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  • Disasters and History
  • The Vulnerability and Resilience of Past Societies
  • Online publication date: October 2020
  • pp 225-232

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Index

adaptation
connection to vulnerability, 67
development of the concept, 38
negative elements, 38
positive elements, 38
temporality of, 38, 39
adaptive capacity. See adaptation
adaptive cycle, 39
Adger, W.N., 35
aeolian soils, 75
Age of Disaster, 9, 185
agricultural technology, 78
Alfani, Guido, 137
American Dust Bowl. See Dust Bowl
American Great Plains, 75. See Dust Bowl
Anthropocene, 9, 159, 160, 161, 164, 168
concept of, 160
Great Acceleration, 160
Armenia
Spitak earthquake of 1988, 134
Ash, Eric, 113
Babylonian Astronomical Diaries. See historical sources
bacterium Vibrio cholerae. See cholera outbreaks
Baghdad
thirteenth-century water management, 89
Bangladesh
famine of 1974, 125
Bankoff, Greg, 40, 75, 103, 183
Bavel, Bas van, 166
Beck, Ulrich, 40, 42, 167
Behringer, Wolfgang, 138
Beijiang basin flood
reliance on family, 87
Bengal famine of 1943, 14
role of the market, 88
Biraben, Jean-Noël, 46, 58
Black Death, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, 21, 26, 55, 64, 68, 69, 103, 179 See also epidemics
and gender inequality, 156
and inequality, 155
broader assessment, 69
compassion and cohesion, 140
disparate effects, 147
disparate population recovery, 150
diversity of outcomes, 21
Golden Age of Labour, 14
long-term positive effects, 147
migration to cities, 131
mortality, 64
persecution of Jews, 140
redistributive anomaly, 156
social tensions, 138
Blaikie, Piers, 11
Borsch, Stuart, 21
Brazil
indigenous marriage rules, 149
Brecke, Peter, 58 See also Conflict Catalog
burial records, 48, 64, 65, 124 See also historical sources
reconstructing mortality, 65
Campbell, Bruce, 17, 146
Canal du Midi, 90
capitalism
and cyclicality, 166
and hybridization, 165
and societal change, 152
changing human–nature interaction, 165
frontier zone vulnerability, 166
nonlinear development, 166
Capitalocene, 164, 165
Catania
earthquake of 1693, 125, 132
cattle plague
and intensification, 82
China
famine of 1958–61, 124, 129
floods and economic effects, 148
Mandate of Heaven, 101, 177
top-down interventions, 106
Chinese gazetteers. See historical sources
cholera outbreaks
bottom-up resistance, 141
in the nineteenth century, 79, 114
sanitary reform, 114
chronicles. See also historical sources
classquakes. See earthquakes
climate change
and disaster risk, 161, 164
Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 13
commons
and inequality, 95
and vulnerability, 94
collective agriculture, 93
disintegration, 95
in Northwestern Europe, 92
shared non-arable resources, 94
water boards, 96
communist revolutions
and food crises, 152
Conflict Catalog, 58
coordination systems, 87
and resources, 85
collective action. See also commons
the family, 88
the market, 89
the state, 91
coping mechanisms, 5, 49, 91, 118, 161, 185, 186, 187
COVID-19 pandemic, 10, 108
D’Souza, Rohan, 180
Darfur
famine of 1984–5, 125
Davis, Mike, 166, 180
de Keyzer, Maïka, 119
Di Tullio, Matteo, 119
disaster classification, 22
consequences, 24
natural and human-made, 22
speed of unfolding, 23
type of event, 23
disaster experts
and biopolitics, 114
co-evolvement with the state, 113
modern era dominance, 114
rise of, 113
disaster impacts, 5, 62
capital destruction, 5, 132, 134
economic crisis, 137
erosion of societal stability, 5
falling yields, 5, 136
fixed values and thresholds, 63
land loss, 134
mortality, 48, 63, 125 See also selective mortality
scapegoating and blame, 140
structural and behavioral disturbance, 63
disaster management cycle, 31
and decision-making, 33
development of, 32
limitations, 33
long-term perspective, 32
mitigation and adaptation, 32
disaster preconditions, 74
culture gaps, 104
economic development, 82
economic structures, 84
hazard recurrence. See also regions of risk
religious beliefs, 101
risks of mitigation measures, 79
technology and infrastructure, 77, 78
war and conflict, 85
Disaster Research Center (DRC), 11
disaster responses, 105
cooperation from below, 109, 141
top-down and bottom-up, 106
disaster studies
and anthropologists, 11
and climate change, 11
and disaster management, 185
and eurocentrism, 184
and forecasting, 169
and history, 1, 169, 171, 182
at the local level, 184
Cold War period, 11
field, 1, 14, 171
focus on victims, 186, 187
global direction, 69
in the 1990s, 11
interdisciplinary research, 54, 182
limitations, 54
potential for historians, 2, 173, 178, 179, 181
disasters
and modernity, 10
and origin myths, 178
and poverty, 69, 82
and social vulnerability. See vulnerability
concept of, 30
difference to hazards, 31
naturalness of, 33
diseases
colonialism and capitalism, 166
in the Caribbean, 166
in the Southeast of the United States, 166
nineteenth-century reforms, 151
references in historical sources, 64
diversity of outcomes, 2, 8, 158, 163
demographic, 7
economic, 7
institutional responses, 3, 181
lasting economic divergence, 137
social actors, 4
Dust Bowl, 5, 6, 8, 12, 75, 83, 132
and migration, 132
land loss, 132
long-term economic depression, 137
earthquakes
and capital destruction, 134
contextualization of, 70
positive effects, 146
Ebert, John David, 160
Ebola outbreaks
bottom-up resistance, 110, 141
in Western Africa, 84, 104
Egypt
Nile Delta engineering, 115
water management, 98, 148
Egyptian Nilometers, 46 See also historical sources
Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT), 161
data coverage, 161
Endfield, Georgina, 36
Engels, Friedrich, 18
England
Breckland sand drifts, 99
population reconstruction, 65
sheep scab epizootic of 1279–80, 136
Enlightenment, 9, 28, 167
Ensminger, Jean, 118
Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), 175
concept, 176
limitations, 176
epidemics, 6
and inheritance, 155
and long-term effects, 147
and migration, 131
and public health, 151
and redistribution, 155
and religion in Western Europe, 101
and social control, 109
and social unrest, 138
and top-down interventions, 109
blame and scapegoating, 137
bottom-up defiance, 109, 110
bottom-up resistance, 141
burial practices, 109, 141
elite repression, 138, 153
indiscriminate mortality, 129
marriage spike, 130
mortality, 64
negotiated balance, 140
productivity and human capital, 147
reconstruction, 63
escape from disaster, 175
through economic growth, 177
Ethiopia
crisis of the 1980s, 129
European Marriage Pattern, 87
explanatory frameworks, 16
institutional approach, 21
Malthusian approach, 18
Marxist approach, 19
modernization approach, 20
famines
and democracy, 89
and economic diversification, 82
and Malthusian pressures, 69
and migration, 149
and poor relief organizations, 92
anticipation in Africa, 111
charity in India, 93
comparative approach, 69
diversity of outcomes, 158
Great Famine of 1315–17, 68
in Ethiopia and Sudan, 90, 151
sub-Saharan Africa, 8
informal relief, 93, 158
Malthusian pressures, 175
nuptiality and fertility, 149
postponing marriage, 129
related diseases, 26, 148
selective mortality, 126
floods
along the North Sea coast, 8, 76, 79, 81, 102, 125, 152
in England, 76
protection through mounds, 79
water management systems, 81
Friedman, Milton, 152, 153
Germany
failure to adapt, 103
flood of 1634, 101
Fukushima disaster implications, 160
Gibbon, Edward, 142
and moral decay, 142
Glantz, Michael H., 169
Global South, 34, 69, 81, 178, 183
Great Dhaka Flood Protection Project
top-down intervention side effects, 108
Great Famine of 1315–17, 68, 69
impact of the Flemish–French war, 85
in England, 100
Great Famine of Ireland, 69, 175
contextualization, 70
grain exports to England, 84
potato dependency, 83
Great Transition, 146
Guatemala
earthquake of 1976, 81
Guha, Ramachandra, 19
guilds. See commons
Haiti
colonial path dependency, 172
earthquake of 2010, 26, 134, 172
Hardin, Garrett, 94
hazards. See shocks
concept of, 30
coping with, 4
nature of, 30
proneness to, 76
Herlihy, David, 17
Hewitt, Kenneth, 75
histoire événementielle. See also historiography of disasters
historical catalogs. See also historical sources
historical data
applying social science methods, 71
colonial records, 58, 60
further development, 60
in the digital age, 57
key questions, 60
paleoclimate proxy data, 169
source criticism, 58
unevenness of, 58, 70, 161
historical sources
and colonialism, 50
contextualization of data, 57
instrumental recording, 50
integration of sources, 55
lack of, 8, 135
limitations of, 8, 124, 149, 158
non-documentary evidence, 55
types of, 53
under-representation, 124, 183
historiography of disasters, 15, 179
drivers of change, 179
environmental determinism, 178
focus on events, 69
historical climatology, 13
in the post-World War II period, 12
in the pre-industrial period, 12
socio-economic history, 14
history as a laboratory, 43
focus on institutions, 174
future goals, 183
identifying patterns, 173
practical demands, 43
social contextualization, 174
testing hypotheses, 43, 183
HIV/AIDS, 68, 147
blame and scapegoating, 137
Holling, Buzz, 35
Holocene, 75, 76
hurricane Katrina, 22, 82
and education policy change, 153
and family size, 87
and poverty, 96, 180
Bipartisan Report, 113
political and social bias, 181
selective mortality, 125
Ibn Khaldun, 142
and moral decay, 142
India, 50
Bhopal gas tragedy, 40, 167
droughts and imperialism, 180
floods and colonial capitalism, 180
plague in Surat in 1994, 112, 138
Indian Ocean
tsunami of 2004, 168
Industrial Revolution, 9, 10, 18, 82, 159, 164, 167
inequality
and colonialism, 118, 180
and disaster preconditions, 157
and indirect vulnerability, 99
and taxation, 158
and war, 155
benefits of more equity, 118
beyond wealth distribution, 156
constrained disaster response, 117
disaster preconditions, 179
enhanced hazard response, 117
long-term trends, 155
of income, 97
reciprocal agreements, 99
informal solidarity, 49
institutions
and change, 86
and resilience, 120
colonial path dependency, 121
coordination systems. See coordination systems
culture and religion, 122
flexibility and adaptation, 118
formation of, 86
hazard-orientated, 85
marginalizing indigenous beliefs, 121
path dependency, 86, 120, 173
Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE) network, 170, 173
methodological approach, 171
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 37, 161
concept of risk, 162
Italy
Black Death in, 7
plague epidemic of 1629–30, 7, 26, 137
plague epidemic of 1656–8, 137
reciprocity, 119
Japan
Fukushima disaster, 8, 134, 154, 160
Great Kantō earthquake of 1923, 134
Nuclear and Industry Safety Authority (NISA), 154
Kant, Immanuel
and the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, 167
Kelman, Ilan, 163
Klein, Naomi, 152
Kosminsky, E. A., 18
Kuznets, Simon, 175
Lamb, Hubert, 13
Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel, 12, 13, 139, 178
Leiden
epidemics and inequality, 117
Lisbon
earthquake of 1755, 8, 11, 23, 27, 28, 49, 50, 90, 132, 134, 135, 145, 153, 168
Little Ice Age, 38, 55, 76
and societal collapse, 143
and witch hunting, 139
diversity of outcomes, 163
regional diversity, 77
Livi Bacci, Massimo, 65
long-term disaster effects, 145
demographic changes, 150
economic divergence, 146
gradual change, 153
reconstruction and reform, 152
Low Countries
accommodation paradigm, 116
Campine area sand drifts, 102, 108, 120
Delta Works, 116, 176
flood protection investments, 83
floods of 1953, 116, 176
Kootwijk dust bowl, 133, 148
land loss and recovery, 134
plague data, 58
poor relief and local elites, 119
technological lock-in, 116
water management, 98, 99, 102
Malawi. See Southern Nyasaland
Manchuria. See Manchurian plague of 1911
Manchurian plague of 1911, 50
Manley, Gordon, 13
Marquis of Pombal, 28, 49, 153
institutional reforms, 135
Marx, Karl, 19, 165
Mauelshagen, Franz, 102, 103
McCloskey, Donald, 41
McNeill, William H., 177
media coverage. See also historical sources
source critique, 50
Medieval Warm Optimum, 76
memory and learning, 110
de-learning triggers, 112
preconditions, 112, 181
metabolic rift, 19
concept of, 165
methodologies, 61
analog, 170
comparative approach, 68, 73, 174
practical challenges to comparisons, 72
reconstruction, 62
Mexico
epidemic in the 1570s, 157
pre-Hispanic droughts, 102
Milanovic, Branko, 7, 154, 158
Modified Mercalli Intensity scale, 24
Moore, Jason, 83, 164, 165, 166
New Orleans
absence of memory and learning, 112
Northern Italy
famine of the 1590s, 82
flood protection, 117
top-down famine intervention, 106
O’Keefe, Phil, 81
optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, 56
Ostrom, Elinor, 21
Overton, Mark, 178
Peru
colonial path dependency, 172
earthquake of 1970, 171
peste. See plague
Pfister, Christian, 13, 138, 139
Philippines, 54
bottom-up mitigation, 111
coping with risks, 103
Piketty, Thomas, 157
plague
in Naples, 109
in Ragusa, 109, 151
terminology of, 64 See also epidemics
Polanyi, Karl, 164, 166
poor relief organizations
financial context, 93
population recovery, 132
migration, 132
nuptiality and fertility, 130, 149
societal shifts, 131
Postan, Michael, 16
Pressure and Release (PAR) model, 66
Pritchard, Sara, 160
public sphere
Enlightenment disaster interest, 168
Puerto Rico
hurricane Maria in 2018, 135
Quarantelli, Enrico, 11
Radkau, Joachim, 168
Red Cross, 91
regions of risk, 75, 77, 101
and adaptation, 102
embeddedness of risk, 101
failure to adapt, 103
subcultures of coping, 103
resilience. See vulnerability
conceptual critique, 37
development of the concept, 36
rinderpest, 49, 90
in the Southern Netherlands, 49, 107
Ring of Fire, 76
risk
and fear, 167
and ‘othering’, 41, 76, 186
as a physical construct, 162
aspect of time, 40
concept of, 40
conceptual critiques, 41
contemporary acceptance of, 168
evaluation, 76
modern rational paradigm, 42, 76, 168
risk society, 80.1, 80.2 See also risk
Rohland, Eleonora, 38, 103
Sahel
climatic shifts, 76
San Francisco earthquake of 1906, 54
sand drifts, 55, 56, 75, 83, 93
SARS
and victimization, 138
Sartori, Giovanni, 71
scale of disasters, 25
assessment difficulties, 29
focus on material losses, 26, 27
focus on mortality, 25, 27
Scheidel, Walter, 7, 70, 71, 154, 158
scope of disasters, 25
Second Pandemic, 69, 151
heightened solidarity, 140
selective mortality, 129
sex and gender, 128
social profile, 125
urban and rural environment, 126
Sen, Amartya, 13, 24, 88, 89
entitlement theory, 25, 125
shocks, 2
biophysical, 2
concept of, 30
effects of, 3
human-made, 2
nature of, 2
Silent Revolution, 92
Singleton, John, 31
Snow, John, 78, 114
Broad Street pump, 114
societal collapse
and moral decay, 142
definition, 142
environmental explanations, 144
historiography, 145, 169
transition and transformation, 145
Southern Africa
inequality and droughts, 99
Southern Nyasaland, 4
famine of 1949, 4, 88
Sri Lanka
tsunami in 2004, 131
St. Vincent
eruption of Mount Soufrière in 1812, 72
state coping capacity
ideological underpinnings, 91
regime type, 90
Steinberg, Ted, 97, 100
sub-Saharan Africa
droughts, 55
droughts and shifting blame, 140
persistence of famine, 77, 78
rainmaking rituals, 121
Tainter, Joseph, 142, 143
Tarr, Joel, 79
tragedy of the commons, 94
Ukraine
Chernobyl nuclear disaster, 40, 167, 168
UNDRO (United Nations Disaster Relief Organization), 91
Vaughan, Megan, 88
Voltaire
and the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, 167
Vries, Jan de, 12, 178
vulnerability
and economic commercialization, 83
and economic diversification, 83
and economic integration, 84
and economic intensification, 82
and human agency, 77, 163
and inequality. See inequality
and poverty, 96, 175
and the powerless, 115
assessment of, 66
biophysical, 75, 76, 77
connection to adaptation, 67
determinants of, 24, 31
development of the concept, 35
indicators of, 67
marriage patterns, 88
pre-existing, 3
technological lock-in, 115, 177
Wallerstein, Immanuel, 19, 165
White, Gilbert, 11
Wisner, Ben, 11, 81
World War II, 9
Worster, Donald, 12
Yersinia pestis pathogen. See Black Death