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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: November 2014

Chapter 27 - Preoperative anxiolysis and sedation


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21. ZN Kain, AA Caldwell-Andrews, DM Krivutza, et al. Trends in the practice of parental presence during induction of anesthesia and the use of preoperative sedative premedication in the USA, 1995–2002: Results of a follow-up national survey. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1252–9.
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25. ZN Kain, LC Mayes, SM Wang, et al. Parental presence and a sedative premedicant for children undergoing surgery: A hierarchical study. Anesthesiology 2000; 92: 939–46.
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28. ZN Kain, AA Caldwell-Andrews, LC Mayes, et al. Family-centered preparation for surgery improves perioperative outcomes in children: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 2007; 106(1): 65–74.
29. YC Arai, N Kandatsu, S Kurokawa, et al. Parental presence during induction enhances the effect of oral midazolam on emergence behavior of children undergoing general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2007; 51(7): 858–61.
30. ZN Kain, LC Mayes, AA Caldwell-Andrews, et al. Predicting which children benefit most from parental presence during induction of anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 627–34.
31. LH Feld, JB Negus, PF White. Oral midazolam preanesthetic medication in pediatric outpatients. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 831–4.
32. RM Brustowicz, DA Nelson, EK Betts, et al. Efficacy of oral premedication for pediatric outpatient surgery. Anesthesiology 1984; 60: 475.
33. T McGraw, A Kendrick. Oral midazolam premedication and postoperative behaviour in children. Paediatr Anaesth 1998; 8: 117–21.
34. PJ Davis, FX McGowan, IT Cohen, et al. Preanesthetic medication with intranasal midazolam for brief pediatric surgical procedures. Effect on recovery and hospital discharge times. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 2–5.
35. KK Brosius, CF Bannister. Oral midazolam premedication in preadolescents and adolescents. Anesth Analg 2002; 94(1): 31–6.
36. K Payne, FJ Mattheyse, D Liebenberg, et al. The pharmacokinetics of midazolam in pediatric patients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989; 37: 267.
37. CO McMillan, IA Spahr-Schopfer, N Sikich, et al. Premedication of children with oral midazolam. Can J Anaesth 1992; 39: 545–50.
38. EJ Walbergh, RJ Wills, J Eckhert. Plasma concentrations of midazolam in children following intransal administration. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 233–5.
39. H Gutstein, KL Johnson, MB Heard, et al. Oral ketamine preanesthetic medication in children. Anesthesiology 1992; 76: 28–35.
40. R Hanallah, RI Patel. Low-dose intramuscuslar ketamine for anesthesia pre-induction in young children undergoing brief outpatient procedures. Anesthesiology 1989; 70(4): 598–600.
41. HW Karl, AT Keifer, JL Rosenberger, et al. Comparison of the safety and efficacy of intransal midazolam or sufentanil for preinduction of anesthesia in pediatric patients. Anesthesiology 1992; 76: 209–15.
42. PS Nelson, JB Streisand, SM Mulder, et al. Comparison of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate and an oral solution of meperidine, diazepam, and atropine for premedication in children. Anesthesiology 1989; 70: 616–21.
43. S Inomata, S Kihara, M Miyabe, et al. The hypnotic and analgesic effects of oral clonidine during sevoflurane anesthesia in children: a dose–response study. Anesth Analg 2002; 94(6): 1479–83.
44. HT Bergendahl, PA Lonnqvist, S Eksborg, et al. Clonidine vs. midazolam as premedication in children undergoing adeno-tonsillectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004; 48(10): 1292–300.
45. KP Mason, J Lerman. Dexmedetomidine in children: Current knowledge and future applications. Anesth Analg 2011; 113(5): 1129–42.
46. VM Yuen, TW Hui, MG Irwin, et al. A randomised comparison of two intranasal dexmedetomidine doses for premedication in children. Anaesthesia 2012; 67: 1210–16.
47. ZS Cimen, A Hanci, GU Sivrikaya, et al. Comparison of buccal and nasal dexmedetomidine premedication for pediatric patients. Pediatr Anesth 2013; 23: 134–8.
48. KP Mason, NB Lubisch, F Robinson, et al. Intramuscular dexmedetomidine sedation for pediatric MRI and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2011; 197: 720–5.