Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: May 2010

Chapter 31 - Legal issues in fertility preservation

Summary

Many medications cause alterations in all categories of male infertility. Cimetidine, now an over-the-counter heartburn medication, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in a reversible manner. Genitourinary infections in the male are an uncommon but potentially treatable source of infertility. Chlamydia trachomatis has long been studied as a putative disrupter of male fertility. Clomiphene citrate has been used since the early 1990s to stimulate spermatogenesis in the man with nonobstructive azoospermia. Kallmann syndrome is a rare subset of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) associated with other midline defects including anosmia. Another endocrine disorder, hyperprolactinemia, is also responsible for male infertility. Prolactin inhibits luteinizing hormone (LH) action on Leydig cells. Although the incidence of a prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma is low, it is the most common functional pituitary tumor. Macroadenomas have warranted a referral to a neurosurgeon for transphenoidal or, more recently, endoscopic removal.

References

[1] MeiselA, LorenHR. Towards an informed discussion of informed consent: a review and critique of the empirical studies. Arizona Law Rev 1983; 25: 25–346.
[2] SchoverLR, BreyK, LichtinA, LipshultzLI, JehaS. Knowledge and experience regarding cancer, infertility, and sperm banking in younger male survivors. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 20–9.
[3] Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility preservation and reproduction in cancer patients. Fertil Steril 2005; 83: 83–8.
[4] Fertile Hope. Community statistics. www.fertilehope.org/participate/community-stats.cfm. Accessed March 10, 2009.
[5] Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Posthumous reproduction. Fertil Steril 2004; 82: S260–2.
[6] BBC News. Woman loses frozen embryos fight. 2006, March 7. news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/4779876.stm.
[7] BBC News. Woman “distraught” over embryos. 2007, April 10. news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6542657.stm.
[8] Kass v. Kass, 696 N.E.2d 174 (N.Y. 1998).
[9] A.Z. v. B.Z, 431 Mass. 150, 160, 725 N.E.2d 1051, 1058 (Mass. 2000); J.B. v. M.B, 170 N.J. 9, 783 A.2d 707 (N.J. 2001); Litowitz v. Litowitz, 146 Wash.2d 514, 48 P. 3d 261 (Wash. 2002).
[10] A.Z. v. B.Z, 431 Mass. 150, 725 N.E.2d 1051 (Mass. 2000).
[11] J.B. v. M.B, 170 N.J. 9, 783 A.2d 707 (N.J. 2001).
[12] Litowitz v. Litowitz, 146 Wash.2d 514, 48 P. 3d 261 (Wash. 2002).
[13] A.Z. v. B.Z, 431 Mass. 150, 160, 725 N.E.2d 1051, 1058 (Mass. 2000).
[14] Skinner v. Oklahoma, 316 U.S.535 (1942); Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972); Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).
[15] MacDonald v. MacDonald, 608 N.Y. S. 2d 477 (App. Div. 1994); Ezzone v. Ezzone, No. 96-DR-000359 (Ohio Lake County Ct. C.P. 1996).
[16] State ex rel. H. v. P, 90 A.D.2d 434, 457 N.Y.S.2d 488 (N.Y.A.D. 1982); In re Marriage of Phillips, 274 Kan. 1049, 58 P. 3d 680 (Kan. 2002); In re Raphael P, 97 Cal.App. 4th 716, 118 Cal.Rptr.2d 610 (Cal.App. 1 Dist. 2002); Lane v. Lane, 121 N.M. 414, 912 P. 2d 290 (N.M.App. 1996).
[17] Robert B. v. Susan B, 109 Cal.App. 4th 1109, 135 Cal.Rptr.2d 785 (Cal.App. 6 Dist. 2003).
[18] RobertsP. Biology and beyond: the case for passage of the new Uniform Parentage Act. Center for Law and Social Policy, 2000. www.clasp.org/publications/biology_and_beyond.pdf. [The District of Columbia, Hawaii, Maine, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and Vermont do not have laws governing artificial insemination.]
[19] Ferguson v. McKiernan, 855 A.2d 121 (Pa.Super. 2004), appeal granted in part by 868 A.2d 378 (Pa. 2005).
[20] In re Parentage of J.M.K, 155 Wash.2d 374, 119 P. 3d 840 ( Wash. Sep 15, 2005).
[21] In the Interest of K.M.H. and K.C.H., 169 P. 3d 1025 (Kansas 2007).
[22]American Society for Reproductive Medicine. 2006 Guidelines for gamete and embryo donation. Fertil Steril 2006; 86 (5 Suppl): S38–50, § VI(B)(5). [HIV-1 and -2, hepatitis C antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody, serologic test for syphilis, HTLV-1 and -2, CMV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, abbreviated retesting every 6 months, tests required by local or state laws.]
[23] 2006 ASRM Guidelines § VI(A).
[24] 2006 ASRM Guidelines § VI(2, 3, 5).
[25] 2006 ASRM Guidelines § VI((1).
[26] 2006 ASRM Guidelines § VI(B)(9).
[27] 2006 ASRM Guidelines § VI(B)(5).
[28] BleyerWA. The impact of childhood cancer on the United States and the world. CA Cancer J Clin 1990; 40: 40–67.
[29]British Fertility Society. A strategy for fertility services for survivors of childhood cancer. British Fertility Society, 2002. www.britishfertilitysociety.org.uk/practicepolicy/documents/fccpaper.pdf.
[30] GrundyR, GosdenRG, HewittM, et al. Fertility preservation for children treated for cancer (1): scientific advances and research dilemmas. Arch Dis Child 2001; 84: 84–9.
[31] GrundyR, LarcherV, GosdenRG, et al. Fertility preservation for children treated for cancer (2): ethics of consent for gamete storage and experimentation. Arch Dis Child 2001; 84: 84–2.
[32] Woodward v. Commissioner of Soc. Security, 435 Mass. 536, 760 N.E. 2d 257 (Mass. 2002).
[33] Johnson v. Superior Court, 101 Cal.App. 4th 869, 882 (Cal.App. 2 Dist. 2002).
[34] Hall, executrix v. Fertility Institute of New Orleans, 647 So.2d 1348, 1994 La.App.LEXIS 3294 (1994).
[35] DyerC. Diane Blood law victory gives her sons their “legal” father. Guardian Unlimited 2003, Sep. 19. www.guardian.co.uk/science/2003/sep/19/genetics.uknews; News PA. Diane Blood wins paternity rights for children. Times Online 2003, Feb. 28.
[36]Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008; www.hfea.gov.uk/en/1784.html. Accessed March 11, 2009.
[37] Hart v. Charter, No. 94–3944 (E.D. La. dismissed March 18, 1996).
[38] In re estate of William Kolacy, 332 NJ Super.593, 753 A.2d 1257 (N.J.Super.Ch. 2000).
[39] In re estate of William Kolacy, 332 NJ Super.593, 605, 753 A.2d 1257 (N.J.Super.Ch. 2000).
[40] Gillett-Netting v. Commissioner of Soc. Security, 371 F.3d 593 (9th Cir. 2004), rev’ing 231 F.Supp. 2d 961 (D.Ariz. 2002).
[41] Stephen v. Commissioner of Social Security, 386 F.Supp. 2d 1257 (M.D.Fla. 2005).
[42] Khabbaz v. Commissioner, Social Security Administration, 930 A.2d.1180 (N.H. 2007).
[43] Finley v. Astrue, 2008 Ark. LEXIS 2 (1/10/08).
[44] DouncettperryM. To be continued: a look at posthumous reproduction as it relates to today’s military. The Army Lawyer 27–50-420, May 2008. www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/05–2008.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2009.
[45]Trial court personnel, personal communication to the author.
[46]Fertile Hope. Parenthood options. www.fertilehope.org/learn-more/cancer-and-fertility-info/parenthood-options-men.cfm. Accessed March 10, 2009.
[47] ChoiJM, ChungP, VeeckL, et al. AZF microdeletions of the Y chromosome and in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertil Steril 2004; 81: 81–41.
[48] ThompsonJ. Faulty freezer ruins 28 cancer patients’ stored sperm. The Independent 2003, Jul. 20. news.independent.co.uk/uk/health_medical/article96871.ece; Kaiser Network. British patients whose stored sperm was destroyed when freezer tank failed sue hospital, Daily Reports 2003, Aug. 13. www.kaisernetwork.org/daily_reports/rep_index.cfm? DR_ID=19342.
[49] ArmstrongR. Cancer patients sue over sperm damage. Evening News 2004, Dec. 14. WLNR 13993819.
[50] Levsen v. Medical College of Wisconsin, 241 Wis.2d 50, 622 N.W.2d 770 (Wis.App. 2000).
[51] Johnson v. Superior Court, 101 Cal.App. 4th 869, 124 Cal.Rptr.2d 650 (Cal.App. 2 Dist. 2002); Paretta v. Med. Offices for Human Reproduction, 760 N.Y.S.2d 639 (N.Y.Sup. 2003).
[52] GregorianD, MacIntoshJ. Son is “dead” again: kin denied his sperm. New York Post 2006, Nov. 3; United Press International. Use of son’s semen for grandchild denied. 2006, Nov. 3. www.newsdaily.com.
[53] Lloyd v. North Broward Hospital District, 570 So. 2d 984 (Fla. Ct. App. 1990); Siemieniec v. Lutheran General Hospital, 117 Ill. 2d 230, 512 N.E. 2d 691 (Ill. 1987).
[54] Lombard v. Kyocera Wireless Corp. Employee Health Benefit Plan, Memorandum of P&A for Opposition to Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss the Complaint Without Leave to Amend, 2004 WL 1558969 (S.D.Ca. 2004).
[55]National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. Uniform Parentage Act (Last Amended or Revised in 2002) § 707, (2002). www.law.upenn.edu/bll/archives/ulc/upa/final2002.htm. Accessed March 10, 2009.
[56]American Bar Association Family Law Section Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technology and Genetics. Proposed Model Act Governing Assisted Reproductive Technology, 2007. www.abanet.org/family/committees/artmodelcode_feb2007.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2009.
[57]UPA, § 707; Model Act, § 607.
[58]UPA, §§ 702–3; Model Act, §§ 602–3.
[59]UPA, § 704; Model Act, § 604.
[60]UPA, § 706; Model Act, § 606.
[61] In re Marriage of Buzzanca, 61 Cal.App. 4th 1410, 1428–29 (4th Cir. 1998).s