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  • Print publication year: 2010
  • Online publication date: November 2010

2 - Assessing the elderly psychiatric patient

Further reading

Articles
Borson, S.et al. (2000). The Mini-Cog: a cognitive ‘vital signs’ measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 1021–1027.

A potentially useful, brief cognitive assessment instrument.

Brodaty, H.et al. (2002). The GPCOG: a new screening test for dementia designed for general practice. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 530–534.

Describes an increasingly popular brief assessment instrument designed for use in primary care settings.

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinicians. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.

The archetypal brief cognitive screen.

Hodkinson, H. M. (1972). Evaluation of a mental test score for the assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age and Ageing, 1, 233–238.

The abbreviated mental test score has the advantage of brevity, but the question about the monarch will need adaptation outside countries which belong to the British Commonwealth.

Nasreddine, Z. S.et al. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 695–699.

The MoCA is growing rapidly in popularity.

Rosen, W. G., Mohs, R. C. and Davis, K. L. (1984). A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1356–1364.

This paper describes the ADAS-Cog, which has been widely utilized in trials of cognitive enhancing agents. The ADAS-Cog is fairly sensitive to change and takes around 20 minutes to administer.

Roth, M.et al. (1984). CAMDEX: a standardised instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 698–709.

The CAMDEX incorporates the CAMCOG, a mini-neuropsychological battery which assesses several areas of cognitive function. The CAMDEX can be purchased from Cambridge University Press.

Royall, D. R., Cordes, J. A. and Polk, M. (1998). CLOX: an executive clock drawing task. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 64, 588–594.

A clock test that can help assess frontal lobe functioning.

Shulman, K. I. (2000). Clock-drawing: is it the ideal cognitive screening test?International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 548–561.

A thorough overview.

Shulman, K. I.et al. (2006). IPA survey of brief cognitive screening instruments. International Psychogeriatrics, 18, 281–294.

Details what instruments are in widespread use by specialists around the world.

Storey, J. E.et al. (2004). The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS): a multicultural cognitive assessment scale. International Psychogeriatrics, 16, 13–31.

This instrument appears to be very good when used in the assessment of those from diverse linguistic or cultural groups, including individuals with limited formal education.

Books
David, A., Fleminger, S., Kopelman, M., Lovestone, S., and Mellers, J. (2009). Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edition. Chichester: Wiley.

This recently revised and updated classic text contains an excellent and very detailed section on all aspects of cognitive assessment.

Shulman, K. and Feinstein, A. (2003). Quick Cognitive Screening for Clinicians. London: Martin Dunitz.

A compact but comprehensive guide to this important topic.

Book chapters
Shulman, K. I. and Silver, I. L. (2006). Assessment of older adults. In D. Goldbloom, (Ed.) Psychiatric Clinical Skills (pp. 315–325). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby.

A comprehensive chapter on assessment.

Silver, L. and Herrmann, N. (2004). History and mental status examination. In J. Sadavoy, L. Jarvik, G. Grossberg and B. Meyers, (Eds.) Comprehensive Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 3rd edition (pp. 253–280). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Offers more detail than can be provided in the current text.

Articles

Borson, S.et al. (2000). The Mini-Cog: a cognitive ‘vital signs’ measure for dementia screening in multi-lingual elderly. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 1021–1027.

A potentially useful, brief cognitive assessment instrument.

Brodaty, H.et al. (2002). The GPCOG: a new screening test for dementia designed for general practice. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 530–534.

Describes an increasingly popular brief assessment instrument designed for use in primary care settings.

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. and McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-Mental State: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinicians. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.

The archetypal brief cognitive screen.

Hodkinson, H. M. (1972). Evaluation of a mental test score for the assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age and Ageing, 1, 233–238.

The abbreviated mental test score has the advantage of brevity, but the question about the monarch will need adaptation outside countries which belong to the British Commonwealth.

Nasreddine, Z. S.et al. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53, 695–699.

The MoCA is growing rapidly in popularity.

Rosen, W. G., Mohs, R. C. and Davis, K. L. (1984). A new rating scale for Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1356–1364.

This paper describes the ADAS-Cog, which has been widely utilized in trials of cognitive enhancing agents. The ADAS-Cog is fairly sensitive to change and takes around 20 minutes to administer.

Roth, M.et al. (1984). CAMDEX: a standardised instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 698–709.

The CAMDEX incorporates the CAMCOG, a mini-neuropsychological battery which assesses several areas of cognitive function. The CAMDEX can be purchased from Cambridge University Press.

Royall, D. R., Cordes, J. A. and Polk, M. (1998). CLOX: an executive clock drawing task. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 64, 588–594.

A clock test that can help assess frontal lobe functioning.

Shulman, K. I. (2000). Clock-drawing: is it the ideal cognitive screening test?International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 548–561.

A thorough overview.

Shulman, K. I.et al. (2006). IPA survey of brief cognitive screening instruments. International Psychogeriatrics, 18, 281–294.

Details what instruments are in widespread use by specialists around the world.

Storey, J. E.et al. (2004). The Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS): a multicultural cognitive assessment scale. International Psychogeriatrics, 16, 13–31.

This instrument appears to be very good when used in the assessment of those from diverse linguistic or cultural groups, including individuals with limited formal education.

Books

David, A., Fleminger, S., Kopelman, M., Lovestone, S., and Mellers, J. (2009). Lishman’s Organic Psychiatry, 4th edition. Chichester: Wiley.

This recently revised and updated classic text contains an excellent and very detailed section on all aspects of cognitive assessment.

Shulman, K. and Feinstein, A. (2003). Quick Cognitive Screening for Clinicians. London: Martin Dunitz.

A compact but comprehensive guide to this important topic.

Book chapters

Shulman, K. I. and Silver, I. L. (2006). Assessment of older adults. In D. Goldbloom, (Ed.) Psychiatric Clinical Skills (pp. 315–325). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby.

A comprehensive chapter on assessment.

Silver, L. and Herrmann, N. (2004). History and mental status examination. In J. Sadavoy, L. Jarvik, G. Grossberg and B. Meyers, (Eds.) Comprehensive Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, 3rd edition (pp. 253–280). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.

Offers more detail than can be provided in the current text.