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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: January 2012

Part 7 - Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics

Suggested readings

FerranteFM, PaggioliJ, CherukuriS, ArthurGR. The analgesic response to intravenous lidocaine in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Anesth Analg 1996; 82(1):91–97.
HamplKF, SchneiderMC, UmmenhoferW, DreweJ. Transient neurologic symptoms after spinal anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1995; 81(6):1148–1153.
HeavnerJE. Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics. Longnecker's Anesthesiology. McGraw-Hill; 2008: 954–971.
RowbothamMC, DaviesPS, VerkempinckC, GalerBS. Lidocaine patch: double-blind controlled study of a new treatment method for post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain 1996; 65(1):39–44.
StrichartzGR, BerdeCB. Local anesthetics. In: MillerRD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia. 6 ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2004:573–603.
StymneB, LillieborgS. Plasma concentrations of lignocaine and prilocaine after a 24-h application of analgesic cream (EMLA) to leg ulcers. Br J Dermatol 2001; 145(4):530–534.
ThromMJ, StevensMD, HansenC. Benzocaine-induced methemoglobinemia in two patients: interdisciplinary collaboration, management, and near misses. Pharmacotherapy 2007; 27(8):1206–1214.
TuckerGT, MatherLE. Properties, absorption, and disposition of local anesthetic agents. In: CousinMJ, BridenbaughPO, eds. Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Management of Pain. 3 ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998:55–95.
WoolfCJ. Windup and central sensitization are not equivalent [editorial]. Pain 1996; 66(2–3):105–108.
WoolfCJ, ThompsonSW. The induction and maintenance of central sensitization is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor activation; implications for the treatment of post-injury pain hypersensitivity states. Pain 1991; 44(3):293–299.