Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 2005
  • Online publication date: January 2010

11 - Synoptic and mesoscale rain producing systems in the humid tropics

from Part II - Hydrological processes in undisturbed forests

Summary

INTRODUCTION

A key facet of the hydrology and climatology of the humid tropics is the occurrence of more persistent high-rainfall intensities compared with those occurring over the higher latitudes. The equivalent hourly intensities of short-term rainfalls of, for example, over one minute, are commonly one or two orders of magnitude higher than those experienced in humid temperate areas (Bonell, 1993). Thus, the magnitude of rainfall is one of the principal drivers in accounting for the much wider range of preferred pathways of storm runoff in tropical forests (see Bonell, this volume). Less well appreciated in the literature is a possible linkage between preferred pathways of storm runoff and the spatial and temporal variability of different rain-producing meteorological systems. For example, there is a substantial difference in the range of rainfall intensity-frequency-duration characteristics identified with tropical cyclone-prone areas (e.g. northeast Queensland) as against tropical islands where trade wind ‘stream’ showers are more persistent (e.g. the Hawaiian Islands). Moreover, within the outer tropics, there can be a significant seasonal change in synoptic-scale meteorology systems and corresponding rainfall characteristics (notably rain intensities). In northeast Queensland, the dominant pathways of storm runoff in tropical forest show dramatic changes over a few months in response to a change from a monsoon regime of persistent tropical depressions (and cyclones) through to a regime dominated by upper troughs, and finally, stream showers associated with the SE trades (Bonell and Gilmour, 1980; Bonell et al., 1991).

References
AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) (2002) On African Monsoon and its components, CNES, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Météo-France, version February 2002, 52 pp + 14 Figures (available from web site: http://medias.obs-mip.fr/amma)
Asselin de Beauville, C. (1995) Air mass characteristics as related to tropical wave precipitation over Lesser Antilles archipelago. Atmospheric Research 36: 157–170
Atkinson, B. W. (1981). Mesoscale Atmosphere Circulations, Academic Press, London
Austin, G. R., Rauber, R. M., Ochs, H. T. III and Miller, L. J. (1996) Tradewind clouds and Hawaiian rainbands. Mon. Weath. Rev., 124: 2126–2151
Avila, L. A. and Pasch, R. J. (1992). Atlantic tropical systems of 1991. Mon. Weath. Rev. 120: 2688–2696
Barcelo, A., Robert, R. and Coudray, J. (1997). A Major Rainfall Event: The 27 February–5 March 1993 Rains on the Southeastern Slope of Piton de la Fournaise Massif (Reunion Island, Southwest Indian Ocean). Mon. Weath. Rev. 125: 3341–3346
Berndtsson, R. and Niemczynowicz, J. (1988). Spatial and temporal scales in rainfall analysis – some aspects and future perspectives. J. Hydrol. 100: 293–313
Betts, A. (1974). Thermodynamic classification of tropical convective soundings. Mon. Weath. Rev., 102: 760–764
Bidin, K. (2001). Spatio-temporal variability in rainfall and wet-canopy evaporation within a small catchment recovering from selective tropical forestry. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK pp 201
Black, M. L., Gamache, J. F., Marks, F. D. Jr., Samsury, C. E. and Willoughby, H. E. 2002. Eastern Pacific hurricanes Jimena of 1991 and Olivia of 1994: the effect of vertical shear on structure and intensity. Mon. Weath. Rev. 130(9): 2291–2312
Blanchard, D. O., Cotton, W. R. and Brown, J. M. (1998). Mesoscale Circulation Growth under Conditions of Weak Inertial Instability. Mon. Weath. Rev. 126: 118–140
Bonell, M. (1991). Progress and future research needs in water catchment conservation within the wet tropical coast of NE Queensland. In: Tropical Rainforest Research in Australia: Present Status and Furure Directions for the Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, Proceedings of a Workshop held in Townsville, Australia, 4–6 May, 1990 Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, pp 59–86
Bonell, M. (1993). Progress in the understanding of runoff generation dynamics in forests. J. Hydrol., 150: 217–275
Bonell, M. (1998). Possible impacts of climate variability and change on tropical forest hydrology. Climatic change 39: 215–272. Based on the WWF Conference on the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Tropical Forest Ecosystems, Puerto Rico, 24–28 April 1995
Bonell, M. (2004) Selected Issues on Mountain Hydrology of the Humid Tropics. Conference on Forestry and Forest Products 1999 Series: Forestry and Land Use Perspectives, 31 March–1 April 1999, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 25 pp. To be published as a UNESCO Technical Document in Hydrology (UNESCO Jakarta Office), in press
Bonell, M. with Balek, J. (1993). Recent Scientific Developments and Research Needs in Hydrological Processes of The Humid Tropics. (In) Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics: Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M. and Gladwell, J. 4: 167–260
Bonell, M. and Gilmour, D. A. (1980). Variations in short-term rainfall intensity in relation to synoptic climatological aspects of the humid tropical north-east Queensland coast. Singapore J. Trop. Geog. 1(2): 16–30
Bonell, M., Gilmour, D. A. and Cassels, D. S. (1991). The links between synoptic climatology and the runoff response of rainforest catchments on the wet tropical coast of north-eastern Queensland. In: P. A. Kershaw and G. Werran, (eds.) Australian National Rain Forests Study Report 2: 27–62, Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra, Australia
Bracken, W. E. and Bosart., L. F., (2000). The role of synoptic-scale flow during tropical cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic Ocean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128: 353–376
Brunt, A. T. (1966). Rainfall associated with tropical cyclones in the northeast Australian regions. Aust. Met. Mag., 14: 85–109
Bureau of Meteorology (1989). Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement, April 1989, 8(4), Bureau of Meteorology Research Section, Darwin
Burpee, R. W. (1972). The origin and structure of easterly waves in the lower troposphere of North Africa. J. Atmos. Sci. 29: 77–90
Burpee, R. W. (1974). Characteristics of the North African easterly waves during the summers of 1968 and 1969. J. Atmos. Sci. 31: 1556–1570
Carbone, R. E., Cooper, W. A., and Lee, W. C. (1995). On the forcing of flow reversal along the windward slopes of Hawaii. Mon. Weath. Rev., 123: 3466–3480
Carlson, T. N. (1969a) Synoptic histories of three African disturbances that developed into Atlantic hurricanes. Mon. Weath. Rev. 97: 256–276
Carlson, T. N. (1969b). Some remarks on African disturbances and their progress over the tropical Atlantic. Mon. Weath. Rev. 97: 716–726
Cerveny, R. S. and Newman, L. E., (2000). Climatological Relationships between Tropical Cyclones and Rainfall. Mon. Weath. Rev., 128: 3329–3336
Chang, C.-P., Erickson, J. E. and Lau, K. M. (1979). Northeasterly cold surges and near – equatorial disturbances over the winter MONEX area during December 1974. Part 1 synoptic aspects. Mon. Weath. Rev., 107, 812–829
Chang, J.-H. and Lau, L. S. (1993). Appendix: A definition of the Humid Tropics. (In) Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics: Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M. and Gladwell, J. S. pp. 571–574
Chen, L. and Gray, W. M. (1986). Global view of the upper level outflow patterns associated with tropical cyclone intensity change during FGGE. Department of Atmospheric Science Paper No. 392, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, 126pp
Chen, Y.-L., and Feng, J. (1995). The influences of inversion height on precipitation and airflow over the island of Hawaii. Mon. Weath. Rev., 123: 1660–1676
Chen, S. S. and Houze, R. A. Jr. (1997). Diurnal Variation and life-cycle of deep convective systems over the tropical Pacific warm pool. Int. J. Climatol. 123: 357–388
Churchill, D. D and Houze, R. A. Jr. (1984). Development and structure of winter monsoon cloud clusters on 10 December 1978. J. Atmos. Sci. 41: 933–960
Cifelli, R. and Rutledge, S. A. (1994). Vertical motion structure in maritime continent mesoscale convective systems: Results from a 50 HRz profiler. J. Atmos. Sci. 51: 2631–2652
Cifelli, R. and Rutledge, S. A. (1998). Vertical motion, diabatic heating, and rainfall characteristics in north Australia convective systems. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124: 1133–1162
Concise Experimental Plan, LBA: (1996). The Large Scale Biosphere – Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA), Compiled by the LBA Science Planning Group, 40pp. Available from LBA project offices:- Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, Institutio Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), 12630–000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil; (EU-LBA office) DLO Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research, PO Box 125, NL-6700AC Wageningen, The Netherlands and (North American LBA-office) NASA, 300 E Street SW, DC 20546 Washington, USA
Connor, G. J. (1999). An exploratory study into synoptic classification techniques for tropical precipitation forecasting. Aust. Met. Mag., 48: 241–253
Connor, G. J., and Bonell, M. (1998). Air mass and dynamic parameters affecting trade wind precipitation on the northeast Queensland tropical coast. Int. J. Climatol., 18: 1357–1372
Connor, G. J. and Woodcock, F. (2000). The application of synoptic stratification to precipitation forecasting in the trade wind regime. Weath. Forecasting, 15: 276–297
Cotton, W. R., Lin, M.-S., Mc Anelly, R. L. and Tremback, J. J. (1989). A composite model of mesoscale convective complexes. Mon. Weath. Rev., 117: 765–783
Cronin, M. F., Bond, N., Fairall, C., Hare, J., McPhaden, M. J. and Weller, R. A. (2002). Enhanced oceanic and atmospheric monitoring underway in eastern pacific. EOS, 83(19), 7 May 2002, pp. 205, 210–211
Crowe, P. R. (1971). Concepts in Climatology, Longmans, London, 589 pp
Dharssi, I., Kershaw, R. and Tao, W. K. (1997). Sensitivity of a simulated tropical squall line to long-wave radiation. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 123: 187–206
Dudhia, J. (1989). Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensionnal model. J. Atmos. Sci. 46: 3077–3107
Duvel, J. P. and Kandel, R. S. (1985). Regional-scale diurnal variations of outgoing infrared radiation observed by METEOSAT. J. Climate Appl. Meteorol. 24: 335–349
Elassien, A. (1951). Slow thermally or frictionally controlled meridional circulation in acircular vortex. Astrophys. Norv. 5: 19–60
Elsenbeer, H., Cassel, D. K. and Zuniga, L. (1994). Throughfall in the terra firme forest of western Amazonia. J. Hydrol.(NZ), 32(2): 30–44
Eltahir, E. A. B. and Bras, R. L. (1994). Precipitation Recycling in the Amazon Basin. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 120: 861–880
Everitt, B. (1980). Cluster analysis. 2nd Edition, Social Science Research Council. Heinemann, London, 136pp
Ferraro, R., Vicente, G., Ba, M., Gruber, A., Scofield, R., Li, Q. and Weldon, R. (1999). Satellites Techniques Yield Insight into Devastating Rainfall from Hurricane Mitch. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophy. Un. 80, No 43: 505, 512–514
Frank, N. L. (1970). Atlantic tropical systems of 1969. Mon. Weath. Rev. 98: 307–314
Garreaud, R. D. and Wallace, J. M. (1997). The Diurnal March of Convective Cloudiness over the Americas. Mon. Weath. Rev. 125: 3157–3171
Garreaud, R. D. and Wallace, J. M. (1998). Summertime Incursions of Midlatitude Air into Subtropical and Tropical South America. Mon. Weath. Rev., 126: 2713–2733
Garstang, M., Massie, H. L. Jr., Halverson, J., Greco, S. and Scala, J. (1994). Amazon Coastal Squall Lines. Part I: Structure and Kinematics. Mon. Weath. Rev. 122: 608–622
Giambelluca, T. W., Nullet, M. A. and Schroeder, T. A. (1986). Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii, Dept. of Land and Natural Resources. State of Hawaii, 267 pp
Glahn, H. R. (1985). Yes, precipitation forecasts have improved. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 66: 820–830
Gong, C. and Eltahir, E.: (1996). Sources of moisture for rainfall in west Africa, Wat. Resour. Res., 32: 3115–3121
Gray, W. and Jacobson, R. W. (1977). Diurnal variation of deep cumulus convection. Mon. Weath. Rev. 105: 1171–1188
Gray, W. M., Landsea, C. W., Mielke, P. W. Jr. and Berry, K. J. (1994). Predicting Atlantic basin seasonal tropical cyclone activity by June 1. Weath. Forecasting 9: 103–115
Greco, S., Swap, R., Garstang, M., Ulanski, S., Shipham, M., Harriss, R. C., Talbot, R., Andreae, M. O. and Artaxo, P. (1990). Rainfall and Surface Kinematic Conditions Over Central Amazonia During ABLE 2B. J. Geophys. Res. 95: 17,001–17,014
Griffiths, J. F. (1972). Climates of Africa, World Survey of Climatology 10, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 604 pp
Haertel, P. T. and Johnson, R. H. (1998). Two-day disturbances in the equatorial western Pacific. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124: 615–636
Hall, A. J. (1984). Hydrology in tropical Australia and Papua New Guinea. Hydrol. Sci. J. 29: 399–423
Hellin, J., Haight, M. and Marks, F. (1999). Rainfall characteristics of hurricane Mitch. Nature, 399: 316
Hirschberg, P. A., and Fritsch, J. M. (1991a). Tropopause undulations and the development of extratropical cyclones. Part I: Overview and observations from a cyclone event. Mon. Weath. Rev. 119: 496–517
Hirschberg, P. A., and Fritsch, J. M., (1991b). Tropopause undulations and the development of extratropical cyclones. Part II: Diagnostic analysis and conceptual modal. Mon. Weath. Rev. 119: 518–550
Hirschberg, P. A., and Fritsch, J. M., (1993a). A study of the development of extratropical cyclones with an analytic model. Part I: The effects of stratospheric structure. J. Atmos. Sci. 50: 311–307
Hirschberg, P. A., and Fritsch, J. M., (1993b). On understanding height tendency. Mon. Weath. Rev. 121: 2646–2661
Hirschberg, P. A., and Fritsch, J. M., (1994). A study of the development of extratropical cyclones with an analytic model. Part II: Sensitivity to tropospheric structure and analysis of height tendency dynamics. Mon. Weath. Rev. 122: 2312–2330
Hodnett, M. G., Vendrame, I., O. Marques Filho, A., Oyama, M. D. and Tomasella, J., (1997). Soil water storage and groundwater behaviour in a catenary sequence beneath forest in central Amazonia: I Comparisons between plateau, slope and valley floor, Hydrol. Earth Sys. Sc., 1(2), 265–277
Holland, G. J. and Merrill, R. T. (1984). On the dynamics of tropical cyclone structure change. Q. J. R. Met. Soc., 110: 723–745
Holton, J. R. (1979). An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Academic Press, New York, 309pp
Hoskins, B. J., Draghici, I. and Davies, H. C. (1978). A new look at the Omega equation. Q. J. R. Met. Soc. 104: 31–38
Hoskins, B. L., McIntyre, M. E., and Robertson, A. W. (1985). On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 111: 877–946
Hoskins, B. J., Pedder, M. and Wyn, Jones D. 2003. The omega equation and Potential Vorticity. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129: 3277–3303
Houze, R. A. (1989). Observed structure of mesoscale covective systems and implications for large-scale heating. Q. J. R. Met. Soc. 115: 425–461
Houze, R. A. and Rappaport, E. N. (1984). Air motions and precipitation structure of an early summer squall line over the eastern tropical Atlantic. J. Atmos. Sci. 41: 553–574
Jackson, I. J. (1986). Relationships between raindays, mean daily intensity and monthly rainfall in the tropics. J. Climatol. 6: 117–134
Jackson, I. J. (1988). Daily rainfall over Northern Australia: deviations from the world pattern. J. Climatol. 8: 463–476
Jackson, I. J. (1989). Climate, Water and Agriculture in the Tropics, 2nd edn., Longman, London
Jackson, I. J. and Weinand, H. (1994). Towards a classification of tropical rainfall stations. Int. J. Climatol. 14: 263–286
Jackson, I. J. and Weinand, H. (1995). Classification of tropical rainfall stations: a comparison of clustering techniques. Int. J. Climatol. 15: 985–994
Janowiak, J. E., Arkin, P. A. and Morrissey, M. (1994). An examination of the diurnal cycle in oceanic tropical rainfall using satellite and in situ data. Mon. Weath. Rev. 122: 2296–2311
Kodama, K. and Barnes, G. M. (1997). Heavy rain events over the south-facing slopes of Hawaii: Attendant conditions. Weath. Forecasting, 12: 347–367
Laing, A. G. and Fritsch, J. M. (1993). Mesoscale convective complexes in Africa, Mon. Weath. Rev., 121: 2254–2263, 1993
Landsea, C. W., Gray, W. M., Mielke, P. W. Jr. and Berry, K. J. (1998). Seasonal forecasting of Atlantic hurricane activity. Weather 49: 273–283
Lau, N.-P., Chang, C.-P. And Chan, P. H. (1983). Short-term planetary scale interactions over the tropics and mid latitudes. Part II: Winter MONEX periods. Mon. Weath. Rev., 111: 1372–1388
Lean, J. and Rowntree, P. R. (1997). Understanding the sensitivity of a GCM simulation of Amazonian deforestation to the specification of vegetation and soil characteristics. J. Climate, 10: 1216–1235
Lean, J., Bunton, C. B., Nobre, C. A. and Rowntree, P. R.: (1996). The simulated impact of Amazonian deforestation on climate using measured ABRACOS vegetation characteristics. In: Amazonian Deforestation and Climate, Gash, J. H. C., Nobre, C. A., Roberts, J. M. and Victoria, R. L., eds., Wiley, Chichester, pp. 549–576
Lebel, T., Taupin, J. D. and D'Amato, N. (1997). Rainfall monitoring during HAPEX-Sahel. 1. General conditions and climatology. J. Hydrol. 188–189: 74–96
Lebel, T., Braud, I. and Creutin, J.-D. (1998). A space-time rainfall disaggregation model adapted to Sahelian mesoscale convective complexes. Wat. Resour. Res. 34: 1711–1726
Lenters, J. D. and Cook, K. H. (1999). Summertime Precipitation Variability over South America: Role of the Large-Scale Circulation. Mon. Weath. Rev. 127: 409–431
Leopold, L. B. (1949). The interaction of trade wind and sea breeze, Hawaii. J. Meteorol., 6: 312–320
Lockwood, J. G. (1984). The Southern Oscillation and El Niño. Progress in Physical Geography 8(1): 102–110
Lyons, S. W. (1982). Empirical orthogonal function analysis of Hawaiian rainfall. J. Appl. Meteorol., 21: 1713–1729
Lyons, W. F. and Bonell, M. (1992). Daily, meso-scale rainfall in the tropical wet/dry climate of the Townsville area, North-East Queensland during the 1988–1989 wet season: synoptic-scale airflow considerations. Int. J. Climatol. 12: 655–684
Lyons, W. F. and Bonell, M. (1994). Regionalization of daily mesoscale rainfall in the tropical wet/dry climate of the Townsville area of North-East Queensland during the 1988–1989 wet season. Int. J. Climatol. 14: 135–163
Machado, L. A. T., Rossow, W. B., Guedes, R. L. and Walker, A. W. (1998). Life cycle variations of mesoscale convective systems over the Americas. Mon. Weath. Rev. 126: 1631–1654
Maddox, R. A. (1980). Mesoscale convective complexes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61: 1374–1387
Manton, M. J. and Bonell, M. (1993). Climate and Rainfall Variability in the Humid Tropics. (In) Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics: Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M. and Gladwell, J. S. 2: 13–33
Mapes, B. E. and Houze, R. A. Jr. (1993). Cloud clusters and superclusters over the oceanic warm pool. Mon. Weath. Rev. 121: 1398–1415
Marengo, J., Fisch, G. F., Vendrame, I., Cervantes Dias, P. G., Morales. C. A, (2001). Diurnal variability of rainfall in Southwest Amazonia during the LBA-WET AMC campaign of the summer of 1999. Unpublished manuscript
Matsuno, T. (1966). Quasi-geostrophic motions in the equatorial area. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 44: 25–42
Matthews, A. J. and Kiladis, G. N. (1999). The Tropical-Extratropical Interaction between High-Frequency Transients and the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Mon. Weath. Rev. 127: 661–677
McBride, J. L. (1983). Satellite observation of the southern hemisphere monsoon during winter MONEX, Tellus, 35A (3): 189–197
McBride, J. L. and Keenan, T. D., (1982). Climatology of tropical cyclone genesis in the Australian region. J. Climatol., 2: 13–33
McRae, J. N. (1956). The formation and development of tropical cyclones during the 1955–56 summer in Australia. Proceedings of the Tropical Cyclone Symposium Brisbane 1956, Bureau of Meteorology, Australia, 233–262
Merritt, E. S. (1964). Easterly waves and perturbations, a reappraisal. J. Applied Met. 4: 367–382
Molinari, J., Knight, D., Dickinson, M., Vollaro, D. and Skubis, S. (1997). Potential Vorticity, Easterly Waves, and Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclogenesis. Mon. Weath. Rev. 125: 2699–2708
Molinari, J., Vollaro, D., Skubis, S and Dickinson, M. (2000). Origins and Mechanisms of Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclogenesis: A Case Study. Mon. Weath. Rev., 128: 125–139
Molion, L. C. B.: (1993). Amazonia rainfall and its variability. In: Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics – Hydrological Research Issues and Strategies for Water Management, Bonell, M., Hufschmidt, M. M. and Gladwell, J. S., eds., Cambridge, pp. 99–111
Neumann, C. J. (1979). On the use of deep layer mean geopotential height fields in statistical prediction of tropical cyclone motion. 6th Conference on Probability and Statistics in Atmospheric Sciences, Amer. Met. Society, Boston 32–38
Observatoire Réunionnais de l'EAU (1994) Le cyclone tropical Colina et les évènements hydrologiques majeurs du 1er trimestre 1993. Etude hydrologique générale
Ojo, O. (1977). The Climate of West Africa, Heinemann, London, 219 pp
Olsen, D. A., Junker, N. W., and Korty, B. (1995). Evaluation of 33 years of quantitative precipitation forecasting at NMC. Weath. Forecasting, 10: 498–511
Omotosho, J. B. (1985). The separate contributions of line squalls, thunderstorms and the monsoon to the total rainfall in Nigeria, J. Climatol., 5: 543–552
Orlanski, I. (1975). A relatipnal subdivision of scales for atmosphere processes. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 56: 527–530
Palmen., E. (1948). On the formation and structure of tropical cyclones. Geophysics, 3, 26–38
Pielke, R. A., Avissar, R., Raupach, M., Dolman, A. J., Zeng, X. and Denning, A. S. (1998). Interactions between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems: influence on weather and climate. Global Change Biology 4: 461–475
Pielke, R. A., Walko, R. L., Steyaert, L. T., Vidale, P. L., Liston, G. E., Lyons, W. A. and Chase, T. N. (1999). The Influence of Anthropogenic; Landscape Changes on Weather in South Florida. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 127: 1663–1672
Putty, M. R., Prasad, V. S. R. K. and Ramaswamy, R., (2000). A study of the rainfall intensity pattern in western Ghats, Karnataka. In: Proc. Workshop on Watershed Development in Western Ghats Region of India, 28–29 February 2000, Varadan, K. M. (Ed.), Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Kozhikode-673 571, Kerala.: pp 44–51
Pytharoulis, I. and Thorncroft, C. D, (1999). The low-level structure of African easterly waves in 1995. Mon. Weath. Rev. 127: 2266–2280
Ramage, C. S., (1968). Role of a ‘Maritime Continent’ in the atmospheric circulation. Mon. Weath. Rev. 96: 365–370
Ramage, C. S., and Schroeder, T. A. (1999). Trade wind rainfall atop Mount Waialeale, Kauai. Mon. Weath. Rev. 127: 2217–2226
Rasmussen, R. M., Smolarkiewicz, P. K., and Warner, J. (1989). On the dynamics of Hawaiian cloud bands: Comparison of model results with observations and island climatology. J. Atmos. Sci. 46: 1589–1608
Raymond, D. J. (1994). Convective processes and tropical atmospheric circulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120: 1431–1455
Raymond, D. J. and Lewis, S. A. (1995). Rotating convective disturbances in the trades. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 121: 271–299
Reed, R. J. and Recker, E. E. (1971). Structure and properties of synoptic wave disturbance in the equatorial western Pacific. J. Atmos. Sci. 28: 1117–1133
Reed, R. J., Hollingsworth, A., Heckley, W. and Delsol, F. (1988a). An evaluation of the performance of the ECMWF forecasting operational system in analyzing and forecasting easterly wave disturbances over Africa and the tropical Atlantic. Mon. Weath. Rev. 116: 824–865
Reed, R. J., Klinker, E. and Hollingsworth, A. (1988b). The structure and characteristics of African easterly wave disturbances as determined from the ECMWF operational analysis/forecast system. Meteor. Atmos. Phys. 38: 22–33
Riehl, H. (1954). Tropical meteorology. McGraw-Hill, New York
Ritchie, E. A. and Holland, G. H. (1999). Large-Scale Patterns Associated with Tropical Cyclogenesis in the Western Pacific. Mon. Weath. Rev. 127: 2027–2043
Roux, F. (1998). The oceanic mesoscale convective system observed with airborne Doppler radars on 9 February 1993 during TOGA-COARE: Structure, evolution and budgets. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124: 585–614
Sadler, J. C. (1967). On the origin of tropical vortices. Proc. Of working panel on tropical dynamic meteorology, Monterey, California, Navy Weather Research Facility, Report 12-1167-132, 39–75. Available from the department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii
Sadler, J. C. (1975a). The upper tropospheric circulation over the global tropics, Dept. of Meteorolgy, University of Hawaii
Sadler, J. C. (1975b). The monsoon circulation and cloudiness over the GATE area. Mon. Weath. Rev. 104: 369–387
Sadler, J. C. (1978). Mid-season typhoon development and intensity changes and the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough. Mon. Weath. Rev. 106: 1137–1152
Sadler, J. C., Lander, M. A., Hori, A. M. and Oda, L. K. (1987). Tropical Marine Climatic Atlas, Volume I (Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean) and Volume II (Pacific Ocean), Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii
Saito, K., Keenan, T., Holland, G. and Puri, K. (2001). Numerical Simulation of the Diurnal Evolution of Tropical Island Convection over the Maritime Continent. Mon. Weath. Rev. 129: 378–400
Salati, E., Dallo'Olio, A., Marsui, E. and Gat, J. R. (1979). Recycling of Water in the Amazon Basin: An Isotope Study. Wat. Resour. Res. 15: 1250–1258
Shapiro, L. J. (1986). The three-dimensionnal structure of synoptic-scale disturbances over the tropical Atlantic. Mon. Weath. Rev. 114: 1876–1891
Shay, L. K. (1988). Ocean Processes excited by tropical cyclones. Rapporteur Reports of the Fourth WMO International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones (IWTC-IV), Haikou, China
Shinoda, M., Okatani, T. and Saloum, M. (1999). Diurnal variations of rainfall over Niger in the West African Sahel: a comparison between wet and drought Years. Int. J. Climatol. 19: 81–94
Smolarkiewicz, P. K., Rasmussen, R. M., and Clark, T. L. (1988). On the dynamics of Hawaiian cloud bands: Island forcing. J. Atmos. Sci., 45: 1872–1905
Sumner, G. N. (1988). Precipitation – Processes and Analyses. Wiley, Chichester
Sumner, G. N. and Bonell, M. (1986). Circulation and daily rainfall in the north Queensland wet season 1979–1982. J. Climatol. 6: 531–549
Sumner, G. N. and Bonell, M. (1988). Variation in the spatial organisation of daily rainfall during the north Queensland wet season, 1979–82. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 39: 59–72
Takehashi, T. (1986). Wind shear effects on water accumulation and rain duration in Hawaiian warm clouds. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 64: 575–584
Tao, W.-K., Lang, S., Simpson, J., Sui, C.-H., Ferrier, B. and Chou, M.-D. (1996). Mechanisms of cloud-radiation interaction in the tropical latitudes. J. Atmos. Sci. 53: 2624–2651
Taylor, C. M. and Lebel, T. (1998). Observational Evidence of Persistent Convective-Scale Rainfall Patterns. Mon. Weath. Rev. 126: 1597–1607
Taylor, C. M., Said, F. and Lebel, T. (1997). Interactions between the Land Surface and Mesoscale Rainfall Variability during HAPEX-Sahel. Mon. Weath. Rev. 125: 2211–2227
Taylor, C. M., Clark, D. B. and Cox, P. M. (2000). Land surface controls on west African rainfall in a GCM. In: World Meteorological Organisation (2000) Proceedings of the workshop on west African monsoon variability and predictability (WAMAP). Geneva, WMO Tropical Meteorology Research Programme Report Series 63: 43–46
Thauvin, V. and Lebel, T. (1991). International workshop on precipitation measurement IV: EPSAT-NIGER- Study of rainfall over the Sahel at small time steps using a dense network of recording raingauges. Hydrol. Proc. 5: 251–260
Thorncroft, C. D. (1995). An idealized study of African easterly waves. III: More realistic basic states. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 121: 1589–1614
Thorncroft, C. D. and Hoskins, B. J. (1994a) An idealized study of African easterly waves. I: A linear view. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120: 953–982
Thorncroft, C. D. and Hoskins, B. J. (1994b). An idealized study of African easterly waves. II: A nonlinear view. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120: 983–1015
Thorncroft, C. D. and Rowell, D. P. (1998). Interannual Variability of African Wave Activity in a General Circulation Model. Int. J. Climatol. 18: 1305–1323
Thorncroft, C. D. and Hodges, K. (2001). African Easterly Wave Variability and Its Realtionship to Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity. J. Clim., 14: 1166–1179
Trenberth, K. E. (1999). Atmospheric Moisture Recycling: Role of Advection and Local Evaporation. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 12: 1368–1381
Ward, J. H. (1963). Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function. Am. Sci. Assoc. J. 58: 236–244
Webster, P. J. and Lukas, R. (1992). TOGA COARE: The coupled ocean-atmosphere response experiment. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 73: 1377–1416
Webster, P. J. and Stephens, G. L. (1980). Tropical upper-tropospheric extended clouds: Inferences from Winter MONEX. J. Atmos. Sci. 37: 1521–1541
Williams, W. T. (ed.) (1976). Pattern Analysis in Agricultural Science. CSIRO and Elsevier, Melbourne
Wu, M. C., and Chan, J. C. L. (1997). Upper-Level features associated with winter monsoon surges over South China. Mon. Weath. Rev. 125: 317–340
Yuter, S. E. and Houze, R. A. Jr. (1998). The natural variability of precipitating clouds over the western pacific warm pool. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124: 53–99
Zheng, X. and Eltahir, E. A. B. (1998). The role of vegetation in the dynamics of west African monsoons. J. Climate 11: 2078–2096