Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This chapter has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Leinhardt, Gaea and Knutson, Karen 2006. Grandparents Speak: Museum Conversations across the Generations. Curator: The Museum Journal, Vol. 49, Issue. 2, p. 235.

    Zwaan, Rolf A. and Taylor, Lawrence J. 2006. Seeing, acting, understanding: Motor resonance in language comprehension.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol. 135, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Greeno, James G. and van de Sande, Carla 2007. Perspectival Understanding of Conceptions and Conceptual Growth in Interaction. Educational Psychologist, Vol. 42, Issue. 1, p. 9.

    Taylor, Lawrence J. and Zwaan, Rolf A. 2008. Motor Resonance and Linguistic Focus. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol. 61, Issue. 6, p. 896.

    Tobin, Vera 2009. Cognitive bias and the poetics of surprise. Language and Literature, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 155.

    Greeno, James G. 2009. A Theory Bite on Contextualizing, Framing, and Positioning: A Companion to Son and Goldstone. Cognition and Instruction, Vol. 27, Issue. 3, p. 269.

    Taylor, Lawrence J. and Zwaan, Rolf A. 2009. Action in cognition: The case of language. Language and Cognition, Vol. 1, Issue. 01, p. 45.

    MacWhinney, Brian 2010. The Handbook of Life-Span Development.

    Bergen, Benjamin Lau, Ting-Ting Chan Narayan, Shweta Stojanovic, Diana and Wheeler, Kathryn 2010. Body part representations in verbal semantics. Memory & Cognition, Vol. 38, Issue. 7, p. 969.

    BHATT, RAKESH M. and BOLONYAI, AGNES 2011. Code-switching and the optimal grammar of bilingual language use. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, Vol. 14, Issue. 04, p. 522.

    Mason, Robert A. and Just, Marcel Adam 2011. Differentiable cortical networks for inferences concerning people's intentions versus physical causality. Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 313.

    van de Sande, Carla C. and Greeno, James G. 2012. Achieving Alignment of Perspectival Framings in Problem-Solving Discourse. Journal of the Learning Sciences, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 1.

    Wiechmann, Daniel Kerz, Elma Snider, Neal and Jaeger, T. Florian 2013. Introduction to the Special Issue: Parsimony and Redundancy in Models of Language. Language and Speech, Vol. 56, Issue. 3, p. 257.

    Gianelli, Claudia Scorolli, Claudia and Borghi, Anna M. 2013. Acting in perspective: the role of body and language as social tools. Psychological Research, Vol. 77, Issue. 1, p. 40.

    Aravena, Pia Courson, Mélody Frak, Victor Cheylus, Anne Paulignan, Yves Deprez, Viviane and Nazir, Tatjana A. 2014. Action relevance in linguistic context drives word-induced motor activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol. 8, Issue. ,

    Sung, Yao-Ting Cha, Jih-Ho Tu, Jung-Yueh Wu, Ming-Da and Lin, Wei-Chun 2016. Investigating the Processing of Relative Clauses in Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from Eye-Movement Data. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, Vol. 45, Issue. 5, p. 1089.

    Feist, Jim 2016. Semantic Structure in English. Vol. 73, Issue. ,

    Fortescue, Michael 2017. The Abstraction Engine. Vol. 94, Issue. ,

    Gianelli, Claudia Marzocchi, Michele and Borghi, Anna M. 2017. Grasping the Agent’s Perspective: A Kinematics Investigation of Linguistic Perspective in Italian and German. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 8, Issue. ,

    Pelletier, Francis Jeffry 2017. Compositionality and Concepts in Linguistics and Psychology. Vol. 3, Issue. , p. 31.

    ×
  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: July 2009

9 - The Emergence of Grammar from Perspective

Summary

Successful communication rests not just on shared knowledge and reference (Clark & Marshall, 1981), but also on a process of mutual perspective taking. By giving clear cues to our listeners about which perspectives they should assume and how they should move from one perspective to the next, we maximize the extent to which they can share our perceptions and ideas. When language is rich in cues for perspective taking and perspective shifting, it awakens the imagination of the listener and leads to successful sharing of ideas, impressions, attitudes, and narratives. When the process of perspective sharing is disrupted by interruptions, monotony, excessive complexity, or lack of shared knowledge, communication can break down.

Although we understand intuitively that perspective taking is central to communication, few psycholinguistic or cognitive models assign it more than a peripheral role. Linguistic theory typically views perspective as a secondary pragmatic filter (Kuno, 1986; O'Grady, in press) that operates only after hard linguistic constraints have been fulfilled. This paper explores the hypothesis that, far from being peripheral or secondary, perspective taking is at the very core of language structure and higher-level cognition. This approach, which I call the Perspective Hypothesis, makes the following basic claims:

Perspective taking operates online using images created in five systems: direct experience, space/time deixis, plans, social roles, and mental acts.

Language uses perspective taking to bind together these five imagery subsystems.

Grammar emerges from conversation as a method for supporting accurate tracking and switching of perspective.

By tracing perspective shifts in language, children are able to learn the cognitive pathways and mental models sanctioned by their culture.

Recommend this book

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

Grounding Cognition
  • Online ISBN: 9780511499968
  • Book DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499968
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to *
×
References
Barsalou, L. W. (1999). Perceptual symbol systems. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22, 577–660
Bartsch, K., & Wellman, H. (1995). Children Talk about the Mind. New York: Oxford University Press
Bryant, D. J., Tversky, B., & Franklin, N. (1992). Internal and external spatial frameworks for representing described scenes. Journal of Memory and Language 31, 74–98
Burgess, C., & Lund, K. (1997). Modelling parsing constraints with high-dimension context space. Language and Cognitive Processes 12, 177–210
Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Cinnaminson, NJ: Foris
Chomsky, N. (1982). Some Concepts and Consequences of the Theory of Government and Binding. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Clark, H., & Marshall, C. (1981). Definite reference and mutual knowledge. In B. W. A. Joshi & I. Sag (Eds.), Elements of Discourse Understanding. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press
Clark, H. H. (1973). Space, time, semantics, and the child. In T. E. Moore (Ed.), Cognitive Development and Language Acquisition (pp. 28–63). New York: Academic Press
Cohen, M. S., Kosslyn, S. M., Breiter, H. C., DiGirolamo, G. J., Thompson, W. L., Anderson, A. K., et al. (1996). Changes in cortical activity during mental rotation. A mapping study using functional MRI. Brain 119, 89–100
Damasio, A. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace
Duchan, J. F., Bruder, G. A., & Hewitt, L. E. (1995). Deixis in Narrative: A Cognitive Science Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Franks, S. L., & Connell, P. J. (1996). Knowledge of binding in normal and SLI children. Journal of Child Language 23, 431–464
Gernsbacher, M. A. (1990). Language Comprehension as Structure Building. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Gibson, J. J. (1977). The theory of affordances. In R. E. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing: Toward an Ecological Psychology (pp. 67–82). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Givón, T. (1976). Topic, pronoun, and grammatical agreement. In C. Li (Ed.), Subject and Topic (pp. 149–188). New York: Academic Press
Grodzinsky, J., & Reinhart, T. (1993). The innateness of binding and coreference. Linguistic Inquiry 24, 187–222
Hausser, R. (1999). Foundations of Computational Linguistics: Man–machine Communication in Natural Language. Berlin: Springer
Haviland, J. (1996). Projections, transpositions, and relativity. In J. Gumperz & S. Levinson (Eds.), Rethinking Linguistics Relativity (pp. 271–323). New York: Cambridge University Press
Hawkins, J. A. (1999). Processing complexity and filler-gap dependencies across grammars. Language 75, 244–285
Hudson, R. (1984). Word grammar. Oxford: Blackwell
Jeannerod, M. (1997). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Action. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell
Kakei, S., Hoffman, D. S., & Strick, P. L. (1999). Muscle and movement representations in the primary motor cortex. Science 285, 2136–2139
Kay, P., & Fillmore, C. J. (1999). Grammatical constructions and linguistic generalization: The “what's X doing Y?” construction. Language 75, 1–33
Kuno, S. (1986). Functional Syntax. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Lakoff, G. (1974). Syntactic amalgams. In R. F. M. LaGaly & A. Bruck (Eds.), Papers from the Tenth Regional Meeting. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society
Langacker, R. (1995). Viewing in grammar and cognition. In P. W. Davis (Ed.), Alternative Linguistics: Descriptive and Theoretical Models (pp. 153–212). Amsterdam: John Benjamins
MacDonald, M. C., Pearlmutter, N. J., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1994). Lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution. Psychological Review 1014, 676–703
McDonald, J. L., & MacWhinney, B. (1989). Maximum likelihood models for sentence processing research. In B. MacWhinney & E. Bates (Eds.), The Crosslinguistic Study of Sentence Processing (pp. 397–421). New York: Cambridge University Press
McDonald, J. L., & MacWhinney, B. J. (1995). The time course of anaphor resolution: Effects of implicit verb causality and gender. Journal of Memory and Language 34, 543–566
MacWhinney, B. (1977). Starting points. Language 53, 152–168
MacWhinney, B. (1982). Basic syntactic processes. In S. Kuczaj (Ed.), Language Acquisition: Vol. 1. Syntax and Semantics (pp. 73–136). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
MacWhinney, B. (1987). Toward a psycholinguistically plausible parser. In S. Thomason (Ed.), Proceedings of the Eastern States Conference on Linguistics. Columbus: Ohio State University
MacWhinney, B. (1988). Competition and teachability. In R. Schiefelbusch & M. Rice (Eds.), The Teachability of Language (pp. 63–104). New York: Cambridge University Press
MacWhinney, B. (ed.), (1999b). The Emergence of Language. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
MacWhinney, B. (1999a). The emergence of language from embodiment. In B. MacWhinney (Ed.), The Emergence of Language (pp. 213–256). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
MacWhinney, B. (2002). Language emergence. In P. Burmeister, T. Piske & A. Rohde (Eds.), An Integrated View of Language Development – Papers in Honor of Henning Wode (pp. 17–42). Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier
MacWhinney, B. (2003). The gradual evolution of language. In B. Malle & T. Givón (Eds.), The Evolution of Language. Philadelphia: Benjamins
MacWhinney, B., & Pléh, C. (1988). The processing of restrictive relative clauses in Hungarian. Cognition 29, 95–141
Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. T. (1980). The temporal structure of spoken language understanding. Cognition 8, 1–71
Martin, A., Wiggs, C. L., Ungerleider, L. G., & Haxby, J. V. (1996). Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge. Nature 379, 649–652
Mitchell, D. C. (1994). Sentence parsing. In M. Gernsbacher (Ed.), Handbook of Psycholinguistics. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
Narayanan, S. (1997). Talking the talk is like walking the walk. Proceedings of the 19th Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society55–59
O' Grady, W. (in press). Syntactic carpentry. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Paivio, A. (1971). Imagery and Verbal Processes. New York: Rinehart and Winston
Parsons, L. M., Fox, P. T., Downs, J. H., Glass, T., Hirsch, T. B., Martin, C. C., et al. (1995). Use of implicit motor imagery for visual shape discrimination as revealed by PET. Nature 375, 54–58
Postal, P. (1971). Cross-Over Phenomena. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston
Reinhart, T. (1981). Definite NP anaphora and c-command domains. Linguistic Inquiry 12, 605–635
Reinhart, T. (1983). Anaphora and Semantic Interpretation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V., & Fogassi, L. (1996). Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research 3, 131–141
Sacerdoti, E. (1977). A Structure for Plans and Behavior. New York: Elsevier Computer Science Library
Smyth, R. (1995). Conceptual perspective-taking and children's interpretation of pronouns in reported speech. Journal of Child Language 22, 171–187
Stanfield, R. A., & Zwaan, R. A. (2001). The effect of implied orientation derived from verbal context on picture recognition. Psychological Science 12, 153–156
Tabachneck-Schijf, H. J. M., Leonardo, A. M., & Simon, H. A. (1997). CaMeRa: A computational model of multiple representations. Cognitive Science 21, 305–350
Tenny, C., & Speas, P. (2002). Configurational properties of point of view roles. In A. DiSciullo (Ed.), Asymmetry in Grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins
van Hoek, K. (1997). Anaphora and Conceptual Structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Vendler, Z. (1957). Verbs and times. Philosophical Review 56, 143–160
Zribi-Hertz, A. (1989). Anaphor binding and narrative point of view: English reflexive pronouns in sentence and discourse. Language 654, 695–727
Zwaan, R. A. (1996). Processing narrative time shifts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition 22, 1196–1207