Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: November 2012

Chapter 25 - Measuring Child Well-Being in Schools

from Part V - Improving the Implementation of Evidence-Based Programmes And Interventions via Staff Skills, Organisational Approaches, and Policy Development


Co-operative learning is widely accepted as a pedagogical practice that can be employed in classrooms to stimulate students' interest in learning through collaborative interaction with their peers. When children work co-operatively, they learn to listen to what others have to say, give and receive help and discuss different ideas, and in so doing, they learn to develop mutual understandings of the topic at hand. However, whilst co-operative learning provides opportunities for students to dialogue, concern has been expressed about the quality of the discourse that often emerges if students are left to engage in discussions without training in how to interact with others. This chapter discusses the teacher's role in promoting effective small-group discourse. It presents two studies of teachers' discourse during co-operative and small-group learning. These studies provide unique insights into how teachers can use language to promote collaborative dialogue in the classroom during co-operative learning.


Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for the ASEBA preschool forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (2000). Moving prevention from the fringes into the fabric of school improvement. Journal of Education and Psychological Consultation 11, 7–36.
Albers, C. A., Glover, T. A. & Kratochwill, T. (2007). Editorial: Introduction to the special issue: How can universal screening enhance educational and mental health outcomes? Journal of School Psychology 45, 113–16.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Messer, S. C., Pickles, A., Winder, F. & Silver, D. (1995). The development of a short questionnaire for use in epidemiological studies of depression in children and adolescents. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 5, 237–49.
Axford, N., Green, V., Kalsbeek, A., Morpeth, L. & Palmer, C. (2009). Measuring children’s needs: How are we doing? Child and Family Social Work 13, 243–54.
Axford, N., & Hobbs, T. (2010). Getting the measure of child health and development outcomes (1): A method for use in children’s services settings. Child Indicators Research 4(1), 81–100.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A. & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory II. San Antonio, TX: Pyschological Corporation.
Ben-Arieh, A., & George, R. M. (eds.) (2006). Indicators of child well-being: Understanding their role, usage and policy influences. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Birmingham City Council (2007). The brighter futures strategy. Birmingham, AL: BCC.
Bradshaw, J. (1994). The conceptualisation and measurement of need. In J. Popay and G. Williams (eds.), Researching the people’s health. London: Routledge.
Breslau, J., Lane, M., Sampson, B. A. & Kessler, R. C. (2008). Mental disorders and subsequent educational attainment in a US national sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research 42, 708–16.
CASEL (2003). Safe and sound: An educational learner’s guide to evidence-based social and emotional (SEL) programs. Chicago: University of Illinois.
CASEL (2008). Connecting social and emotional learning with mental health. Chicago: University of Illinois.
Catalano, R., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S. & Hawkins, J. D. (2002). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development in programs. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 591, 98–124.
Clarke, A., Putz, R., Friede, T., Ashdown, J., Adi, Y., Martin, S., Flynn, P., Blake, A., Stewart-Brown, S. & Platt, S. (2010). Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) acceptability and validation in English and Scottish secondary school students (The WAVES Project). Edinburgh: NHS Scotland.
Coggon, D., Rose, G. & Baker, D. (1993). Epidemiology for the uninitiated, 3rd ed. London: BMJ Books.
Conners, K. C., Sitarenios, G., Parker, J. A. & Epstein, J. N. (1998). The Revised Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R): Factor structure, reliability, and criterion validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 26(4), 1573–2835.
Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Developmental epidemiology. In D. Cicchetti and D. J. Cohen (eds.), Developmental psychopathology. Vol. 1: Theory and Method. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Costello, E. J., Egger, H. & Angold, A. (2005). 10-Year research update review: The epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. I. Methods and public health burden. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44, 972–86.
Costello, E. J., Foley, D. L. & Angold, A. (2006). 10-Year research update review: The epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders 2. Developmental epidemiology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45, 8–25.
Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 837–44.
DeFries, J. C., Crossland, C. L., Pearson, C. E., & Sullivan, C. J. (1990). Comprehensive school health programs: Current status and future prospects. Journal of School Health 60, 127–90.
Detels, R., McEwen, J., Beaglehole, R. & Tanaka, H. (eds.) (2004). Oxford textbook of public health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Durlack, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D. & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing student’s social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development 89(1), 405–32.
Durlack, J. A., & Wells, A. M. (1997). Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. American Journal of Community Psychology 25, 115–52.
Elander, J., & Rutter, M. (1996). Use and development of the Rutter parents’ and teachers’ scales. International Journal of Methods in Pyschiatric Research 6, 63–8.
Elias, M. J., Wang, M. C., Weissberg, R. P., Zins, J. E. & Walberg, H. J. (2002). The other side of the report card: Student success depends on more than test scores. American School Board Journal 189, 28–30.
Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Frey, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., Haynes, N. M., et al. (1997). Promoting social and emotional learning: Guidelines for educators. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Elliot, S. N., Huai, N. & Roach, A. T. (2007). Universal and early screening for educational difficulties: Current and future approaches. Journal of School Psychology 45, 137–61.
Ford, T. (2008). Practitioner review: How can epidemiology help us plan and deliver effective child and adolescent mental health services? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiarty 49, 900–14.
Ford, T., Goodman, R. & Meltzer, H. (2003). The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 42, 1203–11.
Ford, T., Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., Goodman, A. & Goodman, R. (2009). Evaluation of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Added Value Score as a method for estimating effectiveness in child mental health interventions. British Journal of Psychiatry 194, 552–8.
Glover, T. A., & Albers, C. A. (2007). Considerations for evaluating universal screening assessments. Journal of School Psychology 45(2), 117–35.
Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, 581–6.
Goodman, R. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 40, 1337–45.
Goodman, R. & Scott, S. (1999). Comparing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Child Behaviour Checklist: Is small beautiful? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27, 17–24.
Goodman, R., Ford, T., Corbin, T. & Meltzer, H. (2004). Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) multi-informant algorithm to screen looked after children for psychiatric disorders. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 13, 25–31.
Goodman, R., Ford, T., Gatward, R. & Meltzer, H. (2000). Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample. British Journal of Psychiatry 177, 534–39.
Goodman, R., Ford, T., Richards, H. & Meltzer, H. (2000). The Development and Well-being Assessment: Description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 41, 645–57.
Goodman, R., Renfrew, D., & Mullick, M. (2000). Predicting type of psychiatric disorder from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores in child mental health clinics in London and Dhaka. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 9, 129–34.
Gould, N. (2001). Developing an approach to population needs assessment in English social services. Social Work and Social Sciences Review 9, 22–35.
Gowers, S. G., Harrington, R. C., Whitton, A., Lelliott, P., Beevor, A., Wing, J. & Jezzard, R. (1999). Brief scale for measuring the outcomes of emotional and behavioural disorders in children: The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA). British Journal of Psychiatry 174, 413–16.
Green, H., McGinnity, A., Meltzer, H., Ford, T. & Goodman, R. (2005). Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain, 2004. London: TSO.
Greenberg, M. T. (2006). Promoting resilience in children and youth: Preventative interventions and their interface with neuroscience. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1094, 139–50.
Greenberg, M. T. & Kusché, C. A. (2002). Promoting alternative thinking strategies: Blueprint for violence prevention (Book 10), 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence.
Greenberg, M. T., Domitrovich, C. & Bumbarger, B. (2001). The prevention of mental disorders in school-aged children: Current state of the field. Prevention and Treatment 4, 1–61.
Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P., O’Brien, M. U., Fredericks, L., Resnick, H. & Elias, M. J. (2003). Enhancing school-based prevention and youth development through coordinated social and emotional learning. American Psychologist 58, 466–74.
Gresham, F. M., & Elliot, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Heckman, J. J. & Masterov, D. M. (2007). The productivity argument for investing in young children. Review of Agricultural Economics 29(3), 446–93.
Hobbs, T., Axford, N. & Jodrell, D. (2010). Getting the measure of child health and development outcomes (2): The picture for a local authority in England. Child Indicators Research 4(1), 81–100..
Hobbs, T., Little, M. & Kaoukji, D. (2007). Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to measure the behavior and emotional health of children in schools in the UK. International Journal of Child and Family Welfare 10, 150–64.
Jackson, A. W. & Davis, G. A. (2000). Turning points 2000: Educating adolescents in the 21st century. New York: Teachers College Press.
Kessler, R. C., Foster, C. L., Saunders, W. B. & Stang, P. E. (1995). Social consequences of psychiatric disorders. I. Educational attainment. American Journal of Psychiatry 152,1026–32.
Kolbe, L. J., Collins, J. & Cortese, P. (1997). Building the capacity for schools to improve the health of the nation: A call for assistance from psychologists. American Psychologist 52, 256–65.
Kovacs, M. (1980/1981) Rating scales to assess depression in school-aged children. Ada Paedopsychiatna 46, 305–15.
Lee, W., Jones, L., Goodman, R. & Heyman, I. (2005). Broad outcome measures may underestimate effectiveness; an instrument comparison survey. Child and adolescent Mental Health 10, 143–4.
Levitt, J. M., Saka, N., Romanelli, L. H. & Hoagwood, K. (2007). Early identification of mental health problems in schools: The status of instrumentation. Journal of School Psychology 45, 163–91.
Little, M., & Mount, K. (1999). Prevention and early intervention with children in need. Aldershot, UK: Ashgage.
Lohr, S. L. (1999). Sampling: Design and analysis. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington: National Academies Press.
Mathai, J., Anderson, P. & Bourne, A. (2003). Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as an outcome measure in a child and adolescent mental health service. Australasian Psychiatry 11, 334–7.
Mellor, D. (2004). Furthering the use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Reliability with younger child respondents. Psychological assessment 16, 396–401.
Muris, P., Meesters, C., Eijkelenboon, A. & Vinken, M. (2004). The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Its psychometric properties in 8- to 13-year-old non-clinical children. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 43, 436–88.
Newlove, T., Leach, J., Murphy, E. & Ford, T. (forthcoming). Evaluation of a pilot project for the mental health screening of children who are looked after.
Reynolds, C. R., & Richmond, B. O. (1978). What I think and feel: A revised measure of chilren’s manifest anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 6, 271–80.
Roeser, R., Eccles, J. & Samoroff, A. J. (2000). School as a context of early adolescents’ academic and social-emotional development: A summary of research findings. Elementary School Journal 100, 443–71.
Rose, G. R. (1992). The strategy of preventative medicine. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Rose, G. R., & Day, S. (1990). The population mean predicts the number of deviant individuals. British Medical Journal 301, 1031–4.
Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W. & Freeman, H. E. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach, 7th ed. London: Sage.
Rutter, M. (1967). A children’s behaviour questionnaire for completion by teachers: Preliminary findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 8, 1–11.
Rutter, M., & Stevenson, J. (2008). Using epidemiology to plan services: A conceptual approach. In M. Rutter, D. Bishop, D. Pine, S. Scott, J. Stevenson & E. Taylor (eds.), Rutter’s child and adolescent psychiatry. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Seligman, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist 55, 5–14.
Torgerson, D. J., & Torgerson, C. J. (2008). Designing randomised trials in health, education and the social sciences. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D. & Walberg, H. J. (1997). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational Research 63, 249–94.
Williams, J. S. F., Allison, C., Bolton, P., Baron- Cohen, S. & Brayne, C. (2005). The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): Test accuracy. Autism 9(1), 45–68.
Wilson, D. B., Gottfredson, D. C. & Najaka, S. S. (2001). School-based prevention of problem behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 17, 247–72.
World Health Organization (2005). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence, practice. Geneva: World Health Organization.