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  • Print publication year: 2013
  • Online publication date: December 2013

Part III - Knowledge in the Energy Technology Innovation System

  • Edited by Arnulf Grubler, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria, Charlie Wilson, University of East Anglia
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • pp 103-162

Further Reading

For a comprehensive policy history of solar water heating, see Taylor and colleagues (2007) for the United States and Han and colleagues (2010) for China.

References

EIA, 2005. International Energy Outlook 2005. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Information Administration.
ESTIF, 2007. Solar Thermal Action Plan for Europe. Brussels: European Solar Thermal Industry Federation.
ESTIF, 2010. Solar Thermal Markets in Europe: Trends and Market Statistics 2009. Brussels: European Solar Thermal Industry Federation.
Hack, S., 2006. International Experiences with the Promotion of Solar Water Heaters (SWH) on Household-Level. Prepared for Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH.
Han, J., Mol, A. P. J., & Lu, Y., 2010. Solar Water Heaters in China: A New Day Dawning. Energy Policy, 38(1): 383–91.
Hirst, E., Carney, J., & O’Neal, D., 1979. Alternative Technologies for US Residential Water Heating: Energy Savings and Economic Benefits. Energy Policy, 7(4): 307–20.
Junfeng, L. & Runqing, H., 2005. Solar Thermal in China: Overview and Perspectives of the Chinese Solar Thermal Market. Refocus, 6(5): 25–27.
Nemet, G. F., 2009. Demand-Pull, Technology-Push, and Government-Led Incentives for Non-Incremental Technical Change. Research Policy, 38(5): 700–709.
REN21, 2009. Recommendations for Improving the Effectiveness of Renewable Energy Policies in China. Paris: REN21.
REN21, 2010. Renewables 2010 – Global Status Report. Paris: REN21.
Taylor, M., 2008. Beyond Technology-Push and Demand-Pull: Lessons from California’s Solar Policy. Energy Economics, 30(6): 2829–54.
Taylor, M., Nemet, G., Colvin, M., Begley, L., Wadia, C., & Dillavou, T., 2007. Government Actions and Innovation in Clean Energy Technologies: The Cases of Photovoltaic Cells, Solar Thermal Electric Power, and Solar Water Heating, (CEC)-500–2007–012. Sacramento: California Energy Commission.
Wallace, W. & Wang, Z., 2006. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 26(2): 135–40.
Werner, W. & Mauthner, F., 2010. Solar Heat Worldwide 2008. IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme.

Further Reading

For an international review of the technical development of heat pumps and the Swiss examples and contribution to this development, see Zogg (2008). Rognon (2006, 2008) provides a good insight into the role of the state in the promotion of heat pumps on the market. For an overview of the Swedish heat pump market development, see Törnell (2007).

References

Åstrand, K., Nordqvist, J., & Khan, J., 2005. Stakeholder Participation in the Policy Process: What are the Effects on the Implementation of Policy Instruments? In Sophie Attali, K. T.(ed.) Energy Savings – What Works & Who Delivers? – ECEEE 2005 Summer Study, May 30–June 4, Mandelieu La Napoule, France. eceee, 53–62.
Basics, 2002. Neue Elektro-Wärmepumpenstatistik – Dokumentation der Ergänzungsarbeiten [New Heat Pump Statistics]. Bern: Basics AG on behalf of Swiss Office of Energy (SFOE).
BFE, 2010. Analyse des schweizerischen Energieverbrauchs 2000–2009 nach Verwendungszwecken [Analysis of Switzerland’s Energy Consumption 2000–2009]. Bern: Bundesamt für Energi.
Boverket, 2008. Alternativa uppvärmningsformer i befintliga permanentbebodda småhus [Alternative Heating Methods in the Existing Small Family-House Stock]. Karlskrona: The National Board of Building, Housing and Planning.
EGEC, 2009. Geothermal Heat Pumps – Ground Source Heat Pumps. Brussels: European Geothermal Energy Council.
Energimyndigheten, 1999. Villavärmepumpar [Heat Pumps for Single Family Houses]. Stockholm: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2002a. Värme i Sverige [Heating in Sweden]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2002b. Villavärmepumpar – Energimyndighetens sammanställning över värmepumpar för småhus [Heat Pumps for Single Family Houses]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2004. Villavärmepumpar – Energimyndighetens sammanställning över värmepumpar för småhus [Heat Pumps for Single Family Houses]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2006. Villavärmepumpar – Energimyndighetens sammanställning av värmepumpar för småhus [Heat Pumps for Single Family Houses]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2007a. Effektivare energianvändning [More Efficient Energy Use]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2007b. Hushåll och energibeteende [Household and Energy Behaviour]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2008. Energiindikatorer 2008 – Uppföljning av Sveriges energipolitiska mål – Tema: Förnybar energi [Energy Indicators – Follow-Up on the Goals of the Swedish Energy Policy – Renewables]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Energimyndigheten, 2009. Energistatistik för småhus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2008 [Energy Statistics for Dwellings and Non-Residential Premises 2008]. Eskilstuna: Swedish Energy Agency.
Florin, L., 1987. Värmepumpar. Aktuella förändringar och framtidsutsikter [Heat Pumps. Actual Changes and Future Perspectives]. Stockholm: Swedish Energy Agency.
FWS, 2009. FWS Heat Pump Statistics [Online]. FWS, Fördergemeinschaft Wärmepumpen Schweiz. http://www.fws.ch/zahlen_04.html. June 11.
IEA, 2008. Energy Technology Perspectives 2008 – Scenarios and Strategies to 2050, Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development.
Konsumentverket, 1986. Värme i småhus – en handbok om renovering och byte av värmeanläggningar. [Heating in Single Family Houses – Manual on Refurbishment and Changing Heating Devices]. The Swedish Consumer Agency.
Konsumentverket, 2004. Värme i småhus – marknadsöversikt [Heating in Single Family Houses – Market Overview]. Karlstad: Swedish Consumer Agency.
Lagergren, M., 1995. Billig i drift dyr att installera [Cheap to Run Expensive to Install]. Råd & Rön.
Lagergren, M., 1999. Pumpen som spar pengar [The Pump that Saves Money]. Råd & Rön.
Lindeberg, P., 1984. Forskning kring värmepumpar. Teknikutveckling och systemuppbyggnad med Byggforskningsrådets stöd – en översikt [Research on Heat Pumps]. Stockholm: BFR, Byggforskningsrådet, Statens råd för byggnadsforskning.
Miljöstyrningsrådet, 2008. Teknikupphandling – Verktyg för att främja innovationer och miljöteknik [Technology Procurement – Tool to Promote Innovation and Environmental Technology]. Stockholm: The Swedish Environmental Management Council.
Neij, L. & Öfverholm, E., 2001. Strategies for Improving Energy Efficiency. In Silveira, S. (ed.) Building Sustainable Energy Systems – Swedish Experience. Stockholm: Svensk Byggtjänst AB, 301–33.
Nilsson, L. J., Åhmans, M., & Nordqvist, J., 2005. Cygnet or Ugly Duckling – What Makes the Difference? A Tale of Heat-Pump Market Developments in Sweden. In Energy Savings – What Works & Who Delivers? ECEEE 2005 Summer Study. Mandelieu La Napoule, France.
Nowacki, J. E., 2007. Heat Pumps in Energy Statistics – Suggestions. Lidingö: Nowab.
Rognon, F., 2006. Förderung der Wärmepumpe in der Schweiz mit marktkonformen Instrumenten [Support of Heat Pump in Switzerland]. 4. Wärmepumpen-Symposium, October 25, Berlin.
Rognon, F., 2008. The Role of the State and the Economy in the Promotion of Heat Pumps on the Market. 9th International IEA Heat Pump Conference, May 20–22, Zürich, Switzerland.
Sabatier, P. A. & Jenkins-Smith, H., 1993. Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
SFS1997:635, 1997. Förordning om statligt bidrag till vissa investeringar för att minska elanvändningen i bostäder och vissa lokaler [Ordinance on Governmental Subsidy to Specific Investments to Reduce Electricity Use in Residential Houses and Given Locals] [Online]. http://www.notisum.se/rnp/SLS/LAG/19970635.HTM. June 11.
Snaar, J., 2005. Många fel på nyinstallerade bergvärmepumpar [Failures of Newly Installed Heat Pumps] [Online]. Folksam. http://media.folksam.se/2005/06/19/sifoundersokning-bekraftar-manga-fel-pa-nyinstallerade-bergvarmepumpar/. August 28.
SPK, 1986. Värmepumpar en konkurrensbeskrivning [Heat Pumps – Description of Competition]. Stockholm; Statens pris- och kartellnämnd (now: Swedish Competition Authority).
Svensson, K. & Havsjö, N., 2006. Nordiska Bergvärmemarknaden – Marknadsundersökning [The Nordic Bedrock Heat Pump Market – Marketanalysis]. Ängelholm: Ängelholms Högre Utbildningar.
SVEP, 2007. Small-Scale Ground Source Heat Pumps on the Swedish Market [Online]. Swedish Heat Pump Association. November 20.
SVEP, 2009. Ytterligare ett starkt år för värmepumpbranchen in Sverige [Another Strong Year for the Heat Pump Industry in Sweden]. Swedish Heat Pump Association.
Törnell, M., 2007. Heat Pump Development in Sweden – Success Story. Eskilstuna: Energimyndigheten, Swedish Energy Agency.
WPZ, 2001. COP Values, Wärmepumpen-Testzentrum Töss. WPZ Bulletin.
Zogg, M., 2008. History of Heat Pumps – Swiss Contributions and International Milestones. SFOE, Swiss Federal Office of Energy and DETEC, Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications.

Further Reading

Argote and Epple (1990) is a widely cited study in the field of knowledge depreciation, particularly in manufacturing and service industries. Nemet (2012) provides a recent application of thinking on knowledge depreciation to the early Californian wind industry.

References

Argote, L., 1996. Organizational Learning Curves: Persistence, Transfer and Turnover. International Journal of Technology Management, 11(7–8): 759–69.
Argote, L., Beckman, S. L., & Epple, D., 1990. The Persistence and Transfer of Learning in Industrial Settings. Management Science, 36(2): 140–54.
Argote, L. & Epple, D., 1990. Learning Curves in Manufacturing. Science, 247(4945): 920–24.
Benkard, C. L., 2000. Learning and Forgetting: The Dynamics of Aircraft Production. American Economic Review, 90(4): 1034–54.
Boone, T., Ganeshan, R., & Hicks, R. L., 2008. Learning and Knowledge Depreciation in Professional Services. Management Science, 54(7): 1231–36.
Cohen, L. R. & Noll, R. G., 1991. The Technology Pork Barrel, Washington, DC: Brookings.
Darr, E. D., Argote, L., & Epple, D., 1995. The Acquisition, Transfer, and Depreciation of Knowledge in Service Organizations: Productivity in Franchises. Management Science, 41(11): 1750–62.
Evenson, R. E., 2002. Induced Adaptive Invention/Innovation and Productivity Convergence in Developing Countries. In Grubler, A., Nakicenovic, N., & Nordhaus, W. D. (eds.) Technological Change and the Environment. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future Press, 61–96.
Grubler, A., 2010. The Costs of the French Nuclear Scale-Up: A Case of Negative Learning by Doing. Energy Policy, 38(9): 5174–88.
Hall, B. H., 2007. Measuring the Rates of Return to R&D: The Depreciation Problem. NBER Working Paper Series, Working Paper 13473. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
IEA, 2008. Energy Technology R&D Statistics. Online Edition. International Energy Agency (IEA).
Kim, I. & Seo, H. L., 2009. Depreciation and Transfer of Knowledge: An Empirical Exploration of a Shipbuilding Process. International Journal of Production Research, 47(7): 1857–1876.
Kouvaritakis, N., Soria, A., & Isoard, S., 2000. Modelling Energy Technology Dynamics: Methodology for Adaptive Expectations Models with Learning by Doing and Learning by Searching. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 14(1): 104–15.
Miketa, A. & Schrattenholzer, L., 2004. Experiments with a Methodology to Model the Role of R&D Expenditures in Energy Technology Learning Processes; First Results. Energy Policy, 32(15): 1679–92.
Mishina, K., 1999. Learning by New Experiences: Revisiting the Flying Fortress Learning Curve. Chicago patent application.
Nemet, G. F., 2009. Demand-Pull, Technology-Push, and Government-Led Incentives for Non-Incremental Technical Change. Research Policy, 38(5): 700–709.
Nemet, G. F., 2012. Subsidies for New Technologies and Knowledge Spillovers from Learning by Doing. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 31(3): 601–22.
Thompson, P., 2007. How Much Did the Liberty Shipbuilders Forget?Management Science, 53(6): 908–18.
Watanabe, C., Griffy-Brown, C., Zhu, B., & Nagamatsu, A., 2002. Inter-Firm Technology Spillover and the “Virtuous Cycle” of Photovoltaic Development in Japan. In Grubler, A., Nakicenovic, N. & Nordhaus, W. (eds.) Technological Change and the Environment. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 127–59.
Wilson, C., Grubler, A., Sims Gallagher, K., & Nemet, G. F., 2012. Marginalization of End-Use Technologies in Energy Innovation for Climate Protection. Nature Climate Change. 2(11): 780–88.

References

Argote, L. & Epple, D., 1990. Learning Curves in Manufacturing. Science, 247(4945): 920–24.
Bataille, C. & Galley, R., 1999. Rapport sur l’Aval du Cycle Nucléaire, Tome II: Les coûts de production de l’électricité. Paris: Office Parlementaire dÉvaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques, Assemblée Nationale.
Bataille, M. M. & Birraux, C., 2003. La Durée de Vie des Centrales Nucléaires et les Nouveaux Types de Réactuers., Paris: Office Parlementaire dÉvaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques, Assemblée Nationale.
Boiteux, M., 2009. Le Programme Électro-Nucléaire : EDF et ses Choix Industriels (testimony May 11, 2004). État et Énergie: XIXe-XXe Siècle. Paris: Comité pour lHistoire Économique et Financière de la France, Ministère de lÉconomie de lIndustrie et de lEmplois
CdC, 2012. Thematic Public Report: The costs of the nuclear power sector. Paris: Cour de Comptes (CdC). Available from: www.ccomptes.fr/content/download/43709/697228/version/2/file/thematic_public_report_costs_nuclear_+power_sector_012012.pdf.
Charpin, J.-M., Dessus, B., & Pellat, R., 2000. Étude Économique Prospective de la Filière Électrique Nucléaire : Rapport au Premier Ministre. Paris.
Finon, D. & Staropoli, C., 2001. Institutional and Technological Co-evaluation in the French Electronuclear Industry. Industry and Innovation, 8(2): 179–99.
Girard, P., Marignac, Y., & Tassard, J., 2000. Le Parc Nucléaire Actuel. Paris.
Grubler, A., 2009. An Assessment of the Costs of the French Nuclear PWR Program 1970–2000. Laxenburg, Austria: International institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
Grübler, A., 2010. The Costs of the French Nuclear Scale-Up: A Case of Negative Learning by Doing. Energy Policy, 38(9): 5174–88.
IAEA, 2012. The Database on Nuclear Power Reactors. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/.
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Koomey, J. & Hultman, N. E., 2007. A Reactor-Level Analysis of Busbar Costs for US Nuclear Plants, 1970–2005. Energy Policy, 35(11): 5630–42.
Kouvaritakis, N., Soria, A., Isoard, S., & Thonet, C., 2000. Endogenous Learning in World Post-Kyoto Scenarios: Application of the POLES Model under Adaptive Expectations. International Journal of Global Energy Issues, 14(1): 222–48.
Lovins, A. B., 1986. The Origins of the Nuclear Fiasco. In Byrne, J. & Rich, D. (eds.) The Politics of Energy Research and Development. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 7–34.
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