., Cross, 2007: Managing change toward adaptive water management through social learning. Ecology and Society, 12(2), 23/06/2010-30.
Palen, L., S., Vieweg, J., Sutton, S.B., Liu, and A., Hughes, 2007: Crisis informatics: Studying crises in a networked world. In: Third International Conference on e-Social Science, Ann Arbor, MI, 7-9 October 2007.
Parati, G., R., Antonicelli, F., Guazzarotti, E., Paciaroni, and G., Mancia, 2001: Cardiovascular effects of an earthquake: Direct evidence by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Hypertension, 38(5), 1093–1095.
Parkinson, A.J. and J.C., Butler, 2005: Potential impacts of climate change on infectious diseases in the Arctic. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 64, 478–486.
Patiño, L. and D., Gauthier, 2009: Integrating local perspectives into climate change decision making in rural areas of the Canadian prairies. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 1(2), 179–196.
Patt, A.G., 2009: Learning to crawl: How to use seasonal climate forecasts to build adaptive capacity. In: Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values, Governance [Adger, W.N., I., Lorenzoni, and K., O'Brien (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Patt, A.G. and C., Gwata, 2002: Effective seasonal forecast applications: Examining constraints for subsistence farming in Zimbabwe. Global Environmental Change–Human and Policy Dimensions, 12, 185–195.
Patt, A. and D., Schröter, 2008: Perceptions of climate risk in Mozambique: Implications for the success of adaptation and coping strategies. Global Environmental Change, 18, 458–467.
Patt, A.G., N., Peterson, M., Carter, M., Velez, U., Hess, and P., Suarez, 2009: Making index insurance attractive to farmers. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 14, 737–757.
Patz, J.A., D., Campbell-Lendrum, T., Holloway, and J.A., Foley, 2005: Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature, 438, 310–317.
Paul, B.K. and S., Dutt, 2010: Hazard warnings and responses to evacuation orders: The case of Bangladesh's Cyclone Sidr. Geographical Review, 100(3), 336–355.
Paul, B.K., H., Rashid, M.S., Islam, and L.M., Hunt, 2010: Cyclone evacuation in Bangladesh: Tropical Cyclones Gorky (1991) vs. Sidr (2007). Environmental Hazards, 9(1), 89–101.
Paulson, D.D., 1993: Hurricane hazard in western Samoa. Geographical Review, 83(1), 43–53.
Peacock, W., B.H., Morrow, and H., Gladwin (eds.), 1997: Hurricane Andrew: Ethnicity, Gender, and the Sociology of Disasters. Routledge, London, UK.
Pearce, D. and D., Moran, 1994: The economic value of biodiversity. Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, UK, 172 pp.
Pelling, M., 2003: The Vulnerability of Cities: Natural Disasters and Social Resilience. Earthscan, London, UK.
Pelling, M., 2007: Learning from others: The scope and challenges for participatory disaster risk assessment. Disasters, 31(4), 373–385.
Pelling, M. and K., Dill, 2010: Disaster politics: Tipping points for change in the adaptation of sociopolitical regimes. Progress in Human Geography, 34(1), 21–37.
Pelling, M. and C., High, 2005: Understanding adaptation: What can social capital offer assessments of adaptive capacity?Global Environmental Change, 15, 308–319.
Pelling, M., C., High, J., Dearing, and D., Smith, 2008: Shadow spaces for social learning: A relational understanding of adaptive capacity to climate change within organisations. Environment and PlanningA, 40(4), 867–884.
Penning-Rowsell, E.C., C., Johnson, and S.M., Tunstall, 2006: Signals from pre-crisis discourse: Lessons from UK flooding for global environmental policy change?Global Environmental Change, 16, 323–339.
Perch-Nielson, S.L., M.B., Battig, and D., Imboden, 2008: Exploring the link between climate change and migration. Climatic Change, 91(3-4), 375–393.
Perry, R.W. and M.K., Lindell, 1991: The effects of ethnicity on evacuation decision making. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 9(1), 47–68.
Perry, R.W. and M.K., Lindell, 1997: Principles for managing community relocation as a hazard mitigation measure. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 5(1), 49–59.
Petal, M., R., Green, I., Kelman, R., Shaw, and A., Dixit, 2008: Community-based construction for disaster risk reduction. In: Hazards and the Built Environment: Attaining Built-In Resilience [Bosher, L. (ed.)]. Routledge, London, UK, pp. 191–217.
Pettenger, M.E., 2007: The Social Construction of Climate Change: Power, Knowledge, Norms, Discourses. Ashgate Publishers, Hampshire, UK.
Pfefferbaum, B., J.B., Houston, K.F., Wyche, R.L., Van Horn, G., Reyes, H., Jeon-Slaughter, and C.S., North, 2008: Children displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A focus group study. Journal of Loss & Trauma, 13(4), 303–318.
Pielke, R.A. Jr., J., Gratz, C.W., Landsea, D., Collins, M.A., Saunders, and R., Musulin, 2008: Normalized hurricane damage in the United States: 1900-2005. Natural Hazards Review, 9, 29–42.
Plush, T., 2009: Amplifying children's voices on climate change: The role of participatory video. Participatory Learning and Action, 60, 119–128.
Podestá, G., D., Letson, C., Messina, F., Royce, R.A., Ferreyra, J., Jones, J., Hansen, I., Llovet, M., Grondona, and J.J., O'Brien, 2002: Use of ENSO-related climate information in agricultural decision making in Argentina: A pilot experience. Agricultural Systems, 74, 371–392.
Polack, E., 2008: A right to adaptation: Securing the participation of marginalized groups. IDS Bulletin, 39(4), 16–23.
Pomeroy, R.S., B.D., Ratner, S.J., Hall, J., Pimoljind, and V., Vivekanandan, 2006: Coping with disaster: Rehabilitating coastal livelihoods and communities. Marine Policy, 30(6), 786–793.
Portes, A. and P., Landolt, 1996: The downside of social capital. The American Prospect, 26, 18–21.
Postel, S.L., G.C., Daily, and P.R., Ehrlich, 1996: Human appropriation of renewable fresh water. Science, 271(5250), 785–788.
Prabhakar, S.V.R.K., A., Srinivasan, and R., Shaw, 2009: Climate change and local level disaster reduction planning: Need, opportunities and challenges. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 14, 7–33.
Prasad, N., F., Ranghieri, F., Shah, Z., Trohanis, E., Kessler, and R., Sinha, 2009: Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer On Reducing Vulnerabilities. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Priest, S.J., M.J., Clark, and E.J., Treby, 2005: Flood insurance: The challenge of the uninsured. Area, 37(3), 295–302.
Pulwarty, R.S., 2003: Climate and water in the west: Science, information and decision making. Water Resources, 124, 4–12.
Pulwarty, R.S., 2007: Communicating Agroclimatological Information, Including Forecasts for Agricultural Decision. Guide to Agrometeorological Practices. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Pulwarty, R.S. and T., Melis, 2001: Climate extremes and adaptive management on the Colorado River. Journal of Environmental Management, 63, 307–324.
Pulwarty, R., T., Broad, and T., Finan, 2004: ENSO forecasts and decision making in Peru and Brazil. In: Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People [Bankoff, G., G., Frerkes, and T., Hilhorst (eds.)]. Earthscan, London, UK, pp. 83–98.
Quarantelli, E.L. (ed.), 1998: What is a Disaster? A Dozen Perspectives on the Question. Routledge, London, UK.
Ramachandran, N., 2006: Women and Food Security in South Asia. Current Issues and Emerging Concerns. WIDER Research Paper, UN University, World Institute for Development Economic Research, Helsinki, Finland, 19 pp.
Ranger, N., S., Hallegatte, S., Bhattacharya, M., Bachu, S., Priya, K., Dhore, F., Rafique, P., Mathur, N., Naville, F., Henriet, C., Herweijer, S., Pohit, and J., Corfee-Morlot, 2011: An assessment of the potential impact of climate change on flood risk in Mumbai. Climatic Change, 104(1), 139–167.
Rao, K. and U., Hess, 2009: Scaling up with India: The public sector. In: Index Insurance and Climate Risk: Prospects for Development and Disaster Management [Hellmuth, M.E., D.E., Osgood, U., Hess, A., Moorhead, and H., Bhojwani (eds.)]. International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), New York, NY, pp. 87–89.
Raschky, P.A., 2008: Institutions and the losses from natural disasters. Natural Hazards Earth Systems Science, 8, 627–634.
Rayner, S., H., Ingram, and D., Lach, 2005: Weather forecasts are for wimps: Why water resource managers do not use climate forecasts. Climatic Change, 69, 197–227.
Reid, H., M., Alam, R., Berger, T., Cannon, S., Huq, and A., Milligan, 2009: Community-based adaptation to climate change: An overview. Participatory Learning and Action, 60, 11–38.
Ribot, J.C., 2003: Democratic decentralization of natural resources: Institutional choice and discretionary power transfers in sub-Saharan Africa. Public Administration and Development, 23(1), 53–65.
Ribot, J.C., A., Agrawal, and A.M., Larson, 2006: Recentralizing while decentralizing: How national governments reappropriate forest resources. World Development, 34(11), 1864–1886.
Rist, S., 2000: Linking ethics and market – Campesino economic strategies in the Bolivian Andes. Mountain Research and Development, 20(4), 310–315.
Rist, S., F., Delgado, and U., Wiesmann, 2003: The role of social learning processes in the emergence and development of Aymara land use systems. Mountain Research and Development, 23(3), 263–270.
Ritchie, L. and D., Gill, 2007: Social capital theory as an integrating theoretical framework in technological disaster research. Sociological Spectrum, 27(1), 103–129.
RMS, 2009: Analyzing the Effects of the ‘my Safe Florida Home’ Program on Florida Insurance Risk. RMS Special Report, Summary of Analysis Prepared for the Florida Department of Financial Services, Risk Management Solutions, Newark, CA.
Roberts, S., 2008: Effects of climate change on the built environment. Energy Policy, 36(12), 4552–4557.
Robledo, C., N., Clot, A., Hammill, and B., Riche, 2011: The role of forest ecosystems in community-based coping strategies to climate hazards: Three examples from rural areas in Africa. Forest Policy and Economics, doi:10.1016/j.forpol. 2011.04.006.
Rodriguez-Oreggia, E., A.d.l., Fuente, R.d.l., Torre, H., Moreno, and C., Rodriguez, 2010: The Impact of Natural Disasters on Human Development and Poverty at the Municipal Level in Mexico. CID Working paper 43, Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Rofi, A., S., Doocy, and C., Robinson, 2006: Tunami mortality and displacement in Aceh Province, Indonesia. Disasters, 30(3), 340–350.
Rojas Blanco, A.V., 2006: Local initiatives and adaptation to climate change. Disasters, 30(1), 140–147.
Ronan, K.R., K., Crellin, D.M., Johnston, J., Becker, K., Finnis, and D., Paton, 2008: Promoting child and family resilience to disasters: Effects, interventions and prevention effectiveness. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 332–353.
Roncoli, C., K., Ingram, and P., Kirshen, 2001: The costs and risks of coping with drought: Livelihood impacts and farmers' responses in Burkina Faso. Climate Research, 19, 119–132.
Rose, A., 2004: Economic principles, issues, and research priorities in hazard loss estimation. In: Modeling Spatial and Economic Impacts of Disasters [Okuyama, Y. and S., Chang (eds.)]. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 14–36.
Rose, A. and S., Liao, 2005: Modeling regional economic resilience to disasters: A computable general equilibrium analysis of water service disruptions. Journal of Regional Science, 45, 75–112.
Rose, A., J., Benavides, S., Chang, P., Szczesnjak, and D., Lim, 1997: The regional economic impact of an earthquake: Direct and indirect effects of electricity lifeline disruptions. Journal of Regional Science, 37, 437–458.
Rose, A., G., Oladosu, and S., Liao, 2007: Business interruption impacts of a terrorist attack on the electric power system of Los Angeles: Customer resilience to a total blackout. Risk Analysis, 27(3), 513–531.
Rosenzweig, C., D.C., Major, K., Demong, C., Stanton, R., Horton, and C., Stults, 2007: Managing climate change risks in New York City's water system: Assessment and adaptation planning. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12(8), 1391–1409.
Rosenzweig, C., W.D., Solecki, R., Blake, M., Bowman, C., Faris, V., Gornitz, R., Horton, K., Jacob, A., LeBlanc, R., Leichenko, M., Linkin, D., Major, M., O'Grady, L., Patrick, E., Sussman, G., Yohe, and R., Zimmerman, 2011: Developing coastal adaptation to climate change in New York City infrastructure-shed: Process, approach, tools, and strategies. Climatic Change, 106(1), 93–127.
Ruppert, T.K., 2008: Eroding long-term prospects for Florida's beaches: Florida's coastal construction control line program. Sea Grant Law and Policy Journal, 1(1), 65–98.
Sagala, S., N., Okada, and D., Paton, 2009: Predictors of intention to prepare for volcanic risks in Mt. Merapi, Indonesia. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 3(2), 47–54.
Sahlins, M.D., 1962: Moala: Culture and Nature on a Fijian Island. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Salick, J. and A., Byg (eds.), 2007: Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Oxford, UK.
Salick, J. and N., Ross, 2009: Traditional peoples and climate change. Global Environmental Change, 19, 137–139.
Satterthwaite, D., S., Huq, M., Pelling, H., Reid, and P., Lankao, 2007: Adapting to Climate Change in Urban Areas: The Possibilities and Constraints in Low-and Middle-Income Nations. International Institute for Environment and Development, London, UK.
Schneider, S., 2008: Who's to blame? (mis)perceptions of the intergovernmental response to disasters. Disasters, 38(4), 715–738.
Schroeder, R.A., 1987: Gender Vulnerability to Drought: A Case Study of the Hausa Social Environment. Natural Hazards Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO.
Scoones, I., 1998: Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis. IDS, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
Scott, J.C., 1976: The Moral Economy of the Peasant Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
Seck, P., 2007: Links between Natural Disasters, Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Risk Reduction: A Critical Perspective. United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY.
Semenza, J.C., 2005: Building healthy cities: A focus on interventions. In: Handbook of Urban Health [Galea, S. and D., Vlahov (eds.)]. Spring Science and Business Media, New York, NY, pp. 459–502.
Sen, A., 1981: Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Clarendon, Oxford, UK.
Shaw, A., S., Sheppard, S., Burch, D., Flanders, A., Wiek, J., Carmichael, J., Robinson, and S., Cohen, 2009: Making local futures tangible–Synthesizing, downscaling, and visualizing climate change scenarios for participatory capacity building. Global Environmental Change, 19, 447–463.
Shaw, R., 2006: Community-based climate change adaptation in Vietnam: Interlinkages of environment, disaster, and human security. In: Multiple Dimensions of Global Environmental Changes [Sonack, S. (ed.)]. TERI Publication, Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India, pp. 521–547.
Shaw, R., A., Sharma, and Y., Takeuchi, 2009: Indigenous Knowledge and Disaster Risk Reduction: From Practice to Policy. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, pp. 409.
Shoaf, K. and S., Rottmann, 2000: The public health impact of disasters. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 15(3), 58–63.
Silk, J., 2000: Caring at a distance: (im)partiality, moral motivation, and the ethics of representation – introduction. Ethics, Place & Environment, 3(3), 303–309.
Sims, H. and K., Vogelmann, 2002: Popular mobilization and disaster management in Cuba. Public Administration and Development, 22, 389–400.
Skees, J.R. and B.J., Barnett, 2006: Enhancing microfinance using index-based risk-transfer products. Agricultural Finance Review, 66(2), 235–250.
Skees, J.R., B.J., Barnett, and A.G., Murphy, 2008: Creating insurance markets for natural disaster risk in lower income countries: The potential role for securitization. Agricultural Finance Review, 68, 151–157.
Smith, S.K. and C., McCarty, 2006: Florida's 2004 hurricane season: Demographic response and recovery. In: Proceedings of Southern demographic association meeting, Durham, NC, 2-4 Nov 2006.
Someshwar, S., 2008: Adaptation as ‘Climate-smart’ development. Development, 51, 366–374.
SOPAC and UNEP, 2005: Building Resilience in SIDS: The Environmental Vulnerability Index. South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission, Suva, Fiji.
Sorensen, J.H., 2000: Hazard warning systems: Review of 20 years of progress. Natural Hazards Review, 1(2), 119–125.
Sorensen, J.H. and B.V., Sorensen, 2007: Community processes: Warning and evacuation. In: Handbook of Disaster Research [Rodriquez, H., E.L., Quarantelli, and R.R., Dynes (eds.)]. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 183–199.
Sorensen, J.H., B.L., Shumpert, and B.M., Vogt, 2004: Planning for protective action decision making: Evacuate or shelter-in-place. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 109(1-3), 1–11.
Spanger-Siegfried, E., W., Dougherty, and B., Osman-Elasha, 2005: Methodological Framework an Internal Scoping Report of the Project Strategies for Increasing Human Resilience in Sudan: Lessons for Climate Change Adaptation in North and East Africa. AIACC Working Paper No. 18, Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change, Washington, DC.
Spence, R., 2004: Risk and regulation: Can improved government action reduce the impacts of natural disasters?Building Research & Information, 32(5), 391–405.
Sperling, F. and F., Szekely, 2005: Disaster Risk Management in a Changing Climate. Vulnerability and Adaptation Resource Group, Washington, DC.
Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Stern, P. and W., Easterling (eds.), 1999: Making Climate Forecasts Matter. National Academies Press, Washington DC, 175 pp.
Stevenson, J.R., C.T., Emrich, J.T., Mitchtell, and S.L., Cutter, 2010: Using building permits to monitor disaster recovery: A spatio-temporal case study of coastal Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 37(1), 57–68.
Strobl, E., 2008: The Economic Growth Impact of Hurricanes: Evidence from US Coastal Counties. IZA Discussion Papers Series, Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn, Germany.
Suarez, P., F., Ching, G., Ziervogel, I., Lemaire, D., Turnquest, J.M., de Suarez, and B., Wisner, 2008: Video-Mediated Approaches for Community-Level Climate Adaptation. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
Sudmeier-Rieux, K., H., Masundire, A., Rizvi, and S., Rietbergen, 2006: Ecosystems, Livelihoods And Disasters: An Integrated Approach to Disaster Risk Management. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland, 56 pp.
Sundar, N. and R., Jeffery, 1999: A New Moral Economy for Indian Forests? Discourses of Community and Participation. Sage, New Delhi, India, 304 pp.
Susman, P., P., O'Keefe, and B., Wisner, 1983: Global disasters, a radical reinterpretation. In: Interpretations of Calamity from the Viewpoint of Human Ecology [Hewitt, K. (ed.)]. Allen and Unwin, Boston, MA, pp. 263–283.
Tacoli, C., 2009: Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility. Environment and Urbanization, 21(2), 513–525.
Tanner, T.M. and T., Mitchell, 2008: Poverty in a changing climate. IDS Bulletin, 39(4), 1–5.
Tanner, T., T., Mitchell, E., Polack, and B., Guenther, 2009: Urban Governance for Adaptation: Assessing Climate Change for Resilience in Ten Asian Cities. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
Tanser, F.C., B., Sharp, and D., le Sueur, 2003: Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa. The Lancet, 362(9398), 1792–1798.
Tearfund, 2006: Adapting to Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for the Development Community. Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.
Thacker, M.T.F., R., Lee, R.I., Sabogal, and A., Henderson, 2008: Overview of deaths associated with natural events, United States, 1979-2004. Disasters, 32(2), 303–315.
Thieken, A.H., T., Petrow, and H., Kreibich, and B., Merz, 2006: Insurability and mitigation of flood losses in private households in Germany. Risk Analysis, 26(2), 383–395.
Thomalla, F., T., Downing, E., Spanger-Siegfried, G., Han, and J., Rockström, 2006: Reducing hazard vulnerability: Towards a common approach between disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation. Disasters, 30(1), 39–48.
Thomas, D.S.G. and C., Twyman, 2005: Equity and justice in climate change adaptation among natural-resource-dependent societies. Global Environmental Change, 15, 115–124.
Thomson, R., 2007: Cultural models and shoreline social conflict. Coastal Management, 35, 211–237.
Tierney, K., 2006: Social inequality, hazards, and disasters. In: On Risk and Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina [Daniels, R.J., D.F., Kettl, and H., Kunreuther (eds.)]. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 109–128.
Tierney, K.J., M.K., Lindell, and R.W., Perry, 2001: Facing the Unexpected: Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
Tierney, K., C., Bevc, and E., Kuligowski, 2006: Metaphors matter: Disaster myths, media frames, and their consequences in hurricane Katrina. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 604(1), 57–81.
Titus, J.G., 2011: Rolling Easements. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 166 pp.
Titus, J., D., Hudgens, D., Trescott, M., Craghan, W., Nuckols, C., Hershner, J., Kassakian, C., Linn, P., Merritt, J., McCue, J., O'Connell, J., Tanski, and J., Wang, 2009: State and local governments' plan for development of most land vulnerable to rising sea level along the US Atlantic coast. Environmental Research Letters, 4(4), 044008.
Tobin, G.A., 1995: The levee love affair: A stormy relationship. Water Resources Bulletin, 31, 359–367.
Tol, R.S.J., 2003: Is the uncertainty about climate change too large for expected cost-benefit analysis?Climatic Change, 56(3), 265–289.
Tompkins, E.L., 2005: Planning for climate change in small islands: Insights from national hurricane preparedness in the Cayman Islands. Global Environmental ChangeA, 15(2), 139–149.
Torresan, S., A., Critto, M.D., Valle, N., Harvey, and A., Marcomini, 2008: Assessing coastal vulnerability to climate change: Comparing segmentation at global and regional scales. Sustainability Science, 3(1), 45–65.
Travis, W., 2010: Going to extremes: Propositions on the social response to severe climate change. Climatic Change, 98, 1–19.
Trawick, P., 2001: The moral economy of water: Equity and antiquity in the Andean commons. American Anthropologist, 103(2), 361–379.
Tschakert, P. and K., Dietrich, 2010: Anticipatory learning for climate change adaptation and resilience. Ecology and Society, 15(2), 11.
Tsuchiya, S., H., Tatano, and N., Okada, 2007: Economic loss assessment due to railroad and highway disruptions. Economic Systems Research, 19(2), 147–162.
Turner, N.J. and H., Clifton, 2009: “It's so different today”: Climate change and indigenous lifeways in British Columbia, Canada. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 180–190.
Turvey, C., 2001: Weather insurance and specific event risks in agriculture. Review of Agricultural Economics, 23(2), 333–351.
Twigg, J., 2001: Sustainable Livelihoods and Vulnerability to Disasters. Benfield Greig Hazard Research Centre, Disaster Management Working Paper 2/2001, University College London, London, UK.
Twigg, J., 2007: Characteristics of a Disaster-Resilient Community: A Guidance Note. DFID Disaster Risk Reduction Interagency Coordination Group, Benfield, UK.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006: The labor market impact of Hurricane Katrina: An overview. Monthly Labor Review, August 2006, 3.
UNDP, 2004: Reducing Disaster Risk: A Challenge for Development. United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY.
UNDP, 2007: Human Development Report 2007/2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World. United Nations Development Programme, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, UK.
UNFPA, 2009: Facing a Changing World: Women, Population and Climate. United Nations Population Fund, New York, NY.
UN-HABITAT, 2007: Global Report on Human Settlements, 2007: Enhancing Urban Safety and Security. Earthscan, London, UK.
UNIFEM, 2011: Pakistan Floods 2010: Rapid Gender Needs Assessment of Flood Affected Communities. UN Development Fund for Women, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNISDR, 2004: Living With Risk: A Global Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNISDR., 2006: Global Survey of Early Warning Systems: An Assessment of Capacities, Gaps and Opportunities Toward Building a Comprehensive Global Early Warning System for all Natural Hazards. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland, 56 pp.
UNISDR, 2009: Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction: Risk and Poverty in a Changing Climate. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, Geneva, Switzerland.
UNISDR and UNOCHA, 2008: Disaster Preparedness for Effective Response, Guidance and Indicator Package for Implementing Priority Five of the Hyogo Framework. United Nations Secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), Geneva, Switzerland, 51 pp.
UNOCHA and IDMC, 2009: Monitoring Disaster Displacement in the Context of Climate Change. Findings of a Study by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Norwegian Refugee Council, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Geneva, Switzerland, 32 pp.
Valdes, H.M., 1997: Community-operated early warning system for floods. In: UN-IDNDR & QUIPUNET Internet conference on Floods, Drought: Issues for the 21st Century. 22 September – 24 October 1997.
Valente, T.W. and R.L., Davis, 1999: Accelerating the diffusion of innovations using opinion leaders. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 566, 55–67.
Valente, T.W., B.R., Hoffman, A., Ritt-Olson, K., Lichtman, and C.A., Johnson, 2003: Effects of a social-network method for group assignment strategies on peer-led tobacco prevention programs in schools. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1837–1843.
van Aalst, M.K., 2006: The impacts of climate change on the risk of natural disasters. Disasters, 30(1), 5–18.
van Aalst, M., K., Maarten, T., Cannon, and I., Burton, 2008: Community level adaptation to climate change: The potential role of participatory community risk assessment. Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions, 18(1), 165–179.
Van Willigen, M., T., Edwards, B., Edwards, and S., Hessee, 2002: Riding out the storm: Experiences of the physically disabled during Hurricanes Bonnie, Dennis, and Floyd. Natural Hazards Review, 3(3), 98–106.
Vellinga, P., E., Mills, G., Berz, L., Bouwer, S., Huq, L.A., Kozak, J., Palutikof, B., Schanzenbacher, and G., Soler, 2001: Insurance and other financial services. In: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [McCarthy, J.J., O.F., Canziani, N.A., Leary, D.J., Dokken, and K.S., White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 417–450.
Venton, C.C. and P., Venton, 2004: Disaster Preparedness Programmes in India: A Cost Benefit Analysis. HPN Network Paper No. 49, Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
Vescovi, L., A., Bourque, G., Simonet, and A., Musy, 2009: Transfer of climate knowledge via a regional climate-change management body to support vulnerability, impact assessments and adaptation measures. Climate Research, 40(2-3), 163–173.
Vörösmarty, C., G., Green, J., Salisbury, and R., Lammers, 2000: Global water resources: Vulnerability from climate change and population growth. Science, 289(5477), 284–289.
Wachtendorf, T., J.M., Kendra, H., Rodriquez, and J., Trainor, 2006: The social impacts and consequences of the December 2004 Indian ocean tsunami: Observations from India and Sri Lanka. Earthquake Spectra, 22(3), 693–714.
Waddell, E., 1989: Observations on the 1972 frosts and subsequent relief programme among the Enga of the western highlands. Mountain Research and Development, 9(3), 210–223.
Walker, I.J. and R., Sydneysmith, 2008: British Columbia. In: From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 [Lemmen, D.S., F.J., Warren, J., Lacroix, and E., Bush (eds.)]. Government of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, pp. 358–362.
Walker, P., 1989: Famine Early Warning Systems: Victims and Destitution. Earthscan Publications, London, UK.
Wamsler, C., 2007: Bridging the gaps: Stakeholder-based strategies for risk reduction and financing for the urban poor. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 115–142.
Ward, P.J., W., Beets, L.M., Bouwer, J.C.J.H., Aerts, and H., Renssen, 2010: Sensitivity of river discharge to ENSO. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(L12402), doi:10.1029/2010GL043215.
Ward, R.E.T., C., Herweijer, N., Patmore, and R., Muir-Wood, 2008: The role of insurers in promoting adaptation to the impacts of climate change. The Geneva Papers, 33, 133–139.
Warner, K., M., Hamza, A., Oliver-Smith, F., Renaud, and A., Julca, 2010: Climate change, environmental degradation and migration. Natural Hazards, 55(3), 689–715.
Watts, M., 1983: Hazards and crises: A political economy of drought and famine in northern Nigeria. Antipode, 15(1), 24–34.
Waugh, W.L.J. and G., Streib, 2006: Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Public Administration Review, 66, 131–140.
Weems, C.F. and S., Overstreet, 2008: Child and adolescent mental health research in the context of Hurricane Katrina: A ecological needs-based perspective and introduction to the special section. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(3), 487–494.
Weibel, W.W., 1988: Combining ethnographic and epidemiologic methods in targeted AIDS interventions: The Chicago model. In: Needle Sharing among Intravenous Drug Abusers: National and International Perspectives [Battjes, R.J. and R.W., Pickens (eds.)]. NIDA Research Monograph 80, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD, pp. 137–150.
Weichselgartner, J. and R.E., Kasperson, 2010: Barriers in the science-policy-practice interface: Toward a knowledge-action-system in global environmental change research. Global Environmental Change, 20, 266–277.
Weisler, R.H., J.G., Barbee IV, and M.H., Townsend, 2006: Mental health and recovery in the Gulf Coast after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 585–588.
Weissbecker, I., S.E., Sephton, M.B., Martin, and D.M., Simpson, 2008: Psychological and physiological correlates of stress in children exposed to disaster: Current research and recommendations for intervention. Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), 30–70.
Weitzman, M.L., 2007: A review of the Stern Review on the economics of climate change. Journal of Economic Literature, 45, 703–724.
Wellman, B. and S.D., Berkowitz, 1988: Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Wenzel, F., F., Bendimerad, and R., Sinha, 2007: Megacities–megarisks. Natural Hazards, 42(3), 481–491.
West, C.T. and D.G., Lenze, 1994: Modeling the regional impact of natural disasters and recovery: A general framework and an application to Hurricane Andrew. International Regional Science Review, 17, 121–150.
White, G.F., R.W., Kates, and I., Burton, 2001: Knowing better and losing even more: The use of knowledge in hazards management. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards, 3, 81–92.
Whitehead, J.C., B., Edwards, M., Van Willigen, J.R., Maiolo, K., Wilson, and K.T., Smith, 2000: Heading for higher ground: Factors affecting real and hypothetical hurricane evacuation behavior. Environmental Hazards, 2(4), 133–142.
Wiest, R.E., J.S.P., Mocellin, and D.T., Motsisi, 1994: The Needs of Women in Disasters and Emergencies. Prepared for the Disaster Management Training Programme of the United Nations Development Programme and the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator, Disaster Research Unit, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Wilby, R.L., J., Troni, Y., Biot, L., Tedd, B.C., Hewitson, D.C., Smith, and R.T., Sutton, 2009: A review of climate risk information for adaptation and development planning. International Journal of Climatology, 29(9), 1193–1215.
Wilhelmi, O.V. and D.A., Wiilhite, 2002: Assessing vulnerability to agricultural drought: A Nebraska case study. Natural Hazards, 25(1), 37–58.
Williams, R., D.A., Alexander, D., Bolsover, and F.K., Bakke, 2008: Children, resilience and disasters: Recent evidence that should influence a model of psychosocial care. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 21(4), 338–344.
Winsvold, M., K.B., Stokke, J.E., Klausen, and I., Saglie, 2009: Organizational learning and governance in adaptation in urban development. In: Adapting to Climate Change: Thresholds, Values and Governance [Adger, W.N., I., Lorenzoni, and K., O'Brien (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 476–490.
Wisner, B., 2002: Disability and disaster: Victimhood and agency in earthquake risk reduction. In: Earthquakes. [Rodrigue, C. and E., Rovai (eds.)]. Routledge, London, UK.
Wisner, B., 2003: Disaster risk reduction in megacities: Making the most of human and social capital. In: Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk [Kreimer, A., M., Arnold, and A., Carlin (eds.)]. World Bank Books, Washington, DC, pp. 181–196.
Wisner, B. and J., Uitto, 2009: Life on the edge: Urban social vulnerability and decentralized, citizen-based disaster risk reduction in four large cities of the Pacific Rim. Facing Global Environmental Change: Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, 4(II), 215–231.
Wisner, B., P., Blaike, T., Cannon, and I., Davis, 2004: At Risk: Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability and Disasters. Routledge, London, UK.
WMO, 2003: Integrated Flood Plain Management Case Study: Bangladesh Flood Management. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
World Bank, 2010: Natural Hazards, Unnatural Disasters, the Economics of Effective Prevention. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Wu, S., B., Yarnal, and A., Fisher, 2002: Vulnerability of coastal communities to sealevel rise: A case study of Cape May county, New Jersey, USA. Climate Research, 22, 255–270.
Yang, S.L., J.D., Milliman, P., Li, and K., Xu, 2011: 50,000 dams later: Erosion of the Yangtze River and its delta. Global and Planetary Change, 75(1), 14–20.
Yohe, G., J., Neumann, and H., Ameden, 1995: Assessing the economic cost of green-house induced sea level rise: Methods and applications in support of a national survey. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 29, 78–97.
Zahran, S., S.D., Brody, W.G., Peacock, A., Vedlitz, and H., Gover, 2008: Social vulnerability and the natural and built environment: A model of flood casualties in Texas. Disasters, 32(4), 537–560.
Ziervogel, G., 2004: Targeting seasonal climate forecasts for integration into household level decisions: The case of smallholder farmers in Lesotho. The Geographical Journal, 170, 6–21.
Ziervogel, G. and P., Ericksen, 2010: Adapting to climate change to sustain food security. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(4), doi:10.1002/wcc.56.
Ziervogel, G. and F., Zermoglio, 2009: Climate-change scenarios and the development of adaptation strategies in Africa: Challenges and opportunities. Climate Research, 40(2-3), 133–146.
Ziervogel, G., A.O., Nyong, B., Osman-Elasha, C., Conde, S., Cortés, and T., Downing, 2006: Climate Variability and Change: Implications for Household Food Security. AIACC Working Paper No. 20, Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change, Washington, DC.
Ziervogel, G., M., Shale, and M., Du, 2010: Climate change adaptation in a developing country context: The case of urban water supply in Cape Town. Climate and Development, 2, 94–110.
Zimmermann, M. and F., Stössel, 2011: Disaster Risk Reduction in International Cooperation: Switzerland's Contribution to the Protection of Lives and Livelihoods. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Berne, Switzerland, 23 pp.