Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home
Freedom in the Arab World
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Furani, Khaled 2018. Mastering Submission: Palestinian Poets Measuring Sounds of “Freedom”. American Anthropologist, Vol. 120, Issue. 4, p. 697.

    2016. Other Books Received. The American Historical Review, Vol. 121, Issue. 4, p. 1408.

    ×

Book description

A preoccupation with the subject of freedom became a core issue in the construction of all modern political ideologies. Here, Wael Abu-'Uksa examines the development of the concept of freedom (hurriyya) in nineteenth-century Arab political thought, its ideological offshoots, their modes, and their substance as they developed the dynamics of the Arabic language. Abu-'Uksa traces the transition of the idea of freedom from a term used in a predominantly non-political way, through to its popularity and near ubiquity at the dawn of the twentieth century. Through this, he also analyzes the importance of associated concepts such as liberalism, socialism, progress, rationalism, secularism, and citizenship. He employs a close analysis of the development of the language, whilst at the same time examining the wider historical context within which these semantic shifts occurred: the rise of nationalism, the power of the Ottoman court, and the state of relations with Europe.

Refine List
Actions for selected content:
Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send
    ×

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.
×
Abkariyus, Yuhanna. Qāmūs Inklīzī wa-ʿArabī. Beirut, 1887.
Abkariyus, Yuhanna. English-Arabic Reader's Dictionary. Beirut: Librairie du Liban, 1974.
Ahmadnakri, ʿAbd al-Nabi bin ʿAbd al-Rasul. Jāmiʿ al-ʿUlūm fī Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Funūn al-Mulaqqab bi-Dustūr al-ʿUlamāʾ. 4 vols. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Aʿlamī lil-Maṭbūʿāt, 1975.
Badger, George Percy. An English-Arabic Lexicon. London: C. K. Paul & Co., 1881.
Berggren, Jacob. Guide Français-Arabe Vulgaire Des Voyageurs et Des Francs En Syrie et En Égypte: Avec Carte Physique et Géographique de La Syrie et Plan Géométrique de Jérusalem Ancien et Moderne, Comme Supplément Aux Voyages En Oreint. Upsal: Leffler et Sebell, 1844.
Bianchi, Thomas Xavier, and Kieffer, Jean Daniel. Dictionnaire Turc-Français: À L'usage Des Agents Diplomatiques et Consulaires, Des Commerçants, Des Navigateurs, et Autres Voyageurs Dans Le Levant. 2 vols. Paris: Impr. royale, 1835, 1837.
Biberstein-Kazimirski, Albert de. Dictionnaire Arabe-Français. 2 vols. Paris: Barrois, 1850.
Bocthor, Ellious. Dictionnaire Français-Arabe. 2 vols. Paris: Chez Firmin Didot Freres, 1828–1829.
al-Bustani, Butrus. Muḥīṭ al-Muḥīṭ. Beirut: Maktabat Lubnān, 1998.
Cañes, Francisco. Gramatica Arabigo-Española, Vulgar, Y Literal: Con Un Diccionario Arabigo-Español, En Que Se Ponen Las Voces Mas Usuales Para Una Conversacion Familiar, Con El Texto de La Doctrina Cristiana En El Idioma Arabigo. Madrid: En la imprenta de don Antonio Perez de Soto, 1775.
Cañes, Francisco. Diccionario Español-Latino-Arabigo. 3 vols. Madrid: Impr. de A. Sancha, 1787.
Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne. Takmilat al-Maʿājim al-ʿArabiyya. 11 vols. Baghdad: Dār al-Shuʾūn al-Thaqāfiyya al-ʿĀmma, 1978–2001.
Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne. Dictionnaire Français-Arabe. Beirut: Imprimerie Catholique, 1857.
Firuzabadi, Muhammad Ibn Yaʿqub. Al-Qāmūs al-Muḥīṭ. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 2005.
Golius, Jacobus. Lexicon Arabico-Latinum. Lugduni Batavorum: typis Bonaventurae and Abrahami, Elseviriorum, prostant Amstelodami apud Johannem Ravesteynivm, 1653.
Handjéri, Alexandre. Dictionnaire Français-Arabe-Persan et Turc: Enrichi D'examples En Langue Turque Avec Des Variantes, et de Beaucoup de Mots D'arts et Des Sciences. 3 vols. Moscow: Impr. de l'Université impériale, 1840–1841.
Hopkins, David. A Vocabulary, Persian, Arabic, and English; Abridged from the Quarto Edition of Richardson's Dictionary. London: Printed for F. and C. Rivingson, 1810.
Ibn Manzur, Muhammad Ibn Mukarram. Lisān al-ʿArab. 18 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Ṣādir, 2004.
Jahn, Johann. Lexicon Arabico-Latinum. Vindobonae: Apud C. F. Wappler et Beck, 1802.
Johnson, Francis. A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic, and English. London: Wm. H. Allen and Co., 1852.
al-Juhari, Ismaʿil Ibn Hamad. Al-Ṣiḥāḥ fī al-Lugha: Tāj al-Lugha wa-Ṣiḥāh al-ʿArabiyya. 7 vols. Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm lil-Malāyīn, 1990.
Kaffawi, Abi al-BaqaʾAyyub ibn Musa. Al-Kulliyāt: Muʿjam fī al-Muṣṭalaḥāt wal-Furūq al-Lughawiyya. Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1998.
Kirkpatrick, William. A Vocabulary, Persian, Arabic, and English. London: Printed by Joseph Cooper, Drury-Lane, 1785.
Mallouf, Nassif. Dictionnaire Français-Turc. Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, 1856.
Meninski, Francisci. Lexicon Arabico-Persico-Trucicum: Adiecta Ad Singulas Voces et Phrases Significatione Latina, Ad Usitatiores Etiam Italica. 4 vols. Viennae: Nunc secundis curis recognitum et auctum, 1780.
Nashwan, Ibn Saʿid al-Himyari. Shams al-ʿUlūm wa-Dawāʾ Kalām al-ʿArab min al-Kulūm. 12 vols. Damascus: Dār al-Fikr al-Muʿāṣir, 1999.
Raphelengius, Franciscus. Lexicon Arabicum. Leiden: Ex Officina Auctoris, 1613.
Richardson, John. A Dictionary, Persian, Arabic, and English: with a Dissertation on the Languages, Literature, and Manners of Eastern Nations. London: William Bulmer, 1806.
Ruphy, Jacques Français. Dictionnaire Abrégé Français-Arabe. Paris: Impr. de la République, 1802.
al-Saghani, al-Hassan bin Muhammad al-Hassan. Al-ʿIbāb al-Zākhir wal-Libāb al-Fākhir. 4 vols. Iraq: Dār al-Rashīd, 1977–1981.
Spiro, Socrates. An English Arabic Vocabulary of the Modern and Colloquial Arabic of Egypt. Cairo: Al-Muqaṭṭam Printing Office, 1905.
al-Tahanawi, Muhammad ʿAli. Kashshāf Iṣṭilāḥāt al-Funūn wal-ʿUlūm. 2 vols. Beirut: Nāshirūn, 1996.
Zakhur, Rufaʾil. Dizionario Italiano E Arabo. Bolacco: Dalla Stamperia Reale, 1822.
al-Zubaydi, Muhammad Murtada al-Husayni. Tāj al-ʿArūs min Jawāhir al-Qāmūs. 40 vols. Kuwait: Maṭbaʿat Ḥukūmat al-Kūwayt, 1965–2001.
Averroes, [Rushd, Ibn]. Averroes’ Commentary on Plato's Republic. Translated by Isak, Erwin Rosenthal, Jakob and Yehuda, Samuel bin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956.
Burayk, Mikhaʾil. Wathāʾiq Tārīkhiyya lil-Kursī al-Malakī al-Anṭākī. Harisa: Maṭbaʿat al-Qiddīss Būluṣ, 1930.
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad. Fuṣūl al-Madanī: Aphorisms of the Statesman. Translated by Dunlop, D. M.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1961.
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad. Kitāb al-Siyāsa al-Madaniyya. Beirut: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-Kāthūlīkiyya, 1998.
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad. Rasāyil Falsafiyya. Bonn, 1831.
al-Farabi, Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad. Hādhihi Sharḥ Fuṣūl al-Ḥikam lil-Muʿallim al-Thānī Abī Naṣr al-Fārābī. Bulaq: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1874.
Hashi, Salim Hassan. Al-Murāsalāt al-Ijtimāʿiyya wal-Iqtiṣādiyya li-Zuʿamāʾ Jabal Lubnān Khilāl Thalāthat Qurūn (1600–1900). 4 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Bāḥith, 1985.
Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ, Sawirus. Tārīkh Baṭārikat al-Kanīsa al-Miṣriyya. 3 vols. Cairo: Jamʿiyyat al-Āthār al-Miṣriyya, 1943–1974.
Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ, Sawirus. The Lamp of the Intellect of Severus Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ. Louvain: Secrétariat du CorpusSCO, 1975.
Ibn Bajja, Abu Bakr. Rasāʾil Falsafiyya li-Abī Bakr bin Bajja. Beirut: Dār al-Thaqāfa, 1983.
Ibn Khaldun, ʿ Abd al-Rahman. Muqaddimat al-ʿAllāma Ibn Khaldūn al-Musamma Dīwān al-Mubtadaʾ wal-Khabarr fī Taʾrīkh al-ʿArab wal-Barbar wa-man ʿĀṣarahum min Dhawī al-Shaʾn al-Akbarr. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 2004.
Ibn Khaldun, ʿ Abd al-Rahman. The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History. Translated by Rosenthal, Franz. 3 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.
Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Walid. Thalāth Rasāʾil. Munich: Commission Bei G. Franz, 1859.
Ibn Rushd, Abu al-Walid. Majmūʿ … Thalāthat Kutub. Egypt: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-Iʿlāmiyya, 1885.
Ibn Tufail, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Malik. Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān. Cairo: Kalimāt, 2011.
Laertius, Diogenes. Les Vies Des plus Illustres Philosophes de L'antiquité. Paris: Richard, 1769.
Montesquieu, Charles de Secondat. The Spirit of the Laws. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
al-Ahrām (Examined between 1876 and 1888)
al-Bashīr (Examined between 1870 and 1890)
al-Baṣṣīr (Examined between 1881 and 1882)
Birjīs Barīs (Examined between 1859 and 1865)
al-Iʿlām (Examined in 1885)
al-Ittiḥād (Examined in 1880)
al-Jawāʾib (Examined between 1860 and 1876)
al-Jinān (Examined between 1870 and 1886)
Kawkab al-Mashriq (Examined between 1882 and 1883)
al-Laṭāʾif (Examined between 1886 and 1891)
Mirʾāt al-Aḥwāl (Examined in 1877)
al-Muqtaṭaf (Examined between 1867 and 1910)
al-Naḥla (Examined in 1870)
al-Naẓẓārāt al-Miṣriyya (Examined between 1879 and 1880)
Rawḍat al-Madāris (Examined between 1870 and 1877)
ʿUṭārid (Examined in 1859)
Abkariyus, Iskandar. Kitāb Nihayat al-Irab fī Akhbār al-ʿArab. Marseille: Maṭbaʿat al-Faʿla, 1852.
Abkariyus, Iskandar. Nawādir al-Zamān fī Waqāʾiʿ Jabal Lubnān. London: Riyāḍ al-Rayyis lil-Kutub wal-Nashr, 1987.
Abd Allah, Abu al-Suʿud. Kitāb Naẓm al-Laʾālīʾ fī al-Sulūk fī man Ḥakama Faransā wa-man Qābalahum ʿAla Miṣr min al-Mulūk. Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Ṣāḥib al-Saʿāda, 1841.
al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din. Fī Ibṭāl Madhhab al-Dahriyyīn wa-Bayān Mafāsiduhum wa-Ithbāt anna al-Dīn Asās al-Madaniyya wal-Kufr Fasād al-ʿUmmrān. Translated by Abdu, Muhammad. Beirut: Maṭbaʿat Bairut, 1885.
al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din, and ʿAbdu, Muhammad. “Al-ʿUrwa al-Wuthqa.” In al-Āthār al-Kāmila: al-Sayyid Jamāl al-Dīn al-Ḥusainī al-Afghānī, edited by Shahi, Sayyid Hadi Khusru. 9 vols. Cairo: Maktabat al-Shurūq al-Duwaliyya, 2002.
al-Dīmashqiyyīn, Aḥad Kutāb al-Ḥukūma. Mudhakarāt Taʾrīkhiyya. Edited by al-Basha, Qustantin. Harisa: Maṭbaʿat al-Qiddīss Būluṣ, 1926.
ʿAqiqi, Antun Dahir. Thawra wa-Fitna fī Lubnān: Ṣafḥa Majhūla min Tārīkh al-Jabal min 1841 ila 1873. Beirut: Al-Ittiḥād, 1939.
al-Bustani, . “Ḥurriyya.” In Kitāb Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif. Beirut: Maṭbaʿat al-Maʿārif, 1883.
al-Bustani, Rusu.” In Kitāb Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif. Beirut: Al-Adabiyya, 1887.
al-Bustani, Butrus. Al-Jamʿiyya al-Sūriyya lil-ʿUlūm wal-Funūn, 1847–1852. Beirut: Dār al-Ḥamrāʾ, 1990.
al-Bustani, Butrus. “Ibn Rushd (Averroes).” In Kitāb Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1876.
al-Bustani, Butrus. “Jumhūriyya.” In Kitāb Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿārif, 1882.
al-Bustani, Butrus. Maʿārik al-ʿArab fī al-Sharq wal-Gharb. Beirut: Dār al-Makshūf, 1944.
al-Bustani, Butrus. Nafīr Sūriyya. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1990.
al-Bustani, Butrus. “Tamaddun.” In Kitāb Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿārif, 1882.
al-Bustani, Butrus. “Taqlīd.” In Kitāb Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif. Beirut: Maṭbaʿat al-Maʿārif, 1882.
al-Bustani, Butrus. Udabāʾ al-ʿArab fī al-Jāhiliyya wa-Ṣadr al-Islām. Beirut: Maktabat Ṣādir, 1953.
Bustrus, Salim ibn Musa. Al-Nuzha al-Shahiyya fī al-Riḥla al-Salīmiyya, 1855. Beirut: Al-Muʾassasa al-ʿArabiyya lil-Dirāsāt wal-Nashr, 2003.
Depping, Georges-Bernard. Aperçu Historique Sur Les Moeurs et Coutumes Des Nation. Paris: Mairet et fournier, 1842.
Depping, Georges-Bernard. Kitāb Qalāʾid al-Mafākhir fī Gharīb ʿAwāʾid al-Awāʾil wal-Awākhir. Translated by al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. Bulaq: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1833.
al-Dimashqi, Mikhail. Taʾrīkh Ḥawādith al-Shām wa-Lubnān. Beirut: Maṭbaʿat al-Kāthūlīk lil-Ābāʾ al-Yasuʿiyyīn, 1912.
Dumarsais, César Chesneau. Tanwīr al-Mashriq bi-ʿIlm al-Manṭiq. Translated by Mahmud, Khalifa. Bulaq: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1838.
Fadil Pasha, Mustafa. Min Amīr ila Sulṭān. Cairo: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-Raḥmāniyya, 1922.
Fandik, Karniliyus. “Fī Faḍl al-Mutaʾakhkhirīn ʿala al-Mutaqaddimīn.” In al-Jamʿiyya al-Sūriyya lil-ʿUlūm wal-Funūn, 1847–1852, edited by al-Bustani, Butrus, 7982. Beirut: Dār al-Ḥamrāʾ, 1990.
Fandik, Karniliyus. “Fī Lidhat al-ʿIlm wa-Fawaʾiduhu.” In al-Jamʿiyya al-Sūriyya lil-ʿUlūm wal-Funūn, 1847–1852, edited by al-Bustani, Butrus, 2732. Beirut: Dār al-Ḥamrāʾ, 1990.
Fikri, Muhammad Amin. Irshād al-Alibbā ila Maḥāsin Ūrūbā. Cairo: ʿAyn lil-Dirāsāt wal-Buḥūth, 2008.
Fourier, Joseph. “Priface Hisforique.” In Description de l’Égypte, Ou, Recueil de Observations et Des Recherches Qui Ont Été Faites En Égypte Pendant L’éxpédition de L'armée Française, edited by Commission des monuments d’Égypte, 2nd ed. Paris: Imprimerie de C. L. F. Panckoucke, 1826.
Ganem, Halil. Education Des Princes Ottomans. Bulle, Suisse: Imprimerie Emile Lenz, 1895.
Ghanim, Khalil. Kitāb al-Iqtiṣād al-Siyāsī aw Fann Tadbīr al-Manzil. Alexandria: Maṭbaʿat Jarīdat Miṣr, 1879.
Habicht, Maximilan. Epistolae Quaedam Arabicae. Wroclaw: Typis Universitatis Regis, 1824.
Hassun, Rizq Allah. Al-Nafathāt. London: Trübner & Co., 1867.
al-Hatuni, Mansur Tanus. Nabdha Tārīkhiyya fī al-Muqāṭaʿa al-Kisrwāniyya. Beirut, 1884.
Hegel, Georg W. F. The Philosophy of History. Translated by Sibree, J.. Kitchener: Batoche Books, 2001.
Ibn Abi al-Diyaf, Ahmad. Consult Them in the Matter: A Nineteenth-Century Islamic Argument for Constitutional Government. Edited by Brown, Leon Carl. Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press, 2005.
Ibn Abi al-Diyaf, Ahmad. Itḥāf Ahl al-Zamān bi-Akhbār Mulūk Tūnis wa-ʿAhd al-Amān. 8 vols. Tunis: Al-Dār al-Tūnisiyya lil-Nashr, 1989.
al-Īji, ʿAdad al-Din. Kitāb al-Mawāqif. Constantinople: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1824.
Ishaq, Adib. Adīb Ishāq: al-Kitābāt al-Siyāsiyya wal-Ijtimāʿiyya. Edited by Alush, Naji. Beirut: Dār al-Ṭalīʿa, 1978.
Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Jabartī's History of Egypt: ʿAjāʾib al-Āthār fī ʾl-Tarājim waʾl-Akhbār. Edited by Philipp, Thomas and Perlmann, Moshe. 5 vols. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1994.
Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman. Maẓhar al-Taqdīs bi-Zawāl Dawlat al-Faransīs. Cairo: Dār al-Kutub al-Miṣriyya, 1998.
Jabarti, Abd al-Rahman. ʿAjāʾib al-Āthār fī al-Tarājim wal-Akhbār. 4 vols. Cairo: Dār al-Kutub al-Miṣriyya, 1998.
Jalal, Iman al-Saʿid. Alfāẓ al-Ḥaḍāra fī Miṣr bil-Qarn al-Tāsiʿ ʿAshar: Ruṣidat min Kitāb Rifāʿa al-Ṭahṭawī Qalāʾid al-Mafākhir fī Gharīb ʿAwāʾid al-Awāʾil wal-Awākhir, maʿa al-Naṣṣ al-Kāmil lil-Kitāb. Cairo: Maktabat al-Ādāb, 2008.
Kafafi, Muhammad. “Al-Ḥamla al-Faransiyya ʿala Miṣr fī Riwayat Aḥad al-Muʿāṣirīn.” In Ila Ṭaha Ḥusayn fī ʿĪd Mīlādihi al-Sabʿīn: Dirāsāt Muhdā min Aṣdiqāʾihi wa-Talāmīdhihi, edited by ʿBadawi, Abd al-Rahman, 369–96. Cairo: Dār al-Maʿārif, 1962.
al-Kalanbawi, Ismaʿil. al-Burhān. Constantinople: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1837.
Kalivaris, Lewis. Kitāb Sirat al-Muʿaẓam al-Murafaʿ al-Kabīr Nabulyūn al-Awwal Imbaratūr al-Farānsawiyya. Paris, 1855.
al-Kawakibi, ʿAbd al-Rahman. Umm al-Qura: aī Ḍabṭṭ Mufāwaḍāt wa-Muqararāt Muʾtamar al-Nahḍa al-Islāmiyya al-Munʿaqid fī Makka Sant 1316. Egypt: Al-Sayyid al-Furātī, n.d.
al-Khashab, Ismaʿil. Khulāṣat mā Yurād min Akhbār al-Amīr Murād. Cairo: Dār al-ʿArabī lil-Nashr wal-Tawzīʿ, 1992.
al-Khashab, Ismaʿil. Akhbār Aḥl al-Qarn al-Thāni ʿAshar: Taʾrīkh al-Mamālīk fī al-Qāhira. Cairo: Al-Nāshir al-ʿArabī, 1990.
al-Khashab, Ismaʿil. Al-Tārīkh al-Musalsal fī Ḥawādith al-Zamān wa-Waqāyiʿ al-Dīwān, 1800–1801. Cairo: Al-Maʿhad al-ʿIlmī al-Faransī lil-Āthār al-Sharqiyya, 2003.
al-Khazin, Philippe, and al-Khazin, Farid, eds. Majmūʿat al-Muḥarrarāt al-Siyāsiyya wal-Mufāwaḍāt al-Duwaliyya ʿan Sūriyya wa-Lubnān min Sanat 1840 ila Sanat 1910. 3 vols. Beirut: Dār al-Rāʾid al-Lubnānī, 1983.
al-Khuri, Salim, and Shihada, Salim, “Ibn Rushd.” Kitāb Āthār al-Adhār: al-Qism al-Tārīkhī. Beirut: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-Sūriyya, 1877.
Kitāb al-Kanz al-Mukhtār fī Kashf al-Arāḍī wal-Biḥār. Malta, 1836.
Kitāb Majmūʿ Ḥawādith al-Ḥarb al-Wāqiʿ bayna al-Faransāwiyya wal-Namsāwiyya fī Awākhir Sant 1802 al-Masīḥiyya. Paris, 1807.
Kitāb al-Muḥāwara al-Unsiyya fī al-Lughatayn al-Inklīziyya wal-ʿArabiyya. Malta, 1840.
Korkut, Besim. Al-Wathāʾiq al-ʿArabiyya fī Dār al-Maḥfūẓāt bi-Madīnat Dubrūnik. Sarajevo: Orijentalni Institu u Sarajevu, 1960.
Laertius, Diogenes. Mukhtaṣar Tarjamāt Mashāhīr Qudamāʾ al-Falāsifa. Translated by ʿAbd Allah al-Misri, Husain. Bulaq: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1836.
Laurens, Henry. L'expedition d'Egypte, 1798–1801. Paris: A. Colin, 1989.
Malte-Brun, Conrad. Al-Jughrāfiyya al-ʿUmūmiyya. Translated by al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. 4 vols. Bulaq, 1838.
Marrash, Fransis Fathalah. Riḥlat Bārīs 1867. Beirut: Al-Muʾassasa al-ʿArabiyya lil-Dirāsāt wal-Nashr, 2004.
Markham, Henry. Hadhā Kitāb Siyāḥat Amrīqa. Translated by Naʿam, Saʿd. Bulaq: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa, 1846.
Mazlum, Maksimus. Nabdha Tārīkhiyya: fīmā Jara li-Ṭāʾifat al-Rūm al-Kāthūlīk Mundhu Sant 1837 Famā Baʿdahā. Edited by al-Basha, Qustantin. n.p.: 1907.
Mishaqa, Mikhaʾil. Al-Risāla al-Maūsūma bil-Dalīl ila Ṭāʿat al-Injīl. Beirut, 1849.
Mithat, Ahmet. Uss-I Inkılap. Istanbul, 1877.
al-Munayyir, Hananiya. Al-Durr al-Marṣūf fī Tārīkh al-Shūf. Lebanon: Jrus Press, n.d.
al-Muwaylihi, Ibrahim. Ibrāhīm al-Mūwaylihi: al-Aʿmāl al-Kāmila. Edited by Allen, Roger M. A.. Cairo: Al-Majlis al-Aʿla lil-Thaqāfa, 2007.
Nakhlah, Salih. Al-Kanz al-Mukhabbā lil-Siyāḥa fī Ūrūbā. Cairo, 1876.
Nawfal, Naʿm Allah, trans. Al-Dustūr. Beirut: Naẓārat al-Maʿārif al-Jalīla, 1883.
Perron, Nicolas. Al-Azhār al-Badīʿa fī ʿilm al-Ṭabīʿa: Kitāb al-Ṭabīʿa. Translated by Anhuri, Yuhanna. Bulaq: Maṭbaʿat Ṣāḥib al-Saʿāda al-Khidīwiyya, 1838.
al-Qalawi, Mustafa al-Safawi. Ṣafwat al-Zamān fī man Tawalla ʿala Miṣr min Amīr wa-Sulṭān. Alexandria: Dār al-Maʿrifa al-Jāmiʿiyya, 2006.
Qiṣat Martin Luthir. Falta, 1840.
Renan, Ernest. Averroes et L'averroïsme: Essai Historique. Paris: A. Durand, 1852.
Robertson, William. Kitāb Itḥāf Mulūk al-Zamān bi-Tārīkh al-Imbirāṭūr Sharlakān Masbūqan bi-Muqaddimatihi al-Musammā Itḥāf al-Mulūk al-Alibbāʾ bi-Taqaddum al-Jamʿīyyāt fī Ūrūbā Mundhu Inqirāḍ al-Dawla al-Rūmāniyya. Translated by Mahmud, Khalifa Ibn. 3 vols. Bulaq: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1844–1850.
Rustum, Asad. Al-Maḥfūẓāt al-Malakiyya al-Miṣriyya. 4 vols. Beirut: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-Amrīkiyya, 1940–1943.
Rustum, Asad. Al-Uṣūl al-ʿArabiyya li-Tārīkh Sūriyya fī ʿAhd Muḥammad ʿAli Bāshā. 5 vols. Beirut: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-Amīrikāniyya and Manshurāt al-Maktaba al-Bulisiyya, 1987–1988.
al-Sabbagh, Mikhaʾil. Al-Risāla al-Tāmma fī Kalām al-ʿĀmma: wal-Manāhij fī Aḥwāl al-Kalām al-Dārij. Strassburg: Trübner, 1886.
al-Sabbagh, Mikhaʾil. Musābaqat al-Barq wal-Ghamām fī Suʿāt al-Ḥamām. Paris: Dār al-Maṭbaʿa al-Ṣulṭāniyya, 1805.
al-Sabbagh, Mikhaʾil. Nashīd Qaṣīdat Tahāni li-Saʿādat al-Qayṣar al-Muʿaẓam Nabūlyūn Sulṭān Faransā fī Mauwlid Bikrihi Saʿādat Malik Rummiyya Nabūlyūn al-Thānī. Paris: Dār al-Maṭbaʿa al-Ṣulṭāniyya, 1811.
Salih, ʿAdil. Suṭūr min al-Risāla: Tārīkh Ḥaraka Istiqlāliyya Qāmat fī al-Mashriq al-ʿArabī Sant 1877. Beirut, 1966.
Salih, Majdi. Ḥilyat al-Zamān bi-Manāqib Khādim al-Waṭan. Cairo: Al-Bāb al-Ḥalabī, 1958.
al-Sharqawi, ʿAbd Allah. Tuḥfat al-Nāẓirīn fī-man Waliya Miṣr min al-Mulūk wal-Salāṭīn. Cairo: Maktabat Madbūlī, 1996.
al-Shidyaq, Ahmad Faris. Al-Sāq ʿala al-Sāq fī mā huwa al-Fāryāq. Beirut: Dār Maktabat al-Ḥayā, 1966.
al-Shidyaq, Ahmad Faris. Al-Wāsiṭa ila Maʿrifat Aḥwāl Mālṭa wa-Kashf al-Mukhabbāʾ ʿan Funūn Ūrūbā. Beirut: Kutub, 2002.
al-Shidyaq, Ahmad Faris. Kanz al-Raghāʾib fī Muntakhabāt al-Jawāʾib. Edited by al-Shidyaq, Salim. 7 vols. Istanbul: Maṭbaʿat al-Jawāʾib, 1871–1880 or 1881.
al-Shidyaq, Ahmad Faris. Mukhtārāt min Āthār Aḥmad Fāris al-Shidyāq. Beirut: Al-Muʾassasa al-Sharqiyya lil-Nashr, 2001.
al-Shidyaq, Tanus. Kitāb Akhbār al-Aʿyān fī Jabal Lubnān. 2 vols. Beirut: Al-Maktaba al-Sharqiyya, 1970.
al-Shihabi, Haydar. “Kitāb Nuzhat al-Zamān fī Ḥawādith ʿArabistān.” Cambridge, 1849.
al-Shihabi, Haydar. Qiṣat Aḥmad Bāsha al-Jazzār bayna Miṣr wal-Shām wa-Ḥawādithuhu maʿ Nābulyūn Būnābart. Cairo: Maktabat Madbūlī, 2008.
Shumail, Shibli. Kitāb Falsafat al-Nushūʾ wal-Irtiqāʾ. Cairo: Maṭbaʿat al-Muqtaṭaf, 1910.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. Takhlīṣ al-Ibrīz fī Talkhīṣ Bārīz aw al-Dīwān al-Nafīs bi-Īwān Bārīs. Bulaq: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-Khidīwiyya, 1834.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. Al-Dīwān al-Nafīs fī Īwān Bārīs aw, Takhlīṣ al-Ibrīz fī Talkhīṣ Bārīz. Beirut: Dār al-Suwaydī lil-Nashr wal-Tawzīʿ, 2002.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ, trans. Al-Taʿrībāt al-Shāfiya li-Murīd al-Jughrāfiyya. Bulaq: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-Khidīwiyya, 1834.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. “Anwār Tawfīq al-Khalīl fī Akhbār Miṣr wa-Tawthīq Banī Ismāʿīl.” In al-Aʿmāl al-Kāmila li-Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ al-Ṭahṭawī, edited by Imara, Muammad, Vol. 3. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq, 2010.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. “Kitāb Manāhij al-Albāb al-Miṣriyya fī Mabāhij al-Ādāb al-ʿAṣriyya.” In al-Aʿmāl al-Kāmila li-Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ al-Ṭahṭawī, edited by Imara, Muammad, Vol. 1. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq, 2010.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. “Kitāb al-Murshid al-Amīn lil-Banāt wal-Banīn.” In al-Aʿmāl al-Kāmila li-Rifāʿa Rāfiʿ al-Ṭahṭawī, edited by Imara, Muammad, Vol. 2. Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq, 2010.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ. Muqaddima Waṭaniyya Miṣriyya. Bulaq: Maṭbaʿat Bulaq, 1866.
al-Tahtawi, Rifaʿa Rafiʿ, and al-Zarabi, Mustafa, trans. Bidāyat al-Qudamāʾ wa-Hidāyat al-Ḥukamāʾ. Bulaq: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1838.
al-Tunisi, Khayr al-Din. Aqwam al-Masālik fī Maʿrifat Aḥwāl al-Mamālik. Edited by Ziyada, Maʿan. Beirut: Al-Muʾassasa al-Jāmiʿiyya lil-Dirāsāt wal-Nashr, 1985.
al-Turk, Niqula. Dhikr Tamalluk Jumhūr al-Fransāwiyya al-Aqṭār al-Miṣriyya wal-Bilād al-Shāmiyya, aw, al-Ḥamla al-Faransiyya ʿala Miṣr wal-Shām. Beirut: Dār al-Fārābī, 1990.
Van Dyck, Cornelius. Kitāb al-Mirʾā al-Waḍʿiyya fī al-Kura al-Arḍiyya. Beirut, 1852.
Voltaire, . Maṭāliʿ Shumūs al-Siyar fī Waqāʾiʿ Karlūs al-Thānī ʿAshar. Translated by Bashjawish, Muhammad Mustafa. Bulaq: Maṭbaʿat Sāḥib al-Saʿāda, 1841.
Voltaire, Rawḍ al-Azhar fī Tārīkh Buṭrus al-Akbar. Translated by ʿAubaid al-Tahtawi, Ahmad Muhammad. Cairo: Dār al-Ṭibāʿa al-ʿĀmira, 1850.
al-Yaziji, Nasif. Risāla Tārīkhiya fī Aḥwāl Jabal Lubnān fī ʿAhdihi al-Iqṭāʿī. Beirut: Dār Maʿn, 2002.
Abu-Manneh, Butrus. “The Christians between Ottomanism and Syrian Nationalism: The Ideas of Butrus al-Bustani.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 11, no. 3 (1980): 287304.
Abu-ʿUksa, Wael. “Liberal Tolerance in Arab Political Thought: Translating Farah Antun (1874–1922).” Journal of Levantine Studies 3, no. 2 (Winter 2013): 151–57.
Adams, Charles C. Islam and Modernism in Egypt: A Study of the Modern Reform Movement Inaugurated by Muhammad Abduh. London: Oxford University Press, 1933.
al-ʿArawi, ʿAbd Allah. Mafhūm al-Ḥurriyya. Casablanca: Al-Markaz al-Thaqāfī al-ʿArabī, 1981.
Alwan, Mohammed. “The History and Publications of al-Jawāʾib Press.” MELA Notes, no. 11 (1977): 47.
Antun, Farah.The Meaning of ‘Tolerance,’ Which Is the Basis of Modern Civilization.” Edited by Wael Abu-ʿUksa. Translated by Zakia Pormann. Journal of Levantine Studies 3, no. 2 (Winter 2013): 159–72.
Antonius, , , George. The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1938.
al-ʿAqad, ʿAbas Mahmud. Rijāl ʿAraftuhum. Cairo: Nahḍat Miṣr, 1992.
Atiya, Aziz Suryal, ed. “Ilyas Buqtur.” In The Coptic Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillan, 1991.
Atiya, Aziz Suryal., ed. “Yaʿqub, General.” In The Coptic Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillan, 1991.
Ayalon, Ami. Language and Change in the Arab Middle East: The Evolution of Modern Political Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Ayalon, Ami. “Semantics and the Modern History of Non-European Societies: Arab ‘Republics’ as a Case Study.” The Historical Journal 28, no. 4 (1985): 821–34.
Ayalon, Ami. “‘Sihafa’: The Arab Experiment in Journalism.” Middle Eastern Studies 28, no. 2 (1992): 258–80.
Baer, Gabriel.Social Change in Egypt: 1800–1914.” In Political and Social Change in Modern Egypt: Historical Studies from the Ottoman Conquest to the United Arab Republic, edited by Holt, Peter M., 135–61. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Baycroft, Timothy. “Nationalism.” In New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
Bödeker, Hans Erich. “Concept – Meaning – Discourse. Begriffsgeschichte Reconsidered.” In History of Concepts: Comparative Perspectives, edited by Hampsher-Monk, Iain, Tilmans, Karin, and Van Vree, Frank. 5164. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1998.
Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. “Siyāsa: In the Sense of Statecraft.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997.
Böwering, Gerhard. “The Concept of Time in Islam.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 141, no. 1 (1997): 5566.
Ceylan, Ebubekir. The Ottoman Origins of Modern Iraq: Political Reform, Modernization and Development in the Nineteenth Century Middle East. London: I. B. Tauris, 2011.
Cheikho, Louis. Kitāb Shuʿarāʾ al-Naṣrāniyya Baʿda al-Islām: Shuʿarāʾ al-Dawla al-ʿAbbāsiyya. Vol. 3. Beirut: Maṭbaʿat al-Ābāʾ al-Yasūʿiyyīn, 1926.
Cole, Juan. Napoleon's Egypt: Invading the Middle East. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Coller, Ian. Arab France: Islam and the Making of Modern Europe, 1798–1831. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011.
Couland, Jacques. “Waṭaniyya.” The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
Crook, Malcolm. “Elections and Democracy in France, 1789–1848.” In Re-imagining Democracy in the Age of Revolutions: America, France, Britain, Ireland, 1750–1850, edited by Innes, Joanna and Philp, Mark, 8397. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Curtis, Michael. Orientalism and Islam: European Thinkers on Oriental Despotism in the Middle East and India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Dalacoura, Katerina. Islam, Liberalism and Human Rights: Implications for International Relations. London: I. B. Tauris, 2007.
Darling, Linda T. A History of Social Justice and Political Power in the Middle East: The Circle of Justice from Mesopotamia to Globalization. London: Routledge, 2013.
Davison, Roderic. Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, 1774–1923: The Impact of the West. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990.
Denny, Frederick Mathewson. “Umma.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2000.
Devereux, Robert. The First Ottoman Constitutional Period: A Study of the Midhat Constitution and Parliament. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963.
Dodds, Eric Robertson. “Progress in Classical Antiquity.” In Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas. New York: Scribner, 1973–1974.
Douglas, Elmer. “The Muslim Concept of Freedom by Franz Rosenthal.” Middle East Journal 15, no. 4 (1961): 470–72.
Drolet, Michael. “Democracy, Self, and the Problem of the General Will in Nineteenth-Century French Political Thought.” In Re-imagining Democracy in the Age of Revolutions: America, France, Britain, Ireland, 1750–1850, edited by Innes, Joanna and Philp, Mark, 6982. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Dustūr: A Survey of the Constitutions of the Arab and Muslim States. Leiden: Brill, 1966.
Esenwein, George. “Socialism.” In New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
Esposito, John L., ed. “Aql.” The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Evans, Robert John Weston. “Liberalism, Nationalism, and the Coming of the Revolution.” In The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849: From Reform to Reaction, edited by John, Robert Evans, Weston and von Strandmann, Hartmut Pogge, 926. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Gellner, Ernest. “The Muslim Concept of Freedom Prior to the 19th Century.” Philosophy 39, no. 147 (1964): 8586.
Gershoni, Israel. “Egyptian Liberalism in an Age of ‘Crisis of Orientation’: al-Risala's Reaction to Fascism and Nazism, 1933–39.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 31, no. 4 (November 1999): 551576.
Gershoni, Israel, and Jankowski, James P.. Confronting Fascism in Egypt: Dictatorship Versus Democracy in the 1930s. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.
Gibb, Hamilton A. Modern Trends in Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1947.
Ginsberg, Morris. “Progress in the Modern Era.” In Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas. New York: Scribner, 1974.
Godlewska, Anne. “Map, Text and Image. The Mentality of Enlightened Conquerors: A New Look at the Description de l'Egypte.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20, no. 1 (1995): 528.
Goldziher, Ignác, and Goichon, Amélie Marie. “Dahriyya.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1965.
Haarmann, Ulrich. “Waṭan.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
Haddad, George A.A Project for the Independence of Egypt, 1801.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 90, no. 2 (1970): 169–83.
Haddad, George M.The Historical Work of Niqula El-Turk 1763–1828.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 81, no. 3 (1961): 247–51.
Hampsher-Monk, Iain, Tilmans, Karin, and Van Vree, Frank. “A Comparative Perspective on Conceptual History – An Introduction.” In History of Concepts: Comparative Perspectives, edited by Hampsher-Monk, Iain, Tilmans, Karin, and Van Vree, Frank. 19. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1998.
Hatina, Meir. Identity Politics in the Middle East: Liberal Thought and Islamic Challenge in Egypt. London: Tauris Academic Studies, 2007.
Heyworth-Dunne, James. “Rifāʿah Badawī Rāfiʿ aṭ-Ṭahṭāwī: The Egyptian Revivalist.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 9, no. 4 (1939): 961–67.
Hill, Peter. “The First Arabic Translations of Enlightenment Literature: The Damietta Circle of the 1800s and 1810s.” Intellectual History Review, 2015, 125.
Holt, Peter M.Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 27, no. 1 (1964): 222–23.
Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Hurewitz, Jacob Coleman. Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East: A Documentary Record. New York: Octagon Books, 1972.
Innes, Joanna, and Philp, Mark. “Introduction.” In Re-imagining Democracy in the Age of Revolutions: America, France, Britain, Ireland, 1750–1850, edited by Innes, Joanna and Philp, Mark, 110. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Innes, Joanna, and Philp, Mark. “Synergies.” In Re-imagining Democracy in the Age of Revolutions: America, France, Britain, Ireland, 1750–1850, edited by Innes, Joanna and Philp, Mark, 191212. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Jamal, Ahmed. The Intellectual Origins of Egyptian Nationalism. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.
Jayyusi, Salma Khadra. Trends and Movements in Modern Arabic Poetry. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1977.
Johansen, Baber. Muhammad Husain Haikal: Europa und der Orient in Weltbild eines Ägyptischen Liberalen. Beirut: In Kommission bei F. Steiner, Wiesbaden, 1967.
Jones, Eric. The European Miracle: Environments, Economies, and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Kassab, Elizabeth Suzanne. Contemporary Arab Thought: Cultural Critique in Comparative Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
Kedourie, Elie. Afghani and ʿAbduh: An Essay on Religious Unbelief and Political Activism in Modern Islam. London: Frank Cass, 1997.
Kedourie, Elie. “Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939.” The Political Quarterly 34, no. 2 (1963): 217–19.
Kennedy, Emmet. “‘Ideology’ from Destutt De Tracy to Marx.” Journal of the History of Ideas 40, no. 3 (1979): 353–68.
Kerr, Malcolm. “Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798–1939.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 84, no. 4 (1964): 427–29.
Kerr, Malcolm. Islamic Reform: The Political and Legal Theories of Muḥammad ʿAbdu and Rashīd Riḍā. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.
Khadduri, Majid. Political Trends in the Arab World: The Role of Ideas and Ideals in Politics. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970.
Khuri-Makdisi, Ilham. The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860–1914. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2010.
Khuri, Raʾif. Al-Fikr al-ʿArabī al-Ḥadīth. Beirut: Dār al-Makshūf, 1943.
Koselleck, Reinhart. The Practice of Conceptual History: Timing History, Spacing Concepts. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002.
Leonhard, Jorn. “From European Liberalism to the Languages of Liberalisms: The Semantics of ‘Liberalism’ in European Comparison.” Redescriptions: Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History, no. 8 (2004): 1751.
Lewis, Bernard. “Ḥurriyya: The Ottoman Empire and After.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1991.
Lewis, Bernard. “Ifrandj.” The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986.
Lewis, Bernard. Political Words and Ideas in Islam. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2008.
Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Lewis, Bernard. “The Muslim Discovery of Europe.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 20, no. 1/3 (1957): 409–16.
Livingston, John W.Western Science and Educational Reform in the Thought of Shaykh Rifaa al-Tahtawi.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 28, no. 4 (1996): 543–64.
Maghraoui, Abdeslam. Liberalism without Democracy: Nationhood and Citizenship in Egypt, 1922–1936. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.
Makdisi, Ussama. “After 1860: Debating Religion, Reform, and Nationalism in the Ottoman Empire.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34, no. 4 (2002): 601–17.
Maoz, Moshe. “Attempts at Creating a Political Community in Modern Syria.” Middle East Journal 26, no. 4 (1972): 389404.
Maoz, Moshe. Ottoman Reform in Syria and Palestine, 1840–1861: The Impact of the Tanzimat on Politics and Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.
Mardin, Şerif. The Genesis of Young Ottoman Thought: A Study in the Modernization of Turkish Political Ideas. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2000.
Mustafa, Ahmed Abdel-Rahim.The Breakdown of the Monopoly System in Egypt After 1840.” In Political and Social Change in Modern Egypt: Historical Studies from the Ottoman Conquest to the United Arab Republic, edited by Holt, Peter M., 291307. London: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Nadolski, Dora Glidewell. “Ottoman and Secular Civil Law.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 8, no. 4 (1977): 517–43.
Nederman, Cary J.Individualism.” In New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
Netton, Ian Richard. “Siyāsa: In the Context of Political Philosophy.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997.
Newman, Daniel L.Introduction.” In An Imam in Paris, 1797. London: Saqi Books, 2011.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. “On the Genealogy of Morals.” In On the Genealogy of Morals; Ecce Homo, trans. Kaufmann, Walter (New York: Vintage Books, 1989).
Nikki, R. Keddie. “Secularization and Secularism.” In New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
Philipp, Thomas. “Identities and Loyalties in Bilad al-Sham at the Beginning of the Early Modem Period.” In From The Syrian Land to the States of Syria and Lebanon, edited by Philipp, Thomas and Schumann, Christoph, 926. Würzburg: Ergon in Kommission, 2004.
Pilbeam, Pamela. Saint-Simonians in Nineteenth-Century France. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
Rahman, Fazlur. “ʿAkl.” The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986.
Ramsaur, Ernest Edmondson. The Young Turks: Prelude to the Revolution of 1908. Beirut: Khayats, 1965.
Rastegar, Kamran. Literary Modernity between the Middle East and Europe: Textual Transactions in Nineteenth-Century Arabic, English, and Persian Literatures. London: Routledge, 2007.
Reid, Donald. “Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age: Twenty Years After.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 14, no. 4 (November 1982): 541–57.
Reid, Donald. “The Syrian Christians and Early Socialism in the Arab World.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 5, no. 2 (1974): 177–93.
Richter, Melvin, and Richter, Michaela W. “Introduction: Translation of Reinhart Koselleck's ‘Krise’ in Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe.” Journal of the History of Ideas 67, no. 2 (April 2006): 343–56.
Roper, Geoffrey. “Aḥmad Fāris al-Shidyāq and the Libraries of Europe and the Ottoman Empire.” Libraries & Culture 33, no. 3 (1998): 233–48.
Rosenthal, Franz. The Muslim Concept of Freedom Prior to the Nineteenth Century. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960.
Sadgrove, Philip Charles. “Ḥassūn, Rizq Allah (1825–80).” In Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature. London: Routledge, 1998.
Safran, Nadav. Egypt in Search of Political Community: An Analysis of the Intellectual and Political Evolution of Egypt, 1804–1952. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961.
Sarkis, Yusuf Ilyan. Muʿjam al-Maṭbūʿāt al-ʿArabiyya wal-Muʿarraba. Cairo: Āyyāt Allah al-ʿUẓma, 1928.
Sawaie, Mohammed. “Rifaʿa Rafiʿ al-Tahtawi and His Contribution to the Lexical Development of Modern Literary Arabic.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 32, no. 3 (2000): 395410.
al-Sayyid, Ahmad Lutfi. Turāth Aḥmad Luṭfī al-Sayyīd. 2 vols. Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Dār al-Kutub wal-Wathāʾiq al-Qawmiyya, 2008.
al-Sayyid, Radwan. “Taqdīm.” In Mafhūm al-Ḥurriyya fī al-Islām: Dirāsa fī Mushkilāt al-Muṣṭalaḥ wa-Abʿāduhu fī al-Turāth al-ʿArabī al-Islāmī. Beirut: Dār al-Madār al-Islāmī, 2007.
Schaebler, Birgit. “Civilizing Others: Global Modernity and Local Boundaries (French/German/Ottoman and Arab) of Savagery.” In Globalization and the Muslim World: Culture Religion and Modernity, edited by Schaebler, Birgit and Stenberg, Leif, 331. New York: Syracuse University Press, 2004.
Schumann, Christoph. “Introduction.” In Liberal Thought in the Eastern Mediterranean: Late 19th Century until the 1960s, edited by Schumann, Christoph, 111. Leiden: Brill, 2008.
Schumann, ChristophIntroduction.” In Nationalism and Liberal Thought in the Arab East: Ideology and Practice, edited by Schumann, Christoph, 110. London: Routledge, 2010.
Sharabi, Hisham. Arab Intellectuals and the West: The Formative Years, 1875–1914. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970.
Sharabi, Hisham. “The Burden of the Intellectuals of the Liberal Age.” Middle East Journal 20, no. 2 (1966): 227–32.
Sharif, Malek. “A Portrait of Syrian Deputies in the First Ottoman Parliament.” In The Ottoman Experiment in Democracy, edited by Sharif, Malek and Herzog, Christoph, 285311. Würzburg: Ergon in Kommission, 2010.
Shaw, Stanford J.The Nizam-I Cedid Army under Sultan Selim III 1789–1807.” Oriens 18/19 (1965–1966): 168–84.
al-Shayyal, Jamal al-Din. Tārīkh al-Tarjama wal-Ḥaraka al-Thaq̣āfiyya fī ʿAṣr Muḥammad ʿAli. Cairo: Dār al-Fikr al-ʿArabī, 1951.
Sheehi, Stephen Paul. “Inscribing the Arab Self: Butrus al-Bustani and Paradigms of Subjective Reform.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 27, no. 1 (2000): 724.
Shogimen, Takashi. “Liberty.” New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
Silvera, Alain. “The First Egyptian Student Mission to France under Muhammad Ali.” Middle Eastern Studies 16, no. 2 (1980): 122.
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell. Islam in Modern History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957.
Streich, Gregory. “Equality.” In New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
Suleiman, Yasir. The Arabic Language and National Identity: A Study in Ideology. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003.
Tarrazi, Filib. Taʾrīkh al-Ṣiḥāfa al-ʿArabiyya. 2 vols. Beirut: Al-Maṭbaʿa al-Adabiyya, 1913–1914.
Thompson, Elizabeth. Justice Interrupted: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in the Middle East. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013.
Thomson, David. Europe since Napoleon. New York: Knopf, 1957.
Tyan, Emile. “ʿAdl.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1986.
Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J. The Modern History of Egypt. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1969.
Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J.. “Ishtirakiyya.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1978.
Vogel, Frank E.Siyāsa: In the Sense of Siyasa Sharʿiyya.” In The Encyclopedia of Islam. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997.
Wahba, Mourad Magdi. “The Meaning of Ishtirakiyah: Arab Perceptions of Socialism in the Nineteenth Century.” Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, no. 10 (1990): 4255.
Weber, Max. Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1976.
Weinberger, Jerry. “Idea of Progress.” In New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005.
Wissa, Karim. “Freemasonry in Egypt 1798–1921: A Study in Cultural and Political Encounters.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 16, no. 2 (1989): 143–61.
Woolf, Stuart. “French Civilization and Ethnicity in the Napoleonic Empire.” Past and Present 124, no. 1 (August 1, 1989): 96120.
Zachs, Fruma. “Cultural and Conceptual Contributions of Beiruti Merchants to the Nahḍa.” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 55 (2012): 153–82.
Zachs, Fruma. “Mīkhāʾīl Mishāqa-The First Historian of Modern Syria.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 28, no. 1 (May 2001): 6787.
Zachs, Fruma. The Making of a Syrian Identity: Intellectuals and Merchants in Nineteenth Century Beirut. Leiden: Brill, 2005.
Zachs, Fruma. “Toward a Proto-Nationalist Concept of Syria? Revisiting the American Presbyterian Missionaries in the Nineteenth-Century Levant.” Die Welt Des Islams 41, no. 2 (2001): 145–73.
Zachs, Fruma, and Halevi, Sharon. Gendering Culture in Greater Syria: Intellectuals and Ideology in the Late Ottoman Period. London: I. B. Tauris, 2015.
Zolondek, Leon. “Al-Ṭahṭawi and Political Freedom.” The Muslim World 54, no. 2 (1964): 9097.
Zolondek, Leon. “The French Revolution in Arabic Literature of the Nineteenth Century.” The Muslim World 57, no. 3 (1967): 202–11.