Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: June 2014

Chapter Eleven - Tree performance across gradients of soil resource availability



Whether in the temperate zone or tropics, tree species composition and forest productivity are strongly associated with soil characteristics (e.g. Figure 11.1). Although these community- and ecosystem-level processes necessarily arise from variation in individual tree performance, the influences of specific soil resources on particular tree demographic processes have yet to be fully elucidated (Kobe 1996).

It is important, for several reasons, to understand how soil resources govern tree performance. First, and perhaps most salient to the theme of this volume, human activity exerts a potentially strong effect on soil resource availability through atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) (Figure 11.2), which accelerates soil acidification and the leaching of phosphorus (P) and base cations (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K)) (Izuta et al. 2004; Matson et al. 1999; Perakis et al. 2006). Inorganic N deposition takes two major forms: nitrate (NO3) from the combustion of fossil fuels and ammonium (NH4+) from agricultural activity. Background levels of N deposition are typically <1 kgN ha–1 yr–1, as measured in remote non-industrialised areas of the world (Hedin et al. 1995). In North America, N deposition can be more than 20 kgN ha–1 yr–1 (Gradowski & Thomas 2008; Weathers et al. 2006). Levels in Europe are much higher, with maximum levels reaching at least 43.5 kgN ha–1 yr–1recently (Stevens et al. 2011) and 75 kgN ha–1 yr–1 in the 1990s (Dise & Wright 1995). Atmospheric deposition of N is not exclusively a temperate issue, and levels of N deposition are expected to increase in the tropics with further industrial and agricultural development (Matson et al. 1999). Even though soil N levels are higher in tropical than temperate forests, additional inputs of N through deposition could lead to lower plant diversity and increased bulk carbon storage, as well as losses of base cations and P (Cusack et al. 2011; Lu et al. 2010; Matson et al. 1999).

Adamek, M., Corre, M. D. & Hölscher, D. (2009) Early effect of elevated nitrogen input on above-ground net primary production of a lower montane rain forest, Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 25, 637.
Adams, M. (2000) Impact of harvesting and atmospheric pollution on nutrient depletion of eastern US hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 138, 301–319.
Aragão, L. E. O. C., Malhi, Y., Metcalfe, D. B. et al. (2009) Above- and below-ground net primary productivity across ten Amazonian forests on contrasting soils. Biogeosciences, 6, 2759–2778.
Baltzer, J. L., Thomas, S. C., Nilus, R. & Burslem, D. F. R. P. (2005) Edaphic specialization in tropical trees: physiological correlates and responses to reciprocal transplantation. Ecology, 86, 3063–3077.
Baraloto, C., Bonal, D. & Goldberg, D. E. (2006) Differential seedling growth response to soil resource availability among nine neotropical tree species. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 22, 487.
Baraloto, C., Goldberg, D. E. & Bonal, D. (2005) Performance trade-offs among tropical tree seedlings in contrasting microhabitats. Ecology, 86, 2461–2472.
Baribault, T. W. & Kobe, R. K. (2011) Neighbour interactions strengthen with increased soil resources in a northern hardwood forest. Journal of Ecology, 99, 1358–1372.
Baribault, T. B., Kobe, R. K. & Finley, A. O. (2012) Tropical tree growth is correlated with soil phosphorus, potassium, and calcium, though not for legumes. Ecological Monographs, 82, 189–203.
Baribault, T. W., Kobe, R. K. & Rothstein, D. E. (2010) Soil calcium, nitrogen, and water are correlated with aboveground net primary production in northern hardwood forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 260, 723–733.
Bigelow, S. W. & Canham, C. D. (2002) Community organization of tree species along soil gradients in a north-eastern USA forest. Journal of Ecology, 90, 188–200.
Bigelow, S. W. & Canham, C. D. (2007) Nutrient limitation of juvenile trees in a northern hardwood forest: Calcium and nitrate are preeminent. Forest Ecology and Management, 243, 310–319.
Bloom, A. J., Chapin, F. S. I. & Mooney, H. A. (1985) Resource limitation in plants – an economic analogy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 16, 363–392.
Borowicz, V. A. (2001) Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter plant–pathogen relations?Ecology, 82, 3057–3068.
Bray, J. R. & Curtis, J. T. (1957) An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs, 27, 325.
Bugmann, H. & Bigler, C. (2011) Will the CO2 fertilization effect in forests be offset by reduced tree longevity?Oecologia, 165, 533–544.
Bugmann, H. & Cramer, W. (1998) Improving the behaviour of forest gap models along drought gradients. Forest Ecology and Management, 103, 247–263.
Burslem, D. F. R. P., Grubb, P. J. & Turner, I. M. (1995) Responses to nutrient addition among tree seedlings of lowland in Singapore tropical rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 83, 113–122.
Canham, C. D., Berkowitz, A. R., Kelly, V. R. et al. (1996) Biomass allocation and multiple resource limitation in tree seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26, 1521–1530.
Canham, C. D., Finzi, A. C., Pacala, S. W. & Burbank, D. H. (1994) Causes and consequences of resource heterogeneity in forests: interspecific variation in light transmission by canopy trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 337–349.
Canham, C. D., Papaik, M. J., Uriarte, M. et al. (2006) Neighborhood analyses of canopy tree competition along environmental gradients in New England forests. Ecological Applications, 16, 540–554.
Canham, C. D. & Thomas, R. Q. (2010) Frequency, not relative abundance, of temperate tree species varies along climate gradients in eastern North America. Ecology, 91, 3433–3440.
Cardon, Z., Czaja, A., Funk, J. & Vitt, P. (2002) Periodic carbon flushing to roots of Quercus rubra saplings affects soil respiration and rhizosphere microbial biomass. Oecologia, 133, 215–223.
Chadwick, O. A., Derry, L. A., Vitousek, P. M., Huebert, B. J. & Hedin, L. O. (1999) Changing sources of nutrients during four million years of ecosystem development. Nature, 397, 491–497.
Chen, F.-S., Zeng, D.-H., Fahey, T. J., Yao, C.-Y. & Yu, Z.-Y. (2010) Response of leaf anatomy of Chenopodium acuminatum to soil resource availability in a semi-arid grassland. Plant Ecology, 209, 375–382.
Clark, D. B., Palmer, M. W. & Clark, D. A. (1999) Edaphic factors and the landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest trees. Ecology, 80, 2662–2675.
Clark, J. S., Mohan, J., Dietze, M. & Ibanez, I. (2003) Coexistence: how to identify trophic trade-offs. Ecology, 84, 17–31.
Coomes, D. A. & Grubb, P. J. (2000) Impacts of root competition in forests and woodlands: a theoretical framework and review of experiments. Ecological Monographs, 70, 171–207.
Coomes, D. A., Holdaway, R. J., Kobe, R. K., Lines, E. R. & Allen, R. B. (2012) A general integrative framework for modelling woody biomass production and carbon sequestration rates in forests. Journal of Ecology, 100, 42–64.
Coomes, D. A., Kunstler, G., Canham, C. D. & Wright, E. (2009) A greater range of shade-tolerance niches in nutrient-rich forests: an explanation for positive richness–productivity relationships?Journal of Ecology, 97, 705–717.
Cuevas, E. & Medina, E. (1988) Nutrient dynamics within Amazonian forests. Oecologia, 76, 222–235.
Cusack, D. F., Silver, W. L., Torn, M. S. & McDowell, W. H. (2011) Effects of nitrogen additions on above- and belowground carbon dynamics in two tropical forests. Biogeochemistry, 104, 203–225.
Dauer, J. M., Chorover, J., Chadwick, O. A. et al. (2007) Controls over leaf and litter calcium concentrations among temperate trees. Biogeochemistry, 86, 175–187.
Denslow, J. S., Vitousek, P. M. & Schultz, J. C. (1987) Bioassays of nutrient limitation in a tropical rain forest soil. Oecologia, 74, 370–376.
Dent, D. H. & Burslem, D. F. R. P. (2009) Performance trade-offs driven by morphological plasticity contribute to habitat specialization of Bornean tree species. Biotropica, 41, 424–434.
Dijkstra, F. A., Breemen, N., Jogmans, A. G., Davies, G. R. & Likens, G. E. (2003) Calcium weathering in forested soils and the effect of different tree species. Biogeochemistry, 62, 253–275.
Dijkstra, F. A. & Cheng, W. (2007) Interactions between soil and tree roots accelerate long-term soil carbon decomposition. Ecology Letters, 10, 1046–1053.
Dijkstra, F. A. & Smits, M. M. (2002) Tree species effects on calcium cycling: the role of calcium uptake in deep soils. Ecosystems, 5, 0385–0398.
Dise, N. & Wright, R. F. (1995) Nitrogen leaching from European forests in relation to nitrogen deposition. Forest Ecology and Management, 71, 153–161.
Dodd, J. C., Burton, C. C., Burns, R. G. & Jeffries, P. (1987) Phosphatase activity associated with the roots and the rhizosphere of plants infected with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist, 107, 163–172.
Dölle, M. & Schmidt, W. (2009) Impact of tree species on nutrient and light availability: evidence from a permanent plot study of old-field succession. Plant Ecology, 203, 273–287.
Drake, J. E., Gallet-Budynek, A., Hofmockel, K. S. et al. (2011) Increases in the flux of carbon belowground stimulate nitrogen uptake and sustain the long-term enhancement of forest productivity under elevated CO2. Ecology Letters, 14, 349–357.
Evans, J. R. (1989) Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants. Oecologia, 78, 9–19.
Fahey, T. J., Battles, J. J. & Wilson, G. F. (1998) Responses of early successional northern hardwood forests to changes in nutrient availability. Ecological Monographs, 68, 183–212.
Farley, R. A. & Fitter, A. H. (1999) Temporal and spatial variation in soil resources in a deciduous woodland. Journal of Ecology, 87, 688–696.
Federer, C. A., Hornbeck, J. W., Tritton, L. M. et al. (1989) Long-term depletion of calcium and other nutrients in eastern US forests. Environmental Management, 13, 593–601.
Fine, P. V. A., Mesones, I. & Coley, P. D. (2004) Herbivores promote habitat specialization by trees in Amazonian forests. Science, 305, 663–665.
Finzi, A. C. (2009) Decades of atmospheric deposition have not resulted in widespread phosphorus limitation or saturation of tree demand for nitrogen in southern New England. Biogeochemistry, 92, 217–229.
Finzi, A. C., Van Breemen, N. & Canham, C. D. (1998) Canopy tree–soil interactions within temperate forests: species effects on soil carbon and nitrogen. Ecological Applications, 8, 440–446.
Franklin, R. B. & Mills, A. L. (2009) Importance of spatially structured environmental heterogeneity in controlling microbial community composition at small spatial scales in an agricultural field. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 1833–1840.
Fujinuma, R., Bockheim, J. & Balster, N. (2005) Base-cation cycling by individual tree species in old-growth forests of upper Michigan, USA. Biogeochemistry, 74, 357–376.
Gallardo, A., Parama, R. & Covelo, F. (2006) Differences between soil ammonium and nitrate spatial pattern in six plant communities. Simulated effect on plant populations. Plant and Soil, 279, 333–346.
Gradowski, T. & Thomas, S. C. (2006) Phosphorus limitation of sugar maple growth in central Ontario. Forest Ecology and Management, 226, 104–109.
Gradowski, T. & Thomas, S. C. (2008) Responses of Acer saccharum canopy trees and saplings to P, K and lime additions under high N deposition. Tree Physiology, 28, 173–185.
Graham, J. H., Duncan, L. W. & Eissenstat, D. M. (1997) Carbohydrate allocation patterns in citrus genotypes as affected by phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizal colonization and mycorrhizal dependency. New Phytologist, 135, 335–343.
Gunatilleke, C. V. S., Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N., Perera, G. A. D., Burslem, D. F. R. P. & Ashton, P. M. S. (1997) Responses to nutrient addition of eight closely related species of Shorea in Sri Lanka. Journal of Ecology, 85, 301–311.
Hedin, L. O., Armesto, J. J., Johnson, A. H., Mar, N. & Johnson, H. (1995) Patterns of nutrient loss from unpolluted, old-growth temperate forests: evaluation of biogeochemical theory. Ecology, 76, 493–509.
Hedin, L. O., Vitousek, P. M. & Matson, P. A. (2003) Nutrient losses over four million years of tropical forest development. Ecology, 84, 2231–2255.
Hedin, L. O., Brookshire, E. N. J., Menge, D. N. L. & Barron, A. R. (2009) The nitrogen paradox in tropical forest ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 40, 613–635.
van der Heijden, M. G. A. & Horton, T. R. (2009) Socialism in soil? The importance of mycorrhizal fungal networks for facilitation in natural ecosystems. Journal of Ecology, 97, 1139–1150.
Henderson, D. E. & Jose, S. (2005) Production physiology of three fast-growing hardwood species along a soil resource gradient. Tree Physiology, 25, 1487–1494.
Hernández, J., Pino, A., Salvo, L. & Arrarte, G. (2009) Nutrient export and harvest residue decomposition patterns of a Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden plantation in temperate climate of Uruguay. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, 92–99.
Högberg, M. N., Högberg, P. & Myrold, D. D. (2007) Is microbial community composition in boreal forest soils determined by pH, C-to-N ratio, the trees, or all three?Oecologia, 150, 590–601.
Holste, E. K., Kobe, R. K. & Vriesendorp, C. F. (2011) Seedling growth responses to soil resources in the understory of a wet tropical forest. Ecology, 92, 1828–1838.
Host, G. & Pregitzer, K. (1991) Ecological species groups for upland forest ecosystems of northwestern Lower Michigan. Forest Ecology and Management, 43, 87–102.
Houlton, B. Z., Wang, Y.-P., Vitousek, P. M. & Field, C. B. (2008) A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere. Nature, 454, 327–330.
Hungate, B. A., Dukes, J. S., Shaw, M. R., Luo, Y. & Field, C. B. (2003) Atmospheric science. Nitrogen and climate change. Science, 302, 1512–1513.
Hutchings, M. J., John, E. A. & Wijesinghe, D. K. (2003) Toward understanding the consequences of soil heterogeneity for plant populations and communities. Ecology, 84, 2322–2334.
Ilg, K., Wellbrock, N. & Lux, W. (2009) Phosphorus supply and cycling at long-term forest monitoring sites in Germany. European Journal of Forest Research, 128, 483–492.
Iversen, C. M. & Norby, R. J. (2008) Nitrogen limitation in a sweetgum plantation: implications for carbon allocation and storage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 1021–1032.
Izuta, T., Yamaoka, T., Nakaji, T. et al. (2004) Growth, net photosynthesis and leaf nutrient status of Fagus crenata seedlings grown in brown forest soil acidified with H2SO4 or HNO3 solution. Trees, 18, 677–685.
Jenny, H. (1941) Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology. New York: McGraw Hill.
John, R., Dalling, J. W., Harms, K. E. et al. (2007) Soil nutrients influence spatial distributions of tropical tree species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 104, 864–869.
Johnson, D. W. (2006) Progressive N limitation in forests: review and implications for long-term responses to elevated CO2. Ecology, 87, 64–75.
Joshi, A. B., Vann, D. R., Johnson, A. H. & Miller, E. K. (2003) Nitrogen availability and forest productivity along a climosequence on Whiteface Mountain, New York. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 1891, 1880–1891.
Juice, S. M., Fahey, T. J., Siccama, T. G. et al. (2006) Response of sugar maple to calcium addition to northern hardwood forest. Ecology, 87, 1267–1280.
Kaspari, M., Garcia, M. N., Harms, K. E. et al. (2008) Multiple nutrients limit litterfall and decomposition in a tropical forest. Ecology Letters, 11, 35–43.
Keppel, G., Buckley, Y. M. & Possingham, H. P. (2010) Drivers of lowland rain forest community assembly, species diversity and forest structure on islands in the tropical South Pacific. Journal of Ecology, 98, 87–95.
Kishchuk, B. E., Weetman, G. F., Brockley, R. P. & Prescott, C. E. (2002) Fourteen-year growth response of young lodgepole pine to repeated fertilization. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 160, 153–160.
Kitajima, K. (1994) Relative importance of photosynthetic traits and allocation patterns as correlates of seedling shade tolerance of 13 tropical trees. Oecologia, 98, 419–428.
Kobe, R. K. (1996) Intraspecific variation in sapling mortality and growth predicts geographic variation in forest composition. Ecological Monographs, 66, 181–201.
Kobe, R. K. (1999) Light gradient partitioning among tropical tree species through differential seedling mortality and growth. Ecology, 80, 187.
Kobe, R. K. (2006) Sapling growth as a function of light and landscape-level variation in soil water and foliar nitrogen in Northern Michigan. Oecologia, 147, 119–133.
Kobe, R. K., Iyer, M. & Walters, M. B. (2010) Optimal partitioning theory revisited: nonstructural carbohydrates dominate root mass responses to nitrogen. Ecology, 91, 166–179.
Kobe, R. K., Lepczyk, C. A. & Iyer, M. (2005) Resorption efficiency decreases with increasing green leaf nutrients in a global data set. Ecology, 86, 2780–2792.
Kobe, R. K., Likens, G. E. & Eagar, C. (2002) Tree seedling growth and mortality responses to manipulations of calcium and aluminum in a northern hardwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 966, 954–966.
Kobe, R. K., Pacala, S. W., Silander, J. A. J. & Canham, C. D. (1995) Juvenile tree survivorship as a component of shade tolerance. Ecological Applications, 5, 517–532.
Kobe, R. K. & Vriesendorp, C. F. (2011) Conspecific density dependence in seedlings varies with species shade tolerance in a wet tropical forest. Ecology Letters, 14, 503–510.
Kotar, J. (1986) Soil–habitat type relationships in Michigan and Wisconsin. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 41, 348–350.
Kranabetter, J. M. & Simard, S. W. (2008) Inverse relationship between understory light and foliar nitrogen along productivity gradients of boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 2487–2496.
Kulmatiski, A., Vogt, K. A., Vogt, D. J. et al. (2007) Nitrogen and calcium additions increase forest growth in northeastern USA spruce–fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 1574–1585.
Kunkle, J. M., Walters, M. B. & Kobe, R. K. (2009) Senescence-related changes in nitrogen in fine roots: mass loss affects estimation. Tree Physiology, 29, 715–723.
Lawrence, D. (2003) The response of tropical tree seedlings to nutrient supply: meta-analysis for understanding a changing tropical landscape. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 239–250.
Lechowicz, M. J. & Bell, G. (1991) The ecology and genetics of fitness in forest plants. II. Microspatial heterogeneity of the edaphic environment. Journal of Ecology, 79, 687–696.
Lefrançois, M.-L., Beaudet, M. & Messier, C. (2008) Crown openness as influenced by tree and site characteristics for yellow birch, sugar maple, and eastern hemlock. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 488–497.
Long, R. P., Horsley, S. B. & Hall, T. J. (2011) Long-term impact of liming on growth and vigor of northern hardwoods. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 1307, 1295–1307.
Lu, X., Mo, J., Gilliam, F. S., Zhou, G. & Fang, Y. (2010) Effects of experimental nitrogen additions on plant diversity in an old-growth tropical forest. Global Change Biology, 16, 2688–2700.
Magill, A., Aber, J., Currie, W. et al. (2004) Ecosystem response to 15 years of chronic nitrogen additions at the Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 196, 7–28.
Malhi, Y., Baker, T. R., Phillips, O. L. et al. (2004) The above-ground coarse wood productivity of 104 Neotropical forest plots. Global Change Biology, 10, 563–591.
Matson, P. A., McDowell, W. H., Townsend, A. R. & Vitousek, P. M. (1999) The globalization of N deposition: ecosystem consequences in tropical environments. Biogeochemistry, 46, 67–83.
McCarthy-Neumann, S. & Kobe, R. K. (2008) Tolerance of soil pathogens co-varies with shade tolerance across species of tropical tree seedlings. Ecology, 89, 1883–1892.
McCarthy-Neumann, S. & Kobe, R. K. (2010) Conspecific plant-soil feedbacks reduce survivorship and growth of tropical tree seedlings. Journal of Ecology, 98, 396–407.
McDade, L. A., Bawa, K. S., Hespenheide, H. A. & Hartshorn, G. S. (1994) Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
McGroddy, M. E., Silver, W. L. & Oliveira, R. C. D. (2004) The effect of phosphorus availability on decomposition dynamics in a seasonal lowland Amazonian forest. Ecosystems, 7, 172–179.
McLachlan, J. S., Clark, J. S. & Manos, P. S. (2005) Molecular indicators of tree migration capacity under rapid climate change. Ecology, 86, 2088–2098.
Migita, C., Chiba, Y. & Tange, T. (2007) Seasonal and spatial variations in leaf nitrogen content and resorption in a Quercus serrata canopy. Tree Physiology, 27, 63–70.
Mou, P., Mitchell, R. J. & Jones, R. H. (1997) Root distribution of two tree species under a heterogeneous nutrient environment. The Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 645–656.
Olander, L. P. & Vitousek, P. M. (2000) Regulation of soil phosphatase and chitinase activity by N and P availability. Biogeochemistry, 49, 175–190.
Pacala, S., Canham, C., Saponara, J. et al. (1996) Forest models defined by field measurements: estimation, error analysis and dynamics. Ecological Monographs, 66, 1–43.
Pant, H. K. & Warman, P. R. (2000) Enzymatic hydrolysis of soil organic phosphorus by immobilized phosphatases. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 30, 306–311.
Paoli, G. D. & Curran, L. M. (2007) Soil nutrients limit fine litter production and tree growth in mature lowland forest of southwestern Borneo. Ecosystems, 10, 503–518.
Park, B. B., Yanai, R. D., Fahey, T. J. et al. (2008) Fine root dynamics and forest production across a calcium gradient in northern hardwood and conifer ecosystems. Ecosystems, 11, 325–341.
Pastor, J., Aber, J. A., McClaugherty, C. A. & Meillilo, J. M. (1984) Aboveground production and N and P cycling along a nitrogen mineralization gradient on Blackhawk Island, Wisconsin. Ecology, 65, 256–268.
Perakis, S. S., Maguire, D. A., Bullen, T. D. et al. (2006) Coupled nitrogen and calcium cycles in forests of the Oregon Coast range. Ecosystems, 9, 63–74.
Phillips, R. P. & Fahey, T. J. (2006) Tree species and mycorrhizal associations influence the magnitude of rhizosphere effects. Ecology, 87, 1302–1313.
Porder, S. & Chadwick, O. A. (2009) Climate and soil-age constraints on nutrient uplift and retention by plants. Ecology, 90, 623–636.
Porder, S., Clark, D. A. & Vitousek, P. M. (2006) Persistence of rock-derived nutrients in the wet tropical forests of La Selva, Costa Rica. Ecology, 87, 594–602.
Quesada, C. A., Lloyd, J., Schwarz, M. et al. (2009) Regional and large-scale patterns in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by variations in soil physical and chemical properties. Biogeosciences Discussions, 6, 3993–4057.
Reich, P. B., Oleksyn, J. & Wright, I. J. (2009) Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis-nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species. Oecologia, 160, 207–212.
Reich, P. B., Ellsworth, D. S. & Uhl, C. (1995) Leaf carbon and nutrient assimilation and conservation in species of differing successional status in an Amazonian forest. Functional Ecology, 9, 65–76.
Reich, P. B., Grigal, D. F., Aber, J. D. & Gower, S. T. (1997) Nitrogen mineralization and productivity in 50 hardwood and conifer stands on diverse soils. Ecology, 78, 335–347.
Robertson, G. P., Klingensmith, K. M., Klug, M. J. et al. (1997) Soil resources, microbial activity, and primary production across an agricultural ecosystem. Ecological Applications, 7, 158–170.
Runyon, J., Waring, R. H., Goward, S. N. & Welles, J. M. (1994) Environmental limits on net primary production and light-use efficiency across the Oregon transect. Ecological Applications, 4, 226–237.
Russo, S. E., Brown, P., Tan, S. & Davies, S. J. (2007) Interspecific demographic trade-offs and soil-related habitat associations of tree species along resource gradients. Journal of Ecology, 96, 192–203.
Russo, S. E., Cannon, W. L., Elowsky, C., Tan, S. & Davies, S. J. (2010) Variation in leaf stomatal traits of 28 tree species in relation to gas exchange along an edaphic gradient in a Bornean rain forest. American Journal of Botany, 97, 1109–1120.
Russo, S. E., Davies, S. J., King, D. A. & Tan, S. (2005) Soil-related performance variation and distributions of tree species in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 93, 879–889.
Ryan, M., Binkley, D. & Stape, J. (2008) Why don’t our stands grow even faster? Control of production and carbon cycling in eucalypt plantations. Southern Forests: A Journal of Forest Science, 70, 99–104.
Røsberg, I., Frank, J. & Stuanes, A. O. (2006) Effects of liming and fertilization on tree growth and nutrient cycling in a Scots pine ecosystem in Norway. Forest Ecology and Management, 237, 191–207.
Schenk, H. J. (2006) Root competition: beyond resource depletion. Journal of Ecology, 94, 725–739.
Schreeg, L. A., Kobe, R. K. & Walters, M. B. (2005) Tree seedling growth, survival, and morphology in response to landscape-level variation in soil resource availability in northern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35, 263–273.
Shabala, S. & Hariadi, Y. (2005) Effects of magnesium availability on the activity of plasma membrane ion transporters and light-induced responses from broad bean leaf mesophyll. Planta, 221, 56–65.
Simard, S. W. (2009) The foundational role of mycorrhizal networks in self-organization of interior Douglas-fir forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 258, S95–S107.
Simioni, G., Gignoux, J., Le Roux, X., Appé, R. & Benest, D. (2004) Spatial and temporal variations in leaf area index, specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen of two co-occurring savanna tree species. Tree Physiology, 24, 205–16.
Sollins, P. (1998) Factors influencing species composition in tropical lowland rain forest: does soil matter ? Ecology, 79, 23–30.
Sparks, J. P. (2009) Ecological ramifications of the direct foliar uptake of nitrogen. Oecologia, 159, 1–13.
Spurr, S. H. (1956) Forest associations in the Harvard Forest. Ecological Monographs, 26, 245–262.
Clair, S. B. & Lynch, J. P. (2005) Base cation stimulation of mycorrhization and photosynthesis of sugar maple on acid soils are coupled by foliar nutrient dynamics. The New Phytologist, 165, 581–590.
St Clair, S. B., Sharpe, W. E. & Lynch, J. P. (2008) Key interactions between nutrient limitation and climatic factors in temperate forests: a synthesis of the sugar maple literature. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38, 401–414.
Stephenson, N. L. & van Mantgem, P. J. (2005) Forest turnover rates follow global and regional patterns of productivity. Ecology Letters, 8, 524–531.
Stevens, C., Duprè, C., Gaudnik, C. et al. (2011) Changes in species composition of European acid grasslands observed along a gradient of nitrogen deposition. Journal of Vegetation Science, 22, 207–215.
Stuefer, J. F. (1996) Potential and limitations of current concepts regarding the response of clonal plants to environmental heterogeneity. Vegetatio, 127, 55–70.
Tanner, E. V. J., Kapos, V. & Franco, W. (1992) Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization effects on Venezuelan montane forest trunk growth and litterfall. Ecology, 73, 78–86.
Townsend, A. R., Asner, G. P. & Cleveland, C. C. (2008) The biogeochemical heterogeneity of tropical forests. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 424–431.
Townsend, A. R., Cleveland, C. C., Houlton, B. Z., Alden, C. B. & White, J. W. (2011) Multi-element regulation of the tropical forest carbon cycle. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9, 9–17.
Treseder, K. K. & Vitousek, P. M. (2001) Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology, 82, 946–954.
Uriarte, M., Canham, C. D., Thompson, J. & Zimmerman, J. K. (2004) Neighborhood analysis of tree growth and survival in a hurricane-driven tropical forest. Ecological Monographs, 74, 591–614.
Ushio, M., Kitayama, K. & Balser, T. C. (2010) Tree species-mediated spatial patchiness of the composition of microbial community and physicochemical properties in the topsoils of a tropical montane forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42, 1588–1595.
Van Breemen, N., Finlay, R., Lundström, U. et al. (2000) Mycorrhizal weathering: A true case of mineral plant nutrition?Biogeochemistry, 49, 53–67.
Vanguelova, E., Pitman, R., Luiro, J. & Helmisaari, H.-S. (2010) Long term effects of whole tree harvesting on soil carbon and nutrient sustainability in the UK. Biogeochemistry, 101, 43–59.
Vitousek, P. M. (2004) Nutrient Cycling and Limitation: Hawaii as a Model System. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Vitousek, P. M. & Denslow, J. S. (1986) Nitrogen and phosphorus availability in treefall gaps of a lowland tropical rainforest. Journal of Ecology, 74, 1167–1178.
Vitousek, P. M. & Farrington, H. (1997) Nutrient limitation and soil development: Experimental test of a biogeochemical theory. Biogeochemistry, 37, 63–75.
Walker, T. W. & Syers, J. K. (1976) The fate of phosphorus during pedogenesis. Geoderma, 15, 1–19.
Walters, M. B. & Reich, P. B. (1997) Growth of Acer saccharum seedlings in deeply shaded understories of northern Wisconsin: effects of nitrogen and water availability. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 237–247.
Wang, L., Mou, P. P., Huang, J. & Wang, J. (2007) Spatial heterogeneity of soil nitrogen in a subtropical forest in China. Plant and Soil, 295, 137–150.
Wanthongchai, K., Bauhus, J. & Goldammer, J. (2008) Nutrient losses through prescribed burning of aboveground litter and understorey in dry dipterocarp forests of different fire history. Catena, 74, 321–332.
Weathers, K. C., Simkin, S. M., Lovett, G. M. & Lindberg, S. E. (2006) Empirical modeling of atmospheric deposition in mountainous landscapes. Ecological Applications, 16, 1590–1607.
Webb, C. O. & Peart, D. R. (2000) Habitat associations of trees and seedlings in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 88, 464–478.
Weber, P. & Bardgett, R. D. (2011) Influence of single trees on spatial and temporal patterns of belowground properties in native pine forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 1372–1378.
Whitlock, C. (1993) Postglacial vegetation and climate of Grand Teton and Southern Yellowstone National Parks. Ecological Monographs, 63, 173–198.
Whitmore, T. C. 1984. Tropical Rain Forests of the Far East 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Whitney, G. G. (1991) Relation of plant species to substrate, landscape position, and aspect in north central Massachusetts. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21, 1245–1252.
Will, R., Markewitz, D., Hendrick, R. et al. (2006) Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics for 13-year-old loblolly pine stands receiving complete competition control and annual N fertilizer. Forest Ecology and Management, 227, 155–168.
Will, R. E., Munger, G. T., Zhang, Y. & Borders, B. E. (2002). Effects of annual fertilization and complete competition control on current annual increment, foliar development, and growth efficiency of different aged Pinus taeda stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32, 1728–1740.
Wright, S. J., Yavitt, J. B., Wurzburger, N. et al. (2011) Potassium, phosphorus or nitrogen limit root allocation, tree growth and litter production in a lowland tropical forest. Ecology, 92, 1616–1625.
Xia, J. & Wan, S. (2008) Global response patterns of terrestrial plant species to nitrogen addition. The New Phytologist, 179, 428–439.
Yavitt, J. B., Harms, K. E., Garcia, M. N. et al. (2009) Spatial heterogeneity of soil chemical properties in a lowland tropical moist forest, Panama. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 47, 674–687.
Yavitt, J. B. & Wright, S. J. (2008) Seedling growth responses to water and nutrient augmentation in the understorey of a lowland moist forest, Panama. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 24, 19–26.
Zaccherio, M. T. & Finzi, A. C. (2007) Atmospheric deposition may affect northern hardwood forest composition by altering soil nutrient supply. Ecological Applications, 17, 1929–1941.
Zak, D. R., Host, G. E. & Pregitzer, K. S. (1989) Regional variability in nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and overstory biomass in northern Lower Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 19, 1521–1526.