1.Johannesen, TB, Langmark, F, Lote, K. Progress in long-term survival in adult patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas: a population-based study of 993 patients in whom tumors were diagnosed between 1970 and 1993. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2003;99(5):854–862.
2.Philippon, JH, Clemenceau, SH, Fauchon, FH, Foncin, JF. Supratentorial low-grade astrocytomas in adults. Neurosurgery, 1993;32(4):554–559.
3.Capelle, L, Fontaine, D, Mandonnet, E, et al. Spontaneous and therapeutic prognostic factors in adult hemispheric World Health Organization grade II gliomas: a series of 1097 cases. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2013;118(6):1157–1168.
4.Smith, JS, Chang, EF, Lamborn, KR, et al. Role of extent of resection in the long-term outcome of low-grade hemispheric gliomas. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2008;26(8):1338–1345.
5.Ius, T, Isola, M, Budai, R, et al. Low-grade glioma surgery in eloquent areas: volumetric analysis of extent of resection and its impact on overall survival. A single-institution experience in 190 patients. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012;117(6):1039–1052.
6.McGirt, MJ, Chaichana, KL, Gathinji, M, et al. Independent association of extent of resection with survival in patients with malignant brain astrocytoma. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2009;110(1):156–162.
7.Nitta, M, Muragaki, Y, Maruyama, T, et al. Updated therapeutic strategy for adult low-grade glioma stratified by resection and tumor subtype. Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica, 2013;53(7):447–454.
8.Skrap, M, Mondani, M, Tomasino, B, et al. Surgery of insular nonenhancing gliomas: volumetric analysis of tumoral resection, clinical outcome, and survival in a consecutive series of 66 cases. Neurosurgery, 2012;70(5):1081–1093.
9.Ahmadi, R, Dictus, C, Hartmann, C, et al. Long-term outcome and survival of surgically treated supratentorial low-grade glioma in adult patients. Acta Neurochirurgica, 2009;151(11):1359–1365.
10.Yordanova, YN, Moritz-Gasser, S, Duffau, H. Awake surgery for WHO grade II gliomas within “noneloquent” areas in the left dominant hemisphere: toward a “supratotal” resection. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2011;115(2):232–239.
11.Jakola, AS, Myrmel, KS, Kloster, R, et al. Comparison of a strategy favoring early surgical resection vs a strategy favoring watchful waiting in low-grade gliomas. JAMA, 2012;308(18):1881–1888.
12.Claus, EB, Horlacher, A, Hsu, L, et al. Survival rates in patients with low-grade glioma after intraoperative magnetic resonance image guidance. Cancer, 2005;103(6):1227–1233.
13.Shaw, E, Arusell, R, Scheithauer, B, et al. Prospective randomized trial of low- versus high-dose radiation therapy in adults with supratentorial low-grade glioma: initial report of a North Central Cancer Treatment Group/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2002;20(9):2267–2276.
14.Yeh, SA, Ho, JT, Lui, CC, et al. Treatment outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with supratentorial low-grade gliomas. British Journal of Radiology, 2005;78(927):230–235.
15.Karim, AB, Maat, B, Hatlevoll, R, et al. A randomized trial on dose–response in radiation therapy of low-grade cerebral glioma: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study 22844. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 1996;36(3):549–556.
16.Grabowski, MM, Recinos, PF, Nowacki, AS, et al. Residual tumor volume versus extent of resection: predictors of survival after surgery for glioblastoma. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2014;121(5):1115–1123.
17.Oszvald, A, Guresir, E, Setzer, M, et al. Glioblastoma therapy in the elderly and the importance of the extent of resection regardless of age. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012;116(2):357–364.
18.Brown, PD, Maurer, MJ, Rummans, TA, et al. A prospective study of quality of life in adults with newly diagnosed high-grade gliomas: the impact of the extent of resection on quality of life and survival. Neurosurgery, 2005;57(3):495–504.
19.Schneider, JP, Trantakis, C, Rubach, M, et al. Intraoperative MRI to guide the resection of primary supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme – a quantitative radiological analysis. Neuroradiology, 2005;47(7):489–500.
20.Stummer, W, Reulen, HJ, Meinel, T, et al. Extent of resection and survival in glioblastoma multiforme: identification of and adjustment for bias. Neurosurgery, 2008;62(3):564–576.
21.Buckner, JC, Schomberg, PJ, McGinnis, WL, et al. A phase III study of radiation therapy plus carmustine with or without recombinant interferon-alpha in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. Cancer, 2001;92(2):420–433.
22.Ushio, Y, Kochi, M, Hamada, J, Kai, Y, Nakamura, H. Effect of surgical removal on survival and quality of life in patients with supratentorial glioblastoma. Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica, 2005;45(9):454–460.
23.Stark, AM, Nabavi, A, Mehdorn, HM, Blomer, U. Glioblastoma multiforme–report of 267 cases treated at a single institution. Surgical Neurology, 2005;63(2):162–169.
24.Levin, VA, Yung, WK, Bruner, J, et al. Phase II study of accelerated fractionation radiation therapy with carboplatin followed by PCV chemotherapy for the treatment of anaplastic gliomas. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, 2002;53(1):58–66.
25.Keles, GE, Chang, EF, Lamborn, KR, et al. Volumetric extent of resection and residual contrast enhancement on initial surgery as predictors of outcome in adult patients with hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2006;105(1):34–40.
26.Tortosa, A, Vinolas, N, Villa, S, et al. Prognostic implication of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features in patients with anaplastic gliomas. Cancer, 2003;97(4):1063–1071.
27.Lacroix, M, Abi-Said, D, Fourney, DR, et al. A multivariate analysis of 416 patients with glioblastoma multiforme: prognosis, extent of resection, and survival. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2001;95(2):190–198.
28.Sanai, N, Polley, MY, McDermott, MW, Parsa, AT, Berger, MS. An extent of resection threshold for newly diagnosed glioblastomas. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2011;115(1):3–8.
29.Chaichana, KL, Cabrera-Aldana, EE, Jusue-Torres, I, et al. When gross total resection of a glioblastoma is possible, how much resection should be achieved? World Neurosurgery, 2014;82(1–2):e257–265.
30.Barker, FG, 2nd, Chang, SM, Gutin, PH, et al. Survival and functional status after resection of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Neurosurgery, 1998;42(4):709–720.
31.Helseth, R, Helseth, E, Johannesen, TB, et al. Overall survival, prognostic factors, and repeated surgery in a consecutive series of 516 patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 2010;122(3):159–167.
32.Mandl, ES, Dirven, CM, Buis, DR, Postma, TJ, Vandertop, WP. Repeated surgery for glioblastoma multiforme: only in combination with other salvage therapy. Surgical Neurology, 2008;69(5):506–509.
33.Bloch, O, Han, SJ, Cha, S, et al. Impact of extent of resection for recurrent glioblastoma on overall survival: clinical article. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012;117(6):1032–1038.
34.Oppenlander, ME, Wolf, AB, Snyder, LA, et al. An extent of resection threshold for recurrent glioblastoma and its risk for neurological morbidity. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2014;120(4):846–853.
35.Clarke, JL, Ennis, MM, Yung, WK, et al. Is surgery at progression a prognostic marker for improved 6-month progression-free survival or overall survival for patients with recurrent glioblastoma? Neuro-Oncology, 2011;13(10):1118–1124.
36.Park, JK, Hodges, T, Arko, L, et al. Scale to predict survival after surgery for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2010;28(24):3838–3843.
37.Rogic, M, Deletis, V, Fernandez-Conejero, I. Inducing transient language disruptions by mapping of Broca’s area with modified patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2014;120(5):1033–1041.
38.Quiñones-Hinojosa, A, Ojemann, SG, Sanai, N, Dillon, WP, Berger, MS. Preoperative correlation of intraoperative cortical mapping with magnetic resonance imaging landmarks to predict localization of the Broca area. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2003;99(2):311–318.
39.Wen, HT, Rhoton, AL, Jr., de Oliveira, E, et al. Microsurgical anatomy of the temporal lobe: part 1: mesial temporal lobe anatomy and its vascular relationships as applied to amygdalohippocampectomy. Neurosurgery, 1999;45(3):549–591.
40.Wen, HT, Rhoton, AL, Jr., Marino, R, Jr. Gray matter overlying anterior basal temporal sulci as an intraoperative landmark for locating the temporal horn in amygdalohippocampectomies. Neurosurgery, 2006;59(4 Suppl 2):ONS221–227.
41.Schmahmann, JD, Smith, EE, Eichler, FS, Filley, CM. Cerebral white matter: neuroanatomy, clinical neurology, and neurobehavioral correlates. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2008;1142:266–309.
42.Weiller, C, Bormann, T, Saur, D, Musso, M, Rijntjes, M. How the ventral pathway got lost: and what its recovery might mean. Brain and Language, 2011;118(1–2):29–39.
43.Frey, S, Campbell, JS, Pike, GB, Petrides, M. Dissociating the human language pathways with high angular resolution diffusion fiber tractography. Journal of Neuroscience, 2008;28(45):11435–11444.
44.Kuijlen, JM, Teernstra, OP, Kessels, AG, Herpers, MJ, Beuls, EA. Effectiveness of antiepileptic prophylaxis used with supratentorial craniotomies: a meta-analysis. Seizure, 1996;5(4):291–298.
45.Pulman, J, Greenhalgh, J, Marson, AG. Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for post-craniotomy seizures. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013;2:CD007286.
46.Sayegh, ET, Fakurnejad, S, Oh, T, Bloch, O, Parsa, AT. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis for brain tumor surgery: determining the current best available evidence. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2014;121(5):1139–1147.
47.Ott, C, Kerscher, C, Luerding, R, et al. The impact of sedation on brain mapping: a prospective, interdisciplinary, clinical trial. Neurosurgery, 2014;75(2):117–123.
48.Hansen, E, Seemann, M, Zech, N, et al. Awake craniotomies without any sedation: the awake–awake–awake technique. Acta Neurochirurgica, 2013;155(8):1417–1424.
49.Taylor, MD, Bernstein, M. Awake craniotomy with brain mapping as the routine surgical approach to treating patients with supratentorial intraaxial tumors: a prospective trial of 200 cases. Journal of Neurosurgery, 1999;90(1):35–41.
50.De Witt Hamer, PC, Robles, SG, Zwinderman, AH, Duffau, H, Berger, MS. Impact of intraoperative stimulation brain mapping on glioma surgery outcome: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2012;30(20):2559–2565.
51.Fritsch, G, Hitzig, E. Über die elektrische Erregbarkeit desGrosshirns. Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschafliche Medicin, 1870;37:42–53.
52.Kombos, T, Suess, O, Kern, BC, et al. Comparison between monopolar and bipolar electrical stimulation of the motor cortex. Acta Neurochirurgica, 1999;141:1295–1301.
53.Penfield, W, Boldrey, E. Somatic motor and sensory representation in the cerebral cortex of man as studied by electrical stimulation. Brain, 1937;60:389–443.
54.Chang, EF, Clark, A, Smith, JS, et al. Functional mapping-guided resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas of the brain: improvement of long-term survival. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2011;114(3):566–573.
55.Duffau, H, Lopes, M, Arthuis, F, et al. Contribution of intraoperative electrical stimulations in surgery of low grade gliomas: a comparative study between two series without (1985–96) and with (1996–2003) functional mapping in the same institution. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 2005;76(6):845–851.
56.Sanai, N, Mirzadeh, Z, Berger, MS. Functional outcome after language mapping for glioma resection. New England Journal of Medicine, 2008;358(1):18–27.
57.Ohue, S, Kohno, S, Inoue, A, et al. Accuracy of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography for surgery of gliomas near the pyramidal tract: a significant correlation between subcortical electrical stimulation and postoperative tractography. Neurosurgery, 2012;70(2):283–293; discussion 294.
58.Axelson, HW, Hesselager, G, Flink, R. Successful localization of the Broca area with short-train pulses instead of ‘Penfield’ stimulation. Seizure, 2009;18(5):374–375.
59.Taniguchi, M, Cedzich, C, Schramm, J. Modification of cortical stimulation for motor evoked potentials under general anesthesia: technical description. Neurosurgery, 1993;32(2):219–226.
60.Szelenyi, A, Joksimovic, B, Seifert, V. Intraoperative risk of seizures associated with transient direct cortical stimulation in patients with symptomatic epilepsy. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 2007;24(1):39–43.
61.Seidel, K, Beck, J, Stieglitz, L, Schucht, P, Raabe, A. The warning-sign hierarchy between quantitative subcortical motor mapping and continuous motor evoked potential monitoring during resection of supratentorial brain tumors. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2013;118(2):287–296.
62.Raabe, A, Beck, J, Schucht, P, Seidel, K. Continuous dynamic mapping of the corticospinal tract during surgery of motor eloquent brain tumors: evaluation of a new method. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2014;120(5):1015–1024.
63.Roessler, K, Donat, M, Lanzenberger, R, et al. Evaluation of preoperative high magnetic field motor functional MRI (3 Tesla) in glioma patients by navigated electrocortical stimulation and postoperative outcome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 2005;76(8):1152–1157.
64.Forster, MT, Hattingen, E, Senft, C, et al. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging: advanced adjuncts in preoperative planning for central region tumors. Neurosurgery, 2011;68(5):1317–1324.
65.Rogic, M, Deletis, V, Fernandez-Conejero, I. Inducing transient language disruptions by mapping of Broca’s area with modified patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2014;120(5):1033–1041.
66.Pouratian, N, Bookheimer, SY, Rex, DE, Martin, NA, Toga, AW. Utility of preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging for identifying language cortices in patients with vascular malformations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2002;97(1):21–32.
67.Meier, MP, Ilmberger, J, Fesl, G, Ruge, MI. Validation of functional motor and language MRI with direct cortical stimulation. Acta Neurochirurgica, 2013;155(4):675–683.
68.de Ribaupierre, S, Fohlen, M, Bulteau, C, et al. Presurgical language mapping in children with epilepsy: clinical usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging for the planning of cortical stimulation. Epilepsia, 2012;53(1):67–78.
69.Nimsky, C, Ganslandt, O, Hastreiter, P, et al. Preoperative and intraoperative diffusion tensor imaging-based fiber tracking in glioma surgery. Neurosurgery, 2005;56(1):130–137; discussion 138.
70.Nimsky, C, Ganslandt, O, Merhof, D, Sorensen, AG, Fahlbusch, R. Intraoperative visualization of the pyramidal tract by diffusion-tensor-imaging-based fiber tracking. NeuroImage, 2006;30(4):1219–1229.
71.Wu, JS, Zhou, LF, Tang, WJ, et al. Clinical evaluation and follow-up outcome of diffusion tensor imaging-based functional neuronavigation: a prospective, controlled study in patients with gliomas involving pyramidal tracts. Neurosurgery, 2007;61(5):935–948.
72.Gonzalez-Darder, JM, Gonzalez-Lopez, P, Talamantes, F, et al. Multimodal navigation in the functional microsurgical resection of intrinsic brain tumors located in eloquent motor areas: role of tractography. Neurosurgical Focus, 2010;28(2):E5.
73.Bello, L, Castellano, A, Fava, E, et al. Intraoperative use of diffusion tensor imaging fiber tractography and subcortical mapping for resection of gliomas: technical considerations. Neurosurgical Focus, 2010;28(2):E6.
74.Panciani, PP, Fontanella, M, Schatlo, B, et al. Fluorescence and image guided resection in high grade glioma. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2012;114(1):37–41.
75.Krieg, SM, Shiban, E, Buchmann, N, et al. Utility of presurgical navigated transcranial magnetic brain stimulation for the resection of tumors in eloquent motor areas. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2012;116(5):994–1001.
76.Takahashi, S, Vajkoczy, P, Picht, T. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for mapping the motor cortex in patients with rolandic brain tumors. Neurosurgical Focus, 2013;34(4):E3.
77.Roux, FE, Boulanouar, K, Ranjeva, JP, et al. Usefulness of motor functional MRI correlated to cortical mapping in Rolandic low-grade astrocytomas. Acta Neurochirurgica, 1999;141(1):71–79.
78.Zhu, FP, Wu, JS, Song, YY, et al. Clinical application of motor pathway mapping using diffusion tensor imaging tractography and intraoperative direct subcortical stimulation in cerebral glioma surgery: a prospective cohort study. Neurosurgery, 2012;71(6):1170–1183; discussion 1183–1194.
79.Leclercq, D, Duffau, H, Delmaire, C, et al. Comparison of diffusion tensor imaging tractography of language tracts and intraoperative subcortical stimulations. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2010;112(3):503–511.
80.Bello, L, Gambini, A, Castellano, A, et al. Motor and language DTI fiber tracking combined with intraoperative subcortical mapping for surgical removal of gliomas. NeuroImage, 2008;39(1):369–382.
81.Valdes, PA, Leblond, F, Kim, A, et al. Quantitative fluorescence in intracranial tumor: implications for ALA-induced PpIX as an intraoperative biomarker. Journal of Neurosurgery, 2011;115(1):11–17.