Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: October 2014

2 - RFID background

    • Send chapter to Kindle

      To send this chapter to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Available formats
      ×

      Send chapter to Dropbox

      To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Available formats
      ×

      Send chapter to Google Drive

      To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Available formats
      ×

Summary

RFID system architecture

RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) indicates the capability of identifying by means of radio frequency transmissions. The identification involves assigning a unique identity to an object that is distinguishable in an unambiguous way.

In this original form RFIDs have the same functionality as a barcode. Regarding its evolution, the main purpose of this technology, beyond barcodes, is to obtain identified information about objects, animals, or persons by means of small apparatuses working at radio frequency.

The intake of information is achieved by means of searching operations, identification, selection, spatial localization, and tracking.

Identifier and identified communicate using radio frequency signals, hence no physical contact (unlike, for example, use of magnetic stripe cards) is needed.

The predecessor of the RFID system is commonly recognized as being “Identification Friend or Foe (IFF),” developed in England during World War II (1940) [1–3]. The equipment on board allied aircraft had the functionality of answering if questioned, thus identifying allied planes and distinguishing them from enemy aircraft.

identifying allied planes and distinguishing them from enemy aircraft. The technology has then evolved differently into systems for following the route of railway wagons, for the automation of processes in the automotive industry, for the location of livestock and wildlife, for anti-theft in the retail trade, for keys and electronic documents, and in agriculture and nature reserves, etc. [4–6].

References
Stockman, Harry, “Communication by means of reflected power,” Proceedings of the IRE, 1196–1204, (Oct.) 1948.
Harris, D. B., “Radio transmission systems with modulatable passive responder,” US 2927321, 1960.
Cardullo, M. W. and Parks, W. L., “Transponder apparatus and system,” US 3713148, 1970.
Hauslen, R. A., “The promise of automatic vehicle identification,” IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, VT-26, (1), 30–38, (Feb.) 1977.
Hassan, M., Ali, M., and Aktas, E., “Radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies for locating warehouse resources: A conceptual framework,” Proceedings of 2012 European Conference on Smart Objects, Systems and Technologies (SmartSysTech), pp. 1–20, 12–13 June 2012.
Merenda, M., Felini, C., and Corte, F. G. Della, “Battery-less smart RFID tag with sensor capabilities,” IEEE International Conference on RFID-Technologies and Applications (RFID-TA), pp. 160–164, 5–7 Nov. 2012.
ISO Standard. .
EPCglobal, “Radio-frequency identity protocols – HF version 2 RFID – draft version 0.0.9,” EPCglobal Standard, Jul. 2006. [Online]. Available: .
ISO/IEC SC31/WG 4, “ISO/IEC WD 18000–6 mode3; automatic identification – radio frequency identification for item management part 6: Mode 3 – physical layer, anti-collision system and protocols for ultra high frequency (UHF) systems,” Feb. 2002.
EPCglobal, “Radio-frequency identity protocols – class-1 generation-2 RFID v1.2.0,” EPCglobal Standard, EPCglobal Inc., Oct. 2008, .
Marrocco, G., “The art of UHF RFID antenna design: impedance-matching and size-reduction techniques,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 50, (1), 66–79, 2008.
Balanis, C., Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 3rd Edn., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2005.
Orecchini, G., Alimenti, F., Palazzari, V., et al., “Design and fabrication of ultra-low cost RFID antennas and tags exploiting paper substrates and ink-jet printing technology,” IET Microwaves, Antenna and Propagation, 5, (8), 993–1001, 2011.
Babar, A., Ukkonen, L., and Sydanheimo, L., “Dual UHF RFID band miniaturized multipurpose planar antenna for compact wireless systems,” International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), pp. 1–4, 2010.
Mariotti, C., Lakafosis, V., Tentzeris, M. M., and Roselli, L., “An IPv6-enabled wireless shoe-mounted platform for health-monitoring,” IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks (WiSNet), pp. 46–48, 2013.
Lolli, F., Virili, M., Orecchini, G., et al., “Electromagnetic characterization of paper-glue compound for system-in-package on paper (SiPoP) future developments,” Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE, 22, (10), 545–547, 2012.
Lee, J.-H., Sarkar, S., Pinel, S., et al., “3D-SOP millimeter-wave functions for high data rate wireless systems using LTCC and LCP technologies,” Proceedings 55th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, pp. 764–768, 2005.
Rida, A., Margomenos, A., Lee, J. S., et al., “Integrated wideband 2-D and 3-D transitions for millimeter-wave RF front-ends,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, IEEE, 9, (11), 1080–1083, 2010.
Rida, A., Margomenos, A., and Tentzeris, M. M., “Novel wideband 3D transitions on liquid crystal polymer for millimeter-wave applications up to 100 GHz,” Microwave Symposium Digest, MTT ’09. IEEE MTT-S International, pp. 953–956, 2009.
Ziai, M. A. and Batchelor, J. C., “Thin ultra high-frequency platform insensitive radio frequency identification tags,” Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, IET, 4, (3), 390–398, 2010.
Rajagopalan, H. and Rahmat-Samii, Y., “Platform tolerant and capsule-pill RFID antenna designs: An overview of recent developments at UCLA,” IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), pp. 144–147, 2012.
Buckley, J., Final report of the conference “From RFID to the Internet of Things,” , Brussels, Mar. 2006.
Alimenti, F., Virili, M., Orecchini, G., et al., “A new contactless assembly method for paper substrate antennas and UHF RFID chips,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Technique, 59, (3), 2011.
Siegel, A. C., Phillips, S. T., Dickey, M. D., et al., “Foldable printed circuit boards on paper substrates,” Advanced Functional Materials, 20, (1), 28–35, 2010.
Yang, L., Rida, A., Vyas, R., and Tentzeris, M. M., “RFID tag and RF structures on a paper substrate using inkjet-printing technology,” IEEE Trans. on Microware Theory and Technique, 55, (12), 2894–2901, 2007.
Fortunato, E., Correia, N., Barquinha, P., et al., “High-performance flexible hybrid field-effect transistors based on cellulose fiber paper,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., 29, (9), 988–990, 2008.
Couderc, S., Ducloux, O., Kim, B. J., and Someya, T., “A mechanical switch device made of a polyimide-coated microfibrillated cellulose sheet,” Journal of Micromechanical and Microengineering, 19, 1–11, 2009.
Steudel, S., Myny, K., Arkhipov, V., et al., “50 MHz rectifier based on an organic diode,” Nature Material, 4, 597–600, 2005.
Steudel, S., Vusser, S. D., Myny, K., et al., “Comparison of organic diode structures regarding high-frequency rectification behavior in radio-frequency identification tags,” J. Appl. Phys., 99, (11), 114–519, 2006.
Subramanian, V., Frechet, J. M. J., Chang, P. C., et al., “Progress toward development of all-printed RFID tags: Materials, processes, and devices,” Proc. IEEE, 93, (7), 1330–1333, 2005.
Virili, M., Casula, G., Mariotti, C., et al., “7.5–15 MHz organic frequency doubler made with pentacene-based diode and paper substrate,” Accepted for publication in the International Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), 2014 IEEE MTT-S.
Simula, S., Ikalainen, S., and Niskanen, K., “Measurement of the dielectric properties of paper,” Journal of Imaging Science and Tech., 43, (5), (Sept.) 1999.
Ichimura, H., Kakimoto, A., and Ichijo, B., “Dielectric property measurement of insulating paper by the gap variation method,” IEEE Trans. Parts, Materials and Packaging, PMP-4, (2), (June) 1968.
Apekis, L., Christodoulides, C., and Pissis, P., “Dielectric properties of paper as a function of moisture content,” Dielectric Materials, Measurements and Applications, Fifth International Conference, pp. 97–100, 27–30 June 1988.
-2014–2024–226876611.html.
.
Dimitrakopoulos, D. and Malenfant, P. R. L., “Organic thin film transistors for large area electronics, Advanced Materials, 14, (2), 99–117, (Jan.) 2002.
Nathan, A., Ahnood, A., Matthew, T. C., et al., “Flexible electronics: the next ubiquitous platform,” Proc. IEEE (Centennial Issue), 100, 1479–1510, 2012.