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  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: December 2014

Chapter 5 - Urine cytology

References

Inflammatory conditions
Coleman DV. The cytodiagnosis of human polyoma virus infection. Acta Cytol 1975; 19: 93–6.
deVries CR, Freiha FS. Hemorrhagic cystitis: a review. J Urol 1990; 143(1): 1–9.
Droese M, Voeth C. Cytologic features of seminal vesicle epithelium in aspiration biopsy smears of the prostate. Acta Cytol 1976; 20: 120–5.
Kahan AV, Coleman DV, Koss LG. Activation of human polyoma virus infection. Detection by cytologic techniques. Am J Clin Pathol 1980; 74: 326–32.
Koss LG, ed. Cytologic manifestation of benign disorders affecting cells of the lower urinary tract. In: Diagnostic Cytology of the Urinary Tract: With Histopathologic and Clinical Correlation. 1st edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1996; 52–5.
Koss LG, ed. The urinary tract in the absence of cancer. In: Diagnostic Cytology and its Histopathologic Bases. 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott, 2006; 739–76.
Koss LG, Sherman AB, Eppich E. Image analysis and DNA content of urothelial cells infected with human polyoma virus. Anal Quant Cytol 1984; 6: 89–94.
Lee HJ, Pyo JW, Choi EH, et al. Isolation of adenovirus type 7 from the urine of children with acute hemorrhagic cystitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15(7): 633–4.
Wojcik EM, Bassler TJ, Orozco R. DNA ploidy of seminal vesicle cells. A potential diagnostic pitfall in urine cytology. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 1999; 21: 29–34.
Wojcik EM, Miller MC, Wright BC, Veltri RW, O’Dowd GJ. Comparative analysis of DNA content in polyoma virus infected urothelial cells, urothelial dysplasia and transitional cell carcinoma. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 1997; 19: 430–6.
Yuste RS, Frías C, López A, Vallejo C. Diagnostic value of JC/BK virus antibody immunohistochemistry staining in urine samples from posttransplant immunosuppressed patients in relation to polyomavirus reactivation. Acta Cytol 2008; 52(2): 191–5.
Urolithiasis
Highman W, Wilson E. Urine cytology in patients with calculi. J Clin Pathol 1982; 35: 350–6.
Rubben H, Hering F, Dahm HH, Lutzeyer W. Value of exfoliative urinary cytology for differentiation between uric acid stone and tumor of upper urinary tract. Urology 1982; 22: 571–3.
Other bladder neoplasms
Small cell carcinoma
Bakhos R, Shankey TV, Fisher S, Flanigan RC, Wojcik EM. Comparative analysis of DNA flow cytometry and cytology of urine barbotages – review of discordant cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 22: 65–9.
Barkan GA, Wojcik EM. Genitourinary cytopathology (kidney and urinary tract). Cancer Treat Res 2014; 160: 149–83.
Bassily NH, Vallorosi CJ, Akdas G, Montie J, Rubin MA. Coordinate expression of cytokeratins CK7 and CK 20 in prostate adenocarcinoma and bladder urothelial carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 113: 383–8.
Bastacky S, Ibrahim S, Wilczynski SP, Murphy WM. The accuracy of urinary cytology in daily practice. Cancer 1999; 87: 118–28.
Bhatia A, Dey P, Kakkar N, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma. Cytojournal 2006; 3: 28.
Brown FM. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening? Urol Clin North Am 2000; 27: 25–37.
Curry JL, Wojcik EM. The effects of the current WHO/ISUP bladder neoplasm classification system on urine cytology results. Cancer Cytopathol 2002; 96(3): 140–5.
Epstein JI, Amin MB, Reuter VR, Mostofi FK, Bladder Consensus Conference Committee. The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Classification of urothelial (transitional cell) neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 1435–48.
Jackson J, Barkan GA, Kapur U, Wojcik EM. Cytological and cystoscopic predictors of recurrence and progression in patients with low-grade urothelial carcinoma. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121(7): 398–402.
Mokhtar GA, Al-Dousari M, Al-Ghamedi D. Diagnostic significance of atypical category in the voided urine samples: A retrospective study in a tertiary care center. Urol Ann 2010; 2: 100–6.
Murphy WM. Current status of urinary cytology in the evaluation of bladder neoplasms. Hum Pathol 1990; 21: 886–96.
Muus-Ubago J, Wojcik EM, Barkan GA. Evaluation of atypical urine cytology progression to malignancy. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121(7): 387–91.
Palmer D, Lallu S, Matheson P, Bethwaite P, Tompson K. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: a pitfall in urine cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2007; 35(3): 179–82.
Pantanowitz L, Otis CN. Cystitis glandularis. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36(3): 181–2.
Piaton E, Advenier AS, Benaim G, et al. [Atypical urothelial cells (AUC): a Bethesda-derived wording applicable to urinary cytopathology]. Ann Pathol 2011; 31: 11–17.
Piaton E, Decaussin-Petrucci M, Mege-Lechevallier F, et al. Diagnostic terminology for urinary cytology reports including the new subcategories ‘atypical urothelial cells of undetermined significance’ (AUC-US) and ‘cannot exclude high grade’ (AUC-H). Cytopathology 2014; 25(1): 27–38.
Raab SS, Grzybicki DM, Vrbin CM, Geisinger KR. Urine cytology discrepancies: frequency, causes, and outcomes. Am J Clin Pathol 2007; 127: 946–53.
Raab SS, Lenel JC, Cohen MB. Low grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cytologic diagnosis by key features as identified by logistic regression analysis. Cancer 1994; 74: 1621–6.
Renshaw AA. Subclassifying atypical urinary cytology specimens. Cancer Cytopathol 2000; 90: 222–9.
Rosenthal DL, Vandenbussche CJ, Burroughs FH, et al. The Johns Hopkins Hospital template for urologic cytology samples: part I – creating the template. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121: 15–20.
Suh N, Yang XJ, Tretiakova MS, Humphrey PA, Wang HL. Value of CDX2, villin, and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunostains in the distinction between primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder and secondary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 2005; 18(9): 1217–22.
VandenBussche CJ, Sathiyamoorthy S, Owens CL, et al. The Johns Hopkins Hospital template for urologic cytology samples: parts II and III I – improving the predictability of indeterminate results in urinary cytologic samples: an outcomes and cytomorphologic study. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121: 21–8.
Watarai Y, Satoh H, Matubara M, et al. Comparison of urine cytology between the ileal conduit and Indiana pouch. Acta Cytol 2000; 44: 748–51.
Wojcik EM, Bassler TJ, Orozco R. DNA ploidy of seminal vesicle cells. A potential diagnostic pitfall in urine cytology. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 1999; 21: 29–34.
Wojcik EM, Bridges VJ, Miller MC, O’Dowd GJ. The influence of season on the incidence of DNA hypodiploidy in urinary cytology. Cytometry 2000; 42: 218–20.
Wojcik EM, Brownlie RJ, Bassler TJ, Miller MC. Superficial urothelial cells (umbrella cells) – a potential cause of abnormal DNA ploidy results in urine specimens. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 2000; 22: 411–15.
Fine-needle aspiration of urothelial carcinoma
Al-Agha OM, Khader SN, Cajigas A, et al. Fine needle aspiration of urethral recurrence of urothelial carcinoma after radical cystectomy presenting as a perineal mass: a case report. Acta Cytol 2008; 52(1): 94–8.
Cantley RL, Kapur U, Truong L, et al. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a review. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40: 173–8..
Hida CA, Gupta PK. Cercariform cells: are they specific for transitional cell carcinoma? Cancer 1999; 87(2): 69–74.
Renshaw AA, Madge R. Cercariform cells for helping distinguish transitional cell carcinoma from non-small cell lung carcinoma in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(4): 999–1007.

Inflammatory conditions

Coleman DV. The cytodiagnosis of human polyoma virus infection. Acta Cytol 1975; 19: 93–6.
deVries CR, Freiha FS. Hemorrhagic cystitis: a review. J Urol 1990; 143(1): 1–9.
Droese M, Voeth C. Cytologic features of seminal vesicle epithelium in aspiration biopsy smears of the prostate. Acta Cytol 1976; 20: 120–5.
Kahan AV, Coleman DV, Koss LG. Activation of human polyoma virus infection. Detection by cytologic techniques. Am J Clin Pathol 1980; 74: 326–32.
Koss LG, ed. Cytologic manifestation of benign disorders affecting cells of the lower urinary tract. In: Diagnostic Cytology of the Urinary Tract: With Histopathologic and Clinical Correlation. 1st edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven, 1996; 52–5.
Koss LG, ed. The urinary tract in the absence of cancer. In: Diagnostic Cytology and its Histopathologic Bases. 5th edn. Philadelphia, PA: JB Lippincott, 2006; 739–76.
Koss LG, Sherman AB, Eppich E. Image analysis and DNA content of urothelial cells infected with human polyoma virus. Anal Quant Cytol 1984; 6: 89–94.
Lee HJ, Pyo JW, Choi EH, et al. Isolation of adenovirus type 7 from the urine of children with acute hemorrhagic cystitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996; 15(7): 633–4.
Wojcik EM, Bassler TJ, Orozco R. DNA ploidy of seminal vesicle cells. A potential diagnostic pitfall in urine cytology. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 1999; 21: 29–34.
Wojcik EM, Miller MC, Wright BC, Veltri RW, O’Dowd GJ. Comparative analysis of DNA content in polyoma virus infected urothelial cells, urothelial dysplasia and transitional cell carcinoma. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 1997; 19: 430–6.
Yuste RS, Frías C, López A, Vallejo C. Diagnostic value of JC/BK virus antibody immunohistochemistry staining in urine samples from posttransplant immunosuppressed patients in relation to polyomavirus reactivation. Acta Cytol 2008; 52(2): 191–5.

Urolithiasis

Highman W, Wilson E. Urine cytology in patients with calculi. J Clin Pathol 1982; 35: 350–6.
Rubben H, Hering F, Dahm HH, Lutzeyer W. Value of exfoliative urinary cytology for differentiation between uric acid stone and tumor of upper urinary tract. Urology 1982; 22: 571–3.

Other bladder neoplasms

Small cell carcinoma
Bakhos R, Shankey TV, Fisher S, Flanigan RC, Wojcik EM. Comparative analysis of DNA flow cytometry and cytology of urine barbotages – review of discordant cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 22: 65–9.
Barkan GA, Wojcik EM. Genitourinary cytopathology (kidney and urinary tract). Cancer Treat Res 2014; 160: 149–83.
Bassily NH, Vallorosi CJ, Akdas G, Montie J, Rubin MA. Coordinate expression of cytokeratins CK7 and CK 20 in prostate adenocarcinoma and bladder urothelial carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 113: 383–8.
Bastacky S, Ibrahim S, Wilczynski SP, Murphy WM. The accuracy of urinary cytology in daily practice. Cancer 1999; 87: 118–28.
Bhatia A, Dey P, Kakkar N, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma. Cytojournal 2006; 3: 28.
Brown FM. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening? Urol Clin North Am 2000; 27: 25–37.
Curry JL, Wojcik EM. The effects of the current WHO/ISUP bladder neoplasm classification system on urine cytology results. Cancer Cytopathol 2002; 96(3): 140–5.
Epstein JI, Amin MB, Reuter VR, Mostofi FK, Bladder Consensus Conference Committee. The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Classification of urothelial (transitional cell) neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 1435–48.
Jackson J, Barkan GA, Kapur U, Wojcik EM. Cytological and cystoscopic predictors of recurrence and progression in patients with low-grade urothelial carcinoma. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121(7): 398–402.
Mokhtar GA, Al-Dousari M, Al-Ghamedi D. Diagnostic significance of atypical category in the voided urine samples: A retrospective study in a tertiary care center. Urol Ann 2010; 2: 100–6.
Murphy WM. Current status of urinary cytology in the evaluation of bladder neoplasms. Hum Pathol 1990; 21: 886–96.
Muus-Ubago J, Wojcik EM, Barkan GA. Evaluation of atypical urine cytology progression to malignancy. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121(7): 387–91.
Palmer D, Lallu S, Matheson P, Bethwaite P, Tompson K. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: a pitfall in urine cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2007; 35(3): 179–82.
Pantanowitz L, Otis CN. Cystitis glandularis. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36(3): 181–2.
Piaton E, Advenier AS, Benaim G, et al. [Atypical urothelial cells (AUC): a Bethesda-derived wording applicable to urinary cytopathology]. Ann Pathol 2011; 31: 11–17.
Piaton E, Decaussin-Petrucci M, Mege-Lechevallier F, et al. Diagnostic terminology for urinary cytology reports including the new subcategories ‘atypical urothelial cells of undetermined significance’ (AUC-US) and ‘cannot exclude high grade’ (AUC-H). Cytopathology 2014; 25(1): 27–38.
Raab SS, Grzybicki DM, Vrbin CM, Geisinger KR. Urine cytology discrepancies: frequency, causes, and outcomes. Am J Clin Pathol 2007; 127: 946–53.
Raab SS, Lenel JC, Cohen MB. Low grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cytologic diagnosis by key features as identified by logistic regression analysis. Cancer 1994; 74: 1621–6.
Renshaw AA. Subclassifying atypical urinary cytology specimens. Cancer Cytopathol 2000; 90: 222–9.
Rosenthal DL, Vandenbussche CJ, Burroughs FH, et al. The Johns Hopkins Hospital template for urologic cytology samples: part I – creating the template. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121: 15–20.
Suh N, Yang XJ, Tretiakova MS, Humphrey PA, Wang HL. Value of CDX2, villin, and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunostains in the distinction between primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder and secondary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 2005; 18(9): 1217–22.
VandenBussche CJ, Sathiyamoorthy S, Owens CL, et al. The Johns Hopkins Hospital template for urologic cytology samples: parts II and III I – improving the predictability of indeterminate results in urinary cytologic samples: an outcomes and cytomorphologic study. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121: 21–8.
Watarai Y, Satoh H, Matubara M, et al. Comparison of urine cytology between the ileal conduit and Indiana pouch. Acta Cytol 2000; 44: 748–51.
Wojcik EM, Bassler TJ, Orozco R. DNA ploidy of seminal vesicle cells. A potential diagnostic pitfall in urine cytology. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 1999; 21: 29–34.
Wojcik EM, Bridges VJ, Miller MC, O’Dowd GJ. The influence of season on the incidence of DNA hypodiploidy in urinary cytology. Cytometry 2000; 42: 218–20.
Wojcik EM, Brownlie RJ, Bassler TJ, Miller MC. Superficial urothelial cells (umbrella cells) – a potential cause of abnormal DNA ploidy results in urine specimens. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 2000; 22: 411–15.

Small cell carcinoma

Bakhos R, Shankey TV, Fisher S, Flanigan RC, Wojcik EM. Comparative analysis of DNA flow cytometry and cytology of urine barbotages – review of discordant cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2000; 22: 65–9.
Barkan GA, Wojcik EM. Genitourinary cytopathology (kidney and urinary tract). Cancer Treat Res 2014; 160: 149–83.
Bassily NH, Vallorosi CJ, Akdas G, Montie J, Rubin MA. Coordinate expression of cytokeratins CK7 and CK 20 in prostate adenocarcinoma and bladder urothelial carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 2000; 113: 383–8.
Bastacky S, Ibrahim S, Wilczynski SP, Murphy WM. The accuracy of urinary cytology in daily practice. Cancer 1999; 87: 118–28.
Bhatia A, Dey P, Kakkar N, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma. Cytojournal 2006; 3: 28.
Brown FM. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening? Urol Clin North Am 2000; 27: 25–37.
Curry JL, Wojcik EM. The effects of the current WHO/ISUP bladder neoplasm classification system on urine cytology results. Cancer Cytopathol 2002; 96(3): 140–5.
Epstein JI, Amin MB, Reuter VR, Mostofi FK, Bladder Consensus Conference Committee. The World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Classification of urothelial (transitional cell) neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Am J Surg Pathol 1998; 22: 1435–48.
Jackson J, Barkan GA, Kapur U, Wojcik EM. Cytological and cystoscopic predictors of recurrence and progression in patients with low-grade urothelial carcinoma. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121(7): 398–402.
Mokhtar GA, Al-Dousari M, Al-Ghamedi D. Diagnostic significance of atypical category in the voided urine samples: A retrospective study in a tertiary care center. Urol Ann 2010; 2: 100–6.
Murphy WM. Current status of urinary cytology in the evaluation of bladder neoplasms. Hum Pathol 1990; 21: 886–96.
Muus-Ubago J, Wojcik EM, Barkan GA. Evaluation of atypical urine cytology progression to malignancy. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121(7): 387–91.
Palmer D, Lallu S, Matheson P, Bethwaite P, Tompson K. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: a pitfall in urine cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2007; 35(3): 179–82.
Pantanowitz L, Otis CN. Cystitis glandularis. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36(3): 181–2.
Piaton E, Advenier AS, Benaim G, et al. [Atypical urothelial cells (AUC): a Bethesda-derived wording applicable to urinary cytopathology]. Ann Pathol 2011; 31: 11–17.
Piaton E, Decaussin-Petrucci M, Mege-Lechevallier F, et al. Diagnostic terminology for urinary cytology reports including the new subcategories ‘atypical urothelial cells of undetermined significance’ (AUC-US) and ‘cannot exclude high grade’ (AUC-H). Cytopathology 2014; 25(1): 27–38.
Raab SS, Grzybicki DM, Vrbin CM, Geisinger KR. Urine cytology discrepancies: frequency, causes, and outcomes. Am J Clin Pathol 2007; 127: 946–53.
Raab SS, Lenel JC, Cohen MB. Low grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Cytologic diagnosis by key features as identified by logistic regression analysis. Cancer 1994; 74: 1621–6.
Renshaw AA. Subclassifying atypical urinary cytology specimens. Cancer Cytopathol 2000; 90: 222–9.
Rosenthal DL, Vandenbussche CJ, Burroughs FH, et al. The Johns Hopkins Hospital template for urologic cytology samples: part I – creating the template. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121: 15–20.
Suh N, Yang XJ, Tretiakova MS, Humphrey PA, Wang HL. Value of CDX2, villin, and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunostains in the distinction between primary adenocarcinoma of the bladder and secondary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Mod Pathol 2005; 18(9): 1217–22.
VandenBussche CJ, Sathiyamoorthy S, Owens CL, et al. The Johns Hopkins Hospital template for urologic cytology samples: parts II and III I – improving the predictability of indeterminate results in urinary cytologic samples: an outcomes and cytomorphologic study. Cancer Cytopathol 2013; 121: 21–8.
Watarai Y, Satoh H, Matubara M, et al. Comparison of urine cytology between the ileal conduit and Indiana pouch. Acta Cytol 2000; 44: 748–51.
Wojcik EM, Bassler TJ, Orozco R. DNA ploidy of seminal vesicle cells. A potential diagnostic pitfall in urine cytology. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 1999; 21: 29–34.
Wojcik EM, Bridges VJ, Miller MC, O’Dowd GJ. The influence of season on the incidence of DNA hypodiploidy in urinary cytology. Cytometry 2000; 42: 218–20.
Wojcik EM, Brownlie RJ, Bassler TJ, Miller MC. Superficial urothelial cells (umbrella cells) – a potential cause of abnormal DNA ploidy results in urine specimens. Analyt Quant Cytol Histol 2000; 22: 411–15.

Fine-needle aspiration of urothelial carcinoma

Al-Agha OM, Khader SN, Cajigas A, et al. Fine needle aspiration of urethral recurrence of urothelial carcinoma after radical cystectomy presenting as a perineal mass: a case report. Acta Cytol 2008; 52(1): 94–8.
Cantley RL, Kapur U, Truong L, et al. Fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a review. Diagn Cytopathol 2012; 40: 173–8..
Hida CA, Gupta PK. Cercariform cells: are they specific for transitional cell carcinoma? Cancer 1999; 87(2): 69–74.
Renshaw AA, Madge R. Cercariform cells for helping distinguish transitional cell carcinoma from non-small cell lung carcinoma in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1997; 41(4): 999–1007.