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Kant's Construction of Nature
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Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science is one of the most difficult but also most important of Kant's works. Published in 1786 between the first (1781) and second (1787) editions of the Critique of Pure Reason, the Metaphysical Foundations occupies a central place in the development of Kant's philosophy, but has so far attracted relatively little attention compared with other works of Kant's critical period. Michael Friedman's book develops a new and complete reading of this work and reconstructs Kant's main argument clearly and in great detail, explaining its relationship to both Newton's Principia and eighteenth-century scientific thinkers such as Euler and Lambert. By situating Kant's text relative to his pre-critical writings on metaphysics and natural philosophy and, in particular, to the changes Kant made in the second edition of the Critique, Friedman articulates a radically new perspective on the meaning and development of the critical philosophy as a whole.

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Contents

Bibliography

This bibliography does not aim to be comprehensive but includes only those works (in the original or in translation) explicitly cited in the text. (I explain the principles underlying my selection in the Preface.) For more comprehensive bibliographies see Konstantin Pollok’s edition of the Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, cited as Kant (1997a) in Part i below, as well as his Kritischer Kommentar, cited as Pollok (2001) in Part iii. All translations from the German are my own. For French and Latin sources I have generally followed the cited English translations.

I Kant’s writings

All references to Kant’s writings, except those to the Critique of Pure Reason, are given by volume and page numbers of the Akademie edition of Kant’s gesammelte Schriften (Berlin: Georg Reimer, later Walter de Gruyter, 1900–). My numerous references to the Metaphysical Foundations omit the volume number (in this case 4). The Critique of Pure Reason is cited by the standard A and B pagination of the first (1781) and second (1787) editions respectively. In rendering Kant’s Latin I have generally (but not exclusively) followed the translations in Kant (1992). For this, and other individual volumes and translations, see the list below.

Kant, Immanuel (1891). Kant’s Prolegomena and Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, trans. Ernest Belfort Bax, 2nd edn. rev., London: George Bell and Sons.
Kant, Immanuel (1970). Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, trans. James Ellington, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill; repr., along with the Prolegomena, in Immanuel Kant: Philosophy of Material Nature, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1975.
Kant, Immanuel (1981). Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, trans. and ed. Stanley L. Jaki, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
Kant, Immanuel (1986). Kant’s Latin Writings: Translations, Commentaries and Notes, ed. Lewis White Beck, trans. Lewis White Beck, Mary J. Gregor, Ralf Meerbote, and John A. Reuscher, New York: Peter Lang.
Kant, Immanuel (1992). Theoretical Philosophy, 1755–1770, trans. and ed. David Walford, in collaboration with Ralf Meerbote, Cambridge University Press.
Kant, Immanuel (1996). Practical Philosophy, trans. and ed. Mary J. Gregor, Cambridge University Press.
Kant, Immanuel (1997a). Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, ed. Konstantin Pollok, Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.
Kant, Immanuel (1997b). Critique of Pure Reason, trans. and ed. Paul Guyer and Allen Wood, Cambridge University Press.
Kant, Immanuel (1998). Kritik der reinen Vernunft, ed. Jens Timmerman, Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.
Kant, Immanuel (1999). Correspondence, trans. and ed. Arnulf Zweig, Cambridge University Press.
Kant, Immanuel (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment, ed. Paul Guyer, trans. Paul Guyer and Eric Matthews, Cambridge University Press.
Kant, Immanuel (2004a). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science, trans. and ed. Gary Hatfield, rev. edn., Cambridge University Press.
Kant, Immanuel (2004b). Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science, trans. and ed. Michael Friedman, Cambridge University Press.

II Other primary sources

Bradley, James (1748). “A Letter to the Right Honourable George Earl of Macclesfield concerning an apparent Motion observed in some of the fixed Stars,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 45: 141; translated into German by C. Mylius, Hamburgisches Magazin 3 (1748): 571–620.
Descartes, René (1644). Principia Philosophiae, Amsterdam: Elsevier; trans. Valentine Rodger Miller and Reese P. Miller, Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1983.
Euler, Leonhard (1736). Mechanica, sive motus scientia analytice, St. Petersburg: Academy of Sciences.
Euler, Leonhard (1746a). “Nova theoria lucis et colorum,” Opuscula varii argumenti 1: 169244.
Euler, Leonhard (1746b). Gedanken von den Elementen der Körper, in welchen das Lehr-Gebäude von den einfachen Dingen und Monaden geprüfet, und das wahre Wesen der Cörper entdecket wird, originally published anonymously, Berlin: A. Haude und Joh. C. Spener, königl. und der Academie der Wissenschaften privil. Buchhändlern.
Euler, Leonhard (1748). “Réflexions sur l’espace et le tems,” Mémoires de l’académie des sciences de Berlin 4: 32433; trans. in A. Koslow, ed., The Changeless Order: The Physics of Space, Time and Motion, New York: Braziller, 1967, pp. 115–25.
Euler, Leonhard (1755). “Principes généraux de l’état d’équilibre des fluides,” Mémoires de l’académie des sciences de Berlin 11: 21773.
Euler, Leonhard (1768–72). Lettres à une princesse d’Allemagne sur divers sujets de physique et de philosophie, 3 vols., St. Petersburg: Academy of Sciences; trans. (in 2 vols.) Henry Hunter, London: H. Murray, 1795.
Hermann, Jacob (1716). Phoronomia, sive, De viribus et motibus corporum solidorum et fluidorom libri duo, Amsterdam: R. & G. Westen.
Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1759). Die freye Perspektive, oder Anweisung, jeden perspectivischen Aufriß von freien Stücken und ohne Grundriß zu verfertigen, Zürich: Heidegger und Compagnie.
Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1760). Photometria, sive de mensura et gradibus luminis colorum et umbrae, Augsburg: Eberhardt Klett.
Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1761). Cosmologische Briefe über die Einrichtung des Weltbaues, Augsburg: Bei Eberhard Kletts Wittib.; trans. and ed. (including page numbers of the original edition) Stanley L. Jaki, New York: Science History Publications, 1976.
Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1764). Neues Organon, oder Gedanken über die Erforschung und Bezeichnung des Wahren und dessen Unterscheidung von Irrtum und Schein, 2 vols., Leipzig: Johann Wendler.
Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1771). Anlage zur Architectonic, oder Theorie des Einfachen und des Ersten in der philosophischen und mathematischen Erkenntnis, 2 vols., Riga: J. F. Hartnoch; repr. ed. Hans-Werner Arndt, Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag, 1965.
Lambert, Johann Heinrich (1990). Neues Organon, oder Gedanken über die Erforschung und Bezeichnung des Wahren und dessen Unterscheidung von Irrtum und Schein, nach der bei Johann Wendler in Leipzig 1764 erschienenen ersten Auflage, unter Mitarbeit von Peter Heyl, herausgegeben, bearbeitet und mit einem Anhang von Günter Schenk, 3 vols., Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1695). “Specimen Dynamicum, pro admirandis Naturae legibus circa Corporum vires et mutuas actiones detegendis, et ad causas revocandis,” Acta Eruditorum, publicata Lipsiae, Calendis Aprilis, pp. 14557; trans. in Leibniz 1969, pp. 435–52.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1710). Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de dieu, la liberté de l’homme, et l’origine du mal, Amsterdam: Isaac Troyel; appearing in Leibniz (1878–90/1978, vol. vi, pp. 21–462); trans. E. M. Huggard, ed. Austin Farrer, La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1985.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1714). “Monadologie,” untitled manuscript (in French) given this title in the first published (German) version (1720); appearing in Leibniz (1878–90/1978, vol. vi, pp. 607–23); trans. in Leibniz 1969, pp. 643–53.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1717). A Collection of Papers which passed between the late learned Mr. Leibnitz and Dr. Clarke in the years 1715 and 1716 relating to the Principles of Natural Philosophy and Religion, ed. Samuel Clarke with French and English on facing pages, London: James Knapton; all-English version ed. H. G. Alexander, Manchester University Press, 1956.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1765). Nouveaux Essais sur l’entendement par l’auteur du systeme de l’harmonie preestablie, Amsterdam & Leipzig: Rud. Eric Raspe; appearing in Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe, ser. VI, vol. 6, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1962; trans. and ed. Peter Remnant and Jonathan Bennett, with page numbers of the 1962 edition in the margins, Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1878–90). Die philosophischen Schriften von Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, 8 vols., ed. C. J. Gerhardt, Berlin: Weidmann; repr. Hildesheim and New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 1978.
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1969). Philosophical Papers and Letters, trans. and ed. Leroy E. Loemker, 2nd edn., Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company.
Locke, John (1690). An Essay concerning Humane Understanding, London: Thomas Bassett.
Locke, John (1700a). An Essay concerning Humane Understanding, 4th edn., London: A. & J. Churchil.
Locke, John (1700b). Essai philosophique concernant l’entendant humain, trans. Pierre Coste, from the 4th edn. (1700a), Amsterdam: H. Schelte.
Locke, John (1757). Versuch vom menschlichen Verstande, trans. Heinrich Engelhard Poley, from the 4th edn. (1700a), Alternburg: Richter.
Locke, John (1975). An Essay concerning Human Understanding, ed. Peter H. Nidditch, based on 4th edn. (1700a), Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Maupertuis, Pierre Louis Moreau de (1744). Ouvrages divers de Mr. de Maupertuis: Éléments de géographie. Discours sur les differentes figures de corps celestes. Discours sur la parallaxe de la lune. Et Lettre sur la comete, Amsterdam: Aux dépens de la Compagnie.
Newton, Isaac (1687). Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, London: Guil. & Joh. Innys; 2nd edn. (1713); 3rd edn. (1726).
Newton, Isaac (1934). Sir Isaac Newton’s Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World, trans. Andrew Motte (1729), rev. Florian Cajori, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Newton, Isaac (1972). Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 3rd edn. (1726) with variant readings, assembled and ed. Alexandre Koyré and I. Bernard Cohen, with the assistance of Anne Whitman, 2 vols., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Newton, Isaac (1999). The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, trans. and ed. I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman, assisted by Julia Budenz, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Newton, Isaac (1704). Opticks, or A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light, London: S. Smith & B. Walford; 2nd edn. (1718); 3rd edn. (1721); 4th edn. (1730).
Newton, Isaac (1719). Optice, sive, De reflexionibus, refractionibus, inflectionibus & coloribus lucis, libri tres, trans. Samuel Clarke from the 2nd edn. (1718), London: Guil. & Joh. Innys.
Newton, Isaac (1952). Opticks, or A Treatise of the Reflections, Refractions, Inflections & Colours of Light, based on 4th edn. (London, 1730), New York: Dover Publications.
Newton, Isaac (1728). De mundi systemate liber Isaaci Newtoni, London: J. Tonson, J. Osborn & T. Longman; trans. in Newton 1934, pp. 549–626.
Newton, Isaac (1975). The Correspondence of Isaac Newton, vol. v, 1709–13, ed. A. Rupert Hall and Laura Tilling, Cambridge University Press.
Stahl, Georg Ernst (1723). Fundamenta Chymiae Dogmaticae & Experimentalis, Nuremberg: Johann Ernest Adelbulner; trans. Peter Shaw, London: Osborn and Longman, 1730.
Wolff, Christian (1731). Cosmologia generalis methodo scientifica pertractata, Frankfurt: Renger; new emended edn. 1737.

III Secondary sources

Adickes, Erich (1924). Kant als Naturforscher, Band i, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Beck, Lewis White (1969). Early German Philosophy: Kant and His Predecessors, Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press.
Brackenridge, J. Bruce (1995). The Key to Newton’s Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Buchdahl, Gerd (1969). Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science: The Classical Origins Descartes to Kant, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Cantor, Geoffrey N. (1983). Optics after Newton: Theories of Light in Britain and Ireland, 1704–1840, Manchester University Press.
Carrier, Martin (2001). “Kant’s Mechanical Determination of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science,” in Watkins, ed., pp. 117–35.
Cassirer, Ernst (1918). Kant’s Leben und Lehre, Berlin: Bruno Cassirer; trans. James Haden, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981 (page references are to this edition).
Clavelin, Maurice (1968). La philosophie naturelle de Galilée, essai sur les origines et la formation de la méchanique classique. Paris: Armand Colin; trans. A. J. Pomerans, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1974.
Cramer, Konrad (1985). Nicht-reine synthetische Urteile a priori: ein Problem der Transzendentalphilosophie Immanuel Kants, Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
De Risi, Vincenzo (2007). Geometry and Monadology: Leibniz’s Analysis Situs and Philosophy of Space. Basel, Boston and Berlin: Birkhäuser Verlag.
DiSalle, Robert (1988). “Space, Time, and Inertia in the Foundations of Newtonian Physics,” doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.
DiSalle, Robert (1991). “Conventionalism and the Origins of the Inertial Frame Concept,” PSA 1990 2: 13947.
DiSalle, Robert (2002). “Space and Time: Inertial Frames,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: http://plato.stanford.edu/.
DiSalle, Robert (2006). Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics from Newton to Einstein, Cambridge University Press.
Drake, Stillman (1978). Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography, University of Chicago Press.
Evans, James (1998). The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy, Oxford University Press.
Falkenstein, Lorne (1998). “A Double Edged Sword? Kant’s Refutation of Mendelssohn’s Proof of the Immortality of the Soul and Its Implications for His Theory of Matter,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 29: 56188.
Förster, Eckart (1987). “Is There ‘a Gap’ in Kant’s Critical System?Journal of the History of Philosophy 25: 53355.
Förster, Eckart (2000). Kant’s Final Synthesis: An Essay on the Opus postumum, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Friedman, Michael (1986). “The Metaphysical Foundations of Newtonian Science,” in Robert E. Butts, ed., Kant’s Philosophy of Physical Science. Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft 1786–1986, Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 25–60; repr. in Friedman (1992b), pp. 136–64.
Friedman, Michael (1990). “Kant and Newton: Why Gravity is Essential to Matter,” in Phillip Bricker and R. I. G. Hughes, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 185–202.
Friedman, Michael (1992a). “Causal Laws and the Foundations of Natural Science,” in Paul Guyer, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Kant, Cambridge University Press, pp. 161–99.
Friedman, Michael (1992b). Kant and the Exact Sciences, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Friedman, Michael (2001). “Matter and Motion in the Metaphysical Foundations and the first Critique: The Empirical Concept of Matter and the Categories,” in Watkins, ed., pp. 53–69.
Friedman, Michael (2003). “Transcendental Philosophy and Mathematical Physics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 34: 2943.
Friedman, Michael (2005). “Kant on Science and Experience,” in Christia Mercer and Eileen O’Neill, eds., Early Modern Philosophy: Mind, Matter, and Metaphysics, Oxford University Press, pp. 262–75.
Friedman, Michael (2012). “The Prolegomena and Natural Science,” in Holger Lyre and Oliver Schliemann, eds., Kant: Prolegomena. Ein kooperativer Kommentar, Frankfurt a. M.: Klostermann, pp. 299–326.
Gloy, Karen (1976). Die Kantische Theorie der Naturwissenschaft: eine Strukturanalyse ihrer Möglichkeit, ihres Umfangs und ihrer Grenzen, Berlin: de Gruyter.
Guyer, Paul (1983). “Kant’s Intentions in the Refutation of Idealism,” Philosophical Review92: 32983.
Guyer, Paul (2005). Kant’s System of Nature and Freedom. Selected Essays, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hankins, Thomas L. (1985). Science and the Enlightenment, Cambridge University Press.
Harman, P. M. (1982a). Energy, Force, and Matter: The Conceptual Development of Nineteenth-Century Physics, Cambridge University Press.
Harman, P. M. (1982b). Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy: The Problem of Substance in Classical Physics, Sussex: Harvester Press.
Holden, Thomas (2004). The Architecture of Matter: Galileo to Kant, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Koyré, Alexandre (1965). Newtonian Studies, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; repr. University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Langton, Rae (1998). Kantian Humility: Our Ignorance of Things in Themselves, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Laywine, Alison (1993). Kant’s Early Metaphysics and Origins of the Critical Philosophy, Atascadero, Ca.: Ridgeview.
Laywine, Alison (1998). “Problems and Postulates: Kant on Reason and Understanding,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 36: 279311.
Laywine, Alison (2003). “Kant on Sensibility and the Understanding in the 1770s,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33: 44382.
Laywine, Alison (2010). “Kant and Lambert on Geometrical Postulates in the Reform of Metaphysics,” in Mary Domski and Michael Dickson, eds., Discourse on a New Method: Reinvigorating the Marriage of History and Philosophy of Science, Chicago and La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, pp. 113–33.
McMullin, Ernan (1978). Newton on Matter and Activity, University of Notre Dame Press.
Metzger, Hélène (1930). Newton, Stahl, Boerhaave et la doctrine chimique, Paris: Alcan.
Partington, J. R. (1961). A History of Chemistry, vol. ii, London: Macmillan.
Plaass, Peter (1965). Kant’s Theorie der Naturwissenschaft: Eine Untersuchung zur Vorrede von Kants “Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft”, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; trans. AlfredE. and Maria G. Miller, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1994.
Pollok, Konstantin (2001). Kants “Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft”: Ein Kritischer Kommentar, Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag.
Pollok, Konstantin (2006). “Kant’s Critical Concepts of Motion,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 44: 55975.
Pollok, Konstantin (2008). “‘An Almost Single Inference’ – Kant’s Deduction of the Categories Reconsidered,” Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 90: 32345.
Pourciau, Bruce (1998). “The Preliminary Mathematical Lemmas of Newton’s Principia,” Archive for History of the Exact Sciences 52: 27995.
Pourciau, Bruce (2003). “Newton’s Argument for Proposition 1 of the Principia,” Archive for History of the Exact Sciences 57: 267311.
Scott, Wilson L. (1970). The Conflict between Atomism and Conservation Theory: 1644–1860, London: Macdonald.
Smith, George E. (1999). “How Did Newton Discover Universal Gravity?Beyond Hypotheses: Newton’s Experimental Philosophy = St. John’s Review 45: 3263.
Smith, George E. (2002a). “From the Phenomenon of the Ellipse to an Inverse-Square Force: Why Not?” in David Malament, ed., Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics, La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, pp. 31–70.
Smith, George E. (2002b). “The Methodology of the Principia,” in I. Bernard Cohen and George E. Smith, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Newton, Cambridge University Press, pp. 138–73.
Smith, George E. (2012). “How Newton’s Principia Changed Physics,” in Andrew Janiak and Eric Schliesser, eds., Interpreting Newton: Critical Essays, Cambridge University Press, pp. 360–95.
Stan, Marius (in press). “Kant’s Third Law of Mechanics: The Long Shadow of Leibniz,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science.
Stein, Howard (1967). “Newtonian Space-Time,” Texas Quarterly 10: 174200.
Stein, Howard (1977). “Some Philosophical Prehistory of General Relativity,” in John Earman, Clark Glymour, and John Stachel, eds., Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science, vol. viii, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 3–49.
Stein, Howard (1990). “Eudoxus and Dedekind: On the Ancient Greek Theory of Ratios, and Its Relation to Modern Mathematics,” Synthese 84: 163211.
Strawson, P. F. (1959). Individuals: An Essay on Descriptive Metaphysics, London: Methuen.
Strawson, P. F. (1966). The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, London: Methuen.
Sutherland, Daniel (2004a). “The Role of Magnitude in Kant’s Critical Philosophy,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34: 41142.
Sutherland, Daniel (2004b). “Kant’s Philosophy of Mathematics and the Greek Mathematical Tradition,” Philosophical Review 113: 157201.
Sutherland, Daniel (2006). “Kant on Arithmetic, Algebra, and the Theory of Proportion,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 44: 53358.
Tanona, Scott (2000). “The Anticipation of Necessity: Kant on Kepler’s Laws and Universal Gravitation,” Philosophy of Science 67: 42143.
Thackray, Arnold (1970). Atoms and Powers. An Essay on Newtonian Matter-Theory and the Development of Chemistry, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Todhunter, Isaac (1873). A History of the Mathematical Theories of Attraction and the Figure of the Earth from the Time of Newton to that of Laplace, London: Macmillan.
Torretti, Roberto (1983). Relativity and Geometry. New York: Pergamon.
Truesdell, Clifford Ambrose (1954). “Prologue: Rational Fluid Mechanics, 1687–1765,” in Leonhardi Euleri Opera Omnia, Series Secunda, xii, volumen prius, Commentationes Mechanicae, ad theoriam corporum fluidorum pertinentes, Lausanne: Societatis Scientiarum Naturalium Helviticae, pp. ix–cxxv.
Tuschling, Burkhardt (1971). Metaphysische und transzendentale Dynamik in Kant’s Opus postumum, Berlin: de Gruyter.
Walker, Ralph C. S. (1974). “The Status of Kant’s Theory of Matter,” in Lewis White Beck, ed., Kant’s Theory of Knowledge. Selected Papers from the Third International Kant Congress, Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 151–56.
Warren, Daniel (2001a). “Kant’s Dynamics,” in Watkins, ed., pp. 93–116.
Warren, Daniel (2001b). Reality and Impenetrability in Kant’s Philosophy of Nature, New York and London: Routledge.
Watkins, Erik (1997). “The Laws of Motion from Newton to Kant,” Perspectives on Science 5: 31148.
Watkins, Erik (1998). “Kant’s Justification of the Laws of Mechanics,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 29: 53960.
Watkins, Erik ed. (2001). Kant and the Sciences, Oxford University Press.
Watkins, Erik (2005). Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality, Cambridge University Press.
Westfall, Richard S. (1971). Force in Newton’s Physics: The Science of Dynamics in the Seventeenth Century, London: Macdonald.

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