The more comprehensive but also more dispersed and more gradual triumph of the participatory model that was evident in state party politics along with the more focused triumph of the same thrust in the politics of presidential selection were inevitably intertwined. Established volunteer parties were much easier to reform at the presidential level. Successful reforms for presidential selection often spilled over into general reform efforts within organized parties. But in the end, the old world summarized in the overviews of Elazar and Mayhew, as reflected in the more systematic scale of structural indicators developed here, did indeed undergo the upheaval perceived by Mayhew and Ware around the pivotal year of 1970. Table 1.4 summarizes the distribution of party types that resulted.