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  • Print publication year: 1985
  • Online publication date: June 2011

Chapter 3 - The Greeks in Baktria and India


Pillar base containing an elegiac dedication and five Delphic maxims. Ai Khanum, Afghanistan. Limestone base, epigram in elegiac pentameters. On the basis of the lettering dated to the first half of the third century.

L. Robert, CRAI (1968) 421–39 with photograph.

MacDowell and Taddei, Afghanistan 197–8 with photograph, 225.


These wise (words) of ancient men are set up, / utterances of famous men, in holy Pytho. / Whence Klearchos, having copied them carefully, / set them up, shining from afar, in the sanctuary of Kineas.


As a child, be orderly. | As a youth, be self-controlled. | As an adult, be just. | As an old man, be of good counsel. ∥ When dying, be without sorrow.

Bilingual inscription of Aśoka. Kandahar, Afghanistan, 258. Greek inscription of fourteen lines accompanied by an Aramaic text of eight lines carved on living rock and containing material similar to the Major Rock Edicts of the Buddhist Maurya ruler Aśoka.

The Greeks in Baktria

D. Schlumberger et al., Journal Asiatique 246 (1958) 1–48; N. A. Nikam and R. McKeon, The Edicts of Aśoka (Chicago 1959) 1–22, 25 n. 2; R. Thapar, Aśoka and the Decline of the Mauryas (Oxford 1961) 137–81; M. Wheeler, Flames over Persepolis (New York 1968) 65–9 with photograph; Will, Histoire 1.265–6; P. M. Fraser, Afghan Studies 2 (1979) 12–13; MacDowell and Taddei, Afghanistan 192–8.