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9 - Nanocomposite fibers

Summary

Introduction

A nanocomposite is a material in which the matrix contains reinforcement materials having at least one dimension in the nanoscale (<100 nm), wherein the small size offers some level of controllable performance that is expected to be better than in conventional composites. In another words, these nanocomposites should show great promise either in terms of superior mechanical properties, or in terms of superior thermal, electrical, optical and other properties, and in general, at relatively low-reinforcement volume fractions [1, 2]. The principal properties for such reinforcement effects are that (1) the properties of nano-reinforcements are considerably higher than the reinforcing materials in use and (2) the ratio of their surface area to volume is very high, which provides a greater interfacial interaction with the matrix [1]. Table 9.1 shows the geometries, types and surface-to-volume relations of reinforcements and their arrangement modes in fiber composites.

Table 9.2 lists the typical functional nanoparticles and matrices that have been used for the composites. Among all the nano-reinforcements, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanoclay, graphene and nanofibers are the most usually involved materials for the structural nanocomposites that are introduced in this chapter.

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