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10 - Conjugated conducting polymers

Summary

Introduction to conjugated conducting polymers

Historical background and applications

The history of conjugated conducting polymers or ‘synthetic metals’ can be traced back to 1862, when Letheby, a professor of chemistry in the College of London Hospital, reported the electrochemical synthesis of a ‘thick layer of dirty bluish-green pigment’ (presumably a form of ‘aniline black’ or poly(aniline)) by oxidation of aniline in sulfuric acid at a platinum electrode. However, widespread interest in these fascinating materials did not take place until after 1977, following the discovery of the metallic properties of poly(acetylene), which led to the award of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Shirakawa, Heeger and MacDiarmid. Since 1977, electroactive conducting polymers have been intensively investigated for their conducting, semiconducting and electrochemical properties. Numerous electronic applications have been proposed and some realised, including electrochromic devices (ECDs), electroluminescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic elements for solar-energy conversion, sensors and thin-film field-effect transistors.

Types of electroactive conducting polymers

Poly(acetylene), (CH)x, is the simplest form of conjugated conducting polymer, with a conjugated π system extending over the polymer chain. Its electrical conductivity exhibits a twelve order of magnitude increase when doped with iodine. However, due to its intractability and air sensitivity, poly(acetylene) has seen few applications and most research on conjugated conductive polymers has been carried out with materials derived from aromatic and heterocyclic aromatic structures.

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