Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 15
  • Print publication year: 2012
  • Online publication date: September 2012

Chapter 2 - Energy, Poverty, and Development

Summary

Executive Summary

There is often a two-way relationship between the lack of access to adequate and affordable energy services and poverty. The relationship is, in many respects, a vicious cycle in which people who lack access to cleaner and affordable energy are often trapped in a re-enforcing cycle of deprivation, lower incomes and the means to improve their living conditions while at the same time using significant amounts of their very limited income on expensive and unhealthy forms of energy that provide poor and/or unsafe services.

Access to cleaner and affordable energy options is essential for improving the livelihoods of the poor in developing countries. The link between energy and poverty is demonstrated by the fact that the poor in developing countries constitute the bulk of an estimated 2.7 billion people relying on traditional biomass for cooking and the overwhelming majority of the 1.4 billion without access to grid electricity. Most of the people still reliant on traditional biomass live in Africa and South Asia.

Limited access to modern and affordable energy services is an important contributor to the poverty levels in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. Access to modern forms of energy is essential to overcome poverty, promote economic growth and employment opportunities, support the provision of social services, and, in general, promote sustainable human development. It is also an essential input for achieving most Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – a useful reference of progress against poverty by 2015 and a benchmark for possible progress much beyond that.

References
,AFREPREN/FWD, 2006a: Report of the ADB FINESSE Training Course on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency for Poverty Reduction, 19–23 June, Volume III: Write-Ups. Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD), Nairobi.
,AFREPREN/FWD, 2006b: Renewables for Poverty Reduction in Africa. Energy. Environment and Development Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD), Nairobi.
,AFREPREN/FWD, 2010: Arusha Field Visit to SMES Dealing With Renewable Energy Report. Energy. Environment and Development Network for Africa (AFREPREN/FWD), Nairobi.
Alkire, S., J.M., Roche, M.E., Santos, and S., Seth, 2011: Multidimensional Poverty Index: 2011 Data. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative. www.ophi.org.uk/policy/multidimensional-poverty-index/ (accessed 4 March 2010).
,AllAfrica, 2004: Zimbabwe: Infrastructure improvement key to teacher retention in rural areas – Chigwedere. The Herald, 21 May.
,ANSD, 2006: Sénégal: resultats du troisième recensement général de la population et de l'habitat (2002): rapport National de presentation. Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Demographie (ANSD), Senegal.
,Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy, 2005: Case-study: Large-scale biogas for sanitation. Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST), London.
Baker, J., R., Basu, M., Cropper, S., Lall, and A., Takeuchi, 2005: Urban Poverty and Transport: The Case of Mumbai. Policy Research Working Paper No. 3693. World Bank, Washington, DC.
,BIC, 2009: Ugandan environmentalist speaks out on large dams, renewable energy, and poverty alleviation. Bank Information Center (BIC) Update. Washington, DC.
Barnes, D. F., A., Hussain, A. H., Samad, and R. S., Khandker, 2010: Energy Access, Efficiency and Poverty: How Many Households are Energy Poor in Bangladesh? Policy Research Working Paper No. 5332. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Bates, L., S., Hunt, S., Khennas, and N., Sastrawinat, 2009: Expanding Energy Access in Developing Countries: The Role of Mechanical Power. Practical Action, Rugby.
Bazilian, M., P., Nussbaumer, A., Cabraal, R., Centurelli, R., Detchon, D., Gielen, H., Rogner, H., McMahon, V., Modi, N., Nakicenovic, B., O'Gallachoir, M., Radka, K., Rijal, M., Takada, and F., Ziegler, 2010: Measuring Energy Access: Supporting a Global Target. The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York.
Berthaud, A., A., Delescluse, D., Deligiorgis, K., Kumar, S., Mane, S., Miyamoto, W., Ofosu-Amaah, L., Storm, and M., Yee. 2004: Integrating Gender in Energy Provision: Case Study of Bangladesh. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC.
Bhandari, O., 2006: Socio-Economic Impacts of Rural Electrification in Bhutan. Master's thesis, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok.
Bhattacharya, S., 2003: European heatwave caused 35,000 deaths. New Scientist, 10 October.
,BPN, 2010: The Facts About the Global Drinking Water Crisis. Blue Planet Network (BPN). blueplanetnetwork.org/water/facts (accessed 22 November 2010).
Brew-Hammond, A., 2007: Challenges to Increasing Access to Modern Energy Services in Africa. Background Paper Prepared for the Forum of Energy Ministers of Africa Conference on Energy Security and Sustainability, 28–30 March, Maputo, Mozambique.
Cabraal, R. A., D. F., Barnes, and S. G., Agarwal, 2005: Productive uses of energy for rural development. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 30: 117–44.
,CAI-Asia, 2011: Managing Two and Three-Wheelers in Asia. Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia), Manila and Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicle, Nairobi.
,CEDAW, 2011: About CEDAW. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). www.cedaw2010.org/index.php/about-cedaw (accessed 3December 2011).
Clancy, J., 2004: Urban Poor Livelihoods: Understanding the Role of Energy Services. University of Twente, Enschede.
Coelho, S., 2009: Energy Access in Brazil. PowerPoint presentation at Taller Latinoamericano y del Caribe: Pobreza y el Acceso a la Energía. Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass (CENBIO), University of São Paulo. October 2009, Santiago.
Costa, J., D., Hailu, E., Silva, and R., Tsukada, 2009: Water supply and women's time use in rural Ghana. Poverty in Focus No. 18, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG). Brasilia.
,DFID, 2002: Energy for the poor: Underpinning the Millennium Development Goals. Department for International Development (DFID), Crown, London.
DuPont, P. 2009: Case Study of Energy Efficiency in Asia and Internationally: Some Examples and Food for Thought. USAID-Asia, PowerPoint presentation at First Mekong Energy and Ecology Training, 14 May, Bangkok.
,EAWAG/SANDEC, 2002. Solar Water Disinfection: A Guide for the Application of SODIS. Swiss Federal Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG)/Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Duebendorf.
Ekouevi, K., 2001: An overview of biomass energy issues in sub-Saharan Africa. In Proceedings of the African High-Level Regional Meeting on Energy and Sustainable Development for the Ninth Session on the Commission on Sustainable Development. N., Wamukonya (ed.), United Nations Environment Programme, Risoe Centre, Roskilde, pp. 102–08.
,Energia, 2008: Turning Information into Empowerment: Strengthening Gender and Energy Network in Africa. TIE-ENERGIA Project.
,ESMAP, undated: Fighting Poverty through Decentralized Renewable Energy. Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), World Bank, Washington, DC.
,ESMAP, 2003: Energy and Poverty: How Can Modern Energy Services Contribute to Poverty Reduction? Proceedings of a Multi-Sector Workshop, 23–25 October, Addis Ababa.
,ESMAP, 2004: Renewable Energy for Development – The Role of the World Bank Group. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Fall, A., S., Sarr, T., Dafrallah and A., Ndour, 2008: Modern Energy Access in Peri-Urban Areas of West Africa: The Case of Dakar, Senegal. Energy for Sustainable Development, 12 (4): 22–37.
,Farm Radio International, 2006a: Increasing post-harvest success for smallholder farmers. Voices Newsletter, No. 79. Ontario.
,Farm Radio International, 2006b: Three fishing ladies with a message about solar dryers. Radio Scripts. Package 79, Script 6. www.farmradio.org/english/radio-scripts/79–6script_En.asp (accessed 17 February 2011).
,Farm Radio International, 2008: Food processing and storage. Radio Scripts by Subject. www.farmradio.org/english/radio-scripts/food.asp (accessed 17 February 2011).
,FAO, 2009: Post-harvest Losses Aggravate Hunger – Improved Technology and Training Show Success in Reducing Losses. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome. www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/36844/icode/ (accessed 16 October 2011).
,FAO, 2011: AQUASTAT Online Database: Percentage of total grain production irrigated (%). www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html (accessed 20 June 2011).
Foran, M. M., 2007: An analysis of the time to disinfection and the source water and environmental challenges to implementing a solar disinfection technology (SolAgua). Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston.
Galitsky, C., A., Gadgil, M., Jacobs, and Y., Lee, 2006: Fuel efficient stoves for Darfur IDP camps: Report of field trip to North and South Darfur. 16 November – 17 December, 2005. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.
Gasparini, L., and N., Lustig, 2011: The Rise and Fall of Income Inequality in Latin America. Tulane Economics Working Paper No. 1110. Tulane University, New Orleans.
Gasparini, L., G., Cruces, L., Tornarolli, and M., Marchionni, 2009: A Turning Point? Recent Developments on Inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean. Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Buenos Aires.
Giridharas, A., and K., Bradsher, 2006: Microloan pioneer and his bank win Nobel Peace Prize. New York Times, 13 October.
,GNESD, 2008. Clean Energy for the Urban Poor: An Urgent Issue. Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD), Roskilde.
,GNESD, 2010. Energy Access – Making Power Sector Reform Work for the Poor. Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD), Roskilde.
Gomide, A., 2008: Mobility and the urban poor. Urban Age. Newspaper essay, South America, December 2008.
Harries, M., 2002: Disseminating wind pumps in rural Kenya: Meeting rural water needs using locally manufactured wind pumps. Energy Policy, 30 (11–12).
Harsdorff, M., and J., Peters, 2010: On-Grid Rural Electrification in Benin. RWI Materialien, Germany.
Heaselgrave, W., N., Patel, S., Kilvington, S.C., Kehoe and K.G., McGuigan, 2006: Solar disinfection of poliovirus and Acanthamoeba polyphaga cysts in water — a laboratory study using simulated sunlight. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 43 (2): 125–130.
Hiremath, B. N., and H., Misra, 2009: Management of livelihood centric rural development projects: A systemic view. Second National Conference on Agro-Informatics and Precision Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, organized by INSAIT, Dharwad, 2–3 December.
Hook, W., and L., Nadal, 2011: Motorized Two and Three Wheeler Design and Regulation. PowerPoint presentation. Institute for Transportation & Development Policy. www.itdp.org/index.php/library/publications (accessed 27 November 2011).
Huba, E-M., and E., Paul, 2007: National Domestic Biogas Programme Rwanda: Baseline Study Report. Netherlands Development Organisation, German Technical Cooperation, and Ministry of Infrastructure.
,IAEA, 2007: Top Stories & Features: Women & Water. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/2007/womenday2007.html (accessed 6 October 2011).
,IEA, 2006: World Energy Outlook 2006. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.
,IEA, 2008: World Energy Outlook: Energy and Development. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.
,IEA, 2009: The Electricity Access Database. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris. www.iea.org/weo/database_Electricity/electricity_access_database.htm (accessed 18 April 2011).
,IEA, 2010a: Energy Poverty – How to Make Modern Energy Access Universal? World Energy Outlook 2010. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.
,IEA, 2010b: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion – Highlights. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.
,IEA, 2010c: The Electricity Access Database. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris. www.iea.org/weo/database_Electricity10/electricity_database_web_2010.htm (accessed 27 November 2010).
,IEA, 2011a: Energy and Development Methodology. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.
,IEA, 2011b: Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries 2011. International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.
,IMF, 2008: Africa's power supply crisis: Unraveling the paradoxes. International Monetary Fund (IMF) Survey Magazine, 22 May.
,IMW, 2008: Water Woes: Women Fetch the World's Water. Online Exhibition. International Museum of Women (IMW). www.imow.org/wpp/stories/viewStory?storyId=1308 (accessed 16 May 2011).
Kammen, D. M., R., Bailis, and A. V., Herzog, 2001: Clean Energy for Development and Economic Growth: Biomass and Other Renewable Energy Options to Meet Energy and Development Needs in Poor Nations. University of California, Berkeley, CA.
Kanagawa, M. and T., Nakata, 2005: Analysis of the Energy Access Improvement and Its Socio-Economic Impacts in Rural Areas of Developing Countries. Tohoku University, Sendai.
Karekezi, S. and T., Ranja, 1997: Renewable energy technologies in Africa. Zed Books, London.
Karekezi, S., G.B., Khamarunga, and W., Kithyoma, and X., Ochieng, 2002: Improving Energy Services for the Poor in Africa – A Gender Perspectiv. ENERGIA News Vol. 5 Nr 4, Energia.
Karekezi, S., and A., Sihag, 2004: Synthesis/Compilation Report. Energy Access Working Group. Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development, Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark.
Karekezi, S., J., Kimani, A., Wambille, P., Balla, F., Magessa, W., Kithyoma, and X., Ochieng, 2005: The Potential Contribution of Non Electrical Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) to Poverty Reduction in East Africa. Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa, Nairobi.
Karekezi, S., W., Kithyoma, K., Muzee, and J., Wangeci, 2008a: The Potential for Small and Medium Scale Renewables in Poverty Reduction in Africa. Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa, Nairobi.
Karekezi, S., J., Kimani, and O., Onguru, 2008b: Urban and Peri -Urban Energy Access Working Group – Thematic Study. Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa, Nairobi.
Karekezi, S., W., Kithyoma, K., Muzee, and A., Oruta. 2009: Renewable Energy for Africa: Potential Markets and Strategies. Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa, Nairobi.
Khandker, S. R., D. F., Barnes, and H. A., Samad, 2009: Welfare Impacts of Rural Electrification: A Case Study from Bangladesh. Policy Research Working Paper No. 4859. World Bank, Washington, DC.
KickStart, 2011: Our Impact. www.kickstart.org/what-we-do/impact (accessed 9 June 2011).
Kumarage, A. S., 2007: Impacts of transportation infrastructure and services on urban poverty and land development in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Global Urban Development Magazine, 3 (1).
Mapako, M., 2010: Energy, the Millennium Development Goals and the Key Emerging Issues. Department of Environmental Affairs, South Africa.
Meisen, P., and I., Akin, 2008: The Case for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals through Access to Clean Electricity. Global Energy Network Institute, San Diego, CA.
Modi, V., S., McDade, D., Lallement, and J., Saghir, 2006: Energy and the Millennium Development Goals. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank, Washington, DC, and the United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY.
Morris, E., and G., Kirubi, 2009: Bringing Small-Scale Finance to the Poor for Modern Energy Services: What is the Role of Government?United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY.
Nussbaumer, P., M., Bazilian, V., Modi and K., Yumkella, 2011: Measuring Energy Poverty: Focusing on What Matter. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, Oxford.
Njenga, B. K., 2001: Upesi rural stoves project. In Generating Opportunities: Case Studies on Energy and Women. United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY.
,Population Action International, 2001: A World of Difference: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Risks. Washington, DC.
Quansah, S. K., P., Russell, and N-O., Mainoo, 2003: Ghana LPG Rural Energy Challenge. Workshop Report. Kumasi Institute of Technology and Environment, Kumasi.
Rosenthal, G., 2010: The financial and economic crisis of 2008 and its repercussions on economic thought. CEPAL Review 100: 29–39.
Schlag, N. and F., Zuzarte. 2008: Market Barriers to Clean Cooking Fuels in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Literature. Working Paper. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm.
Shankar, K. K., 2007: Govt extends kerosene, LPG subsidy till 2010. Indian Express Limited, 12 October.
,SIL International, 2011: Women and Literacy. www.sil.org/literacy/wom_lit.htm (accessed 4 April 2011).
,SNV, 2007: SNV and FMO Provide Bio-Digesters and Micro Loans to Farmers in Cambodia. Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). www.snvworld.org/en/aboutus/news/Pages/Bio%20digesters%20for%20Cambodian%20farmers.aspx (accessed 20 November 2011).
,SODIS, 2009: Microbiology. Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS). www.sodis.ch/methode/forschung/mikrobio/index_en (accessed 17 March 2011).
,SODIS, 2010a: SODIS – Safe Drinking Water in 6 Hours. www.sodis.ch/index_en (accessed 17 March 2011).
,SODIS, 2010b: Health. www.sodis.ch/methode/forschung/gesundheit/index_en (accessed 17 March 2011).
Sumner, A., 2010: Global Poverty and the New Bottom Billion: What if Three-quarters of the World's Poor Live in Middle-income Countries? IDS Working Paper 349. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Sussex.
Sumner, A., 2011: The New Bottom Billion: What If Most of the World's Poor Live in Middle-Income Countries?Institute of Development studies and Centre for Global Development
Theuambounmy, H. 2007: Status of Renewable Energy Development in the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Paper presented at the Greening the cBusiness and Making Environment and Business Opportunity. 5–7 June 2007, Bangkok.
,TWP, 2010: Water Scarcity and Its Effects. The Water Project (TWP), thewaterproject.org/water_stats.asp (accessed 10 October 2011).
,UN, 2010a: The Millennium Development Goals Report. United Nations (UN), New York, NY.
,UN, 2010b: Energy for a sustainable future: summary report and recommendations of the Secretary-General's Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (AGECC). United Nations (UN), New York, NY.
,UN, 2011a: Water for life Meeting Global Targets for Water and Sanitation. United Nations (UN), New York, NY.
,UNDP, 2004: Reducing Rural Poverty Through Increased Access to Energy Services: A Review of Multifunctional Platform Project in Mali. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, NY.
,UNDP, 2005: Energizing the MDGs: A Guide to Energy's Role in Reducing Poverty. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, NY.
,UNDP, 2006: Energizing Poverty Reduction. A Review of Energy-Poverty Nexus in Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, NY.
,UNDP, 2007a: A Review of Energy in National MDG Reports by Minoru Takada and Silvia Fracchia. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, NY.
,UNDP, 2007b: Delivering Energy Services for Poverty Reduction: Success Stories from Asia and the Pacific. UNDP Regional Centre, Bangkok.
,UNDP, 2009: UNDP Human Development Indicators Report 2009. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, NY.
,UNDP, 2010: UNDP Human Development Indicators Report 2010. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, NY.
,UNDP, 2011: Human Development Report 2011. Sustainability and Equity: A better future for all. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, NY. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_en_Complete.pdf
,UNDP and WHO, 2009: The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries, A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and World Health Organization (WHO), New York, NY.
,UNECA, 2010: Economic Report on Africa Promoting High-Level Sustainable Growth to Reduce Unemployment in Africa. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), Addis Ababa.
,UNEP, undated: Empowering Rural Communities by Planting Energy: Roundtable on Bioenergy Enterprise in Developing Regions. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi.
,UNIDO, 2009: Industrial Development Report 2009. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Vienna.
,UNFPA, 2005: State of World Population 2005: Journalists Press Kit. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), New York, NY. www.unfpa.org/swp/2005/presskit/factsheets/facts_rh.htm (accessed 18 June 2011).
,UNFPA, 2008: Linking Population, Poverty and Development – Reducing Poverty and Achieving Sustainable Development. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), New York, NY. www.unfpa.org/pds/poverty.html (accessed 18 June 2011).
,UNFPA, 2009: A Review of Maternal Health in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), New York, NY.
,UN Energy, 2005: The Energy Challenge for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals. United Nations, New York, NY.
,UN Women, 2011: Facts and Figures on Gender and Climate Change. www.unifem.org/partnerships/climate_change/facts_figures.php (accessed 25 May 2011).
Vivien, F. and C., Briceno-Garmendia, (eds.), 2010: Africa's Infrastructure – A Time for Transformation. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The World Bank, Washington, DC.
Ward, S., 2002: The Energy Book for Urban Development in South Africa. Sustainable Energy Africa, Noordhoek.
,WaterAid, 2009: Women's issues. Issue Sheet, November 2009.
Wegelin, M. and B., Sommer, 1997: SODIS at the turning point – A technology ready for use. SANDEC News No. 3, EAWAG/SANDEC, October 1997, Ueberlandstrasse.
,WFP, 2010: WFP Activities: Tanzania. World Food Programme (WFP), Rome. www.wfp.org/countries/Tanzania – United-Republic-Of/Operations (accessed 15 July 2011).
,WHO, 2006: Fuel for Life, Household Energy and Health. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
,WHO, 2008: Maternal Health – Fact Sheet. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
,WHO, 2011a: Indoor Air Pollution: Multiple Links between Household Energy and the Millennium Development Goals. www.who.int/indoorair/mdg/energymdg/en (accessed on 18 May, 2011).
,WHO, 2011b: Global Tuberculosis Control: WHO Report 2011. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva.
,World Bank, 2007: World Development Indicators. Washington, DC. data.worldbank.org/products/data-books/WDI-2007 (accessed 7 March 2011).
,World Bank, 2008a: Climate Change and the World Bank Group, Phase 1: An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms. Washington, DC, pp. 114–119.
,World Bank, 2008b: Designing Sustainable Off-Grid Rural Electrification Projects: Principles
,World Bank, 2010a: The Millennium Development Goals and the Road to 2015. Building on Progress and Responding to Crisis. Washington, DC.
,World Bank, 2010b: World Development Report 2010. Washington, DC.
,World Bank, 2011a: World Development Indicators. Washington, DC.
,World Bank & IBRD, 2008: Africa development Indicators 2007. The World Bank and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), Washington, DC. 3 A ropeway is a form of lifting device used to transport light goods across rivers or ravines.