Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: December 2014

Chapter 9 - Parathyroid gland, and head and neck cytopathology

References

Parathyroid gland
Parathyroid cysts
Absher KJ, Truong LD, Khurana KK, Ramzy I. Parathyroid cytology: avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Head Neck 2002; 24: 157–64.
Fortson JK, Patel VG, Henderson VJ. Parathyroid cysts: a case report and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 2001; 111: 1726–8.
Katz AD, Dunkleman D. Needle aspiration of nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts. Arch Surg 1984; 119: 307–8.
Kodama T, Obara T, Fujimoto Y, et al. Eleven cases of non-functioning parathyroid cysts – significance of needle aspiration in diagnosis and management. Endocrinol Jpn 1987; 34: 769–77.
Layfield LJ. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cystic parathyroid lesions. A cytomorphologic overlap with cystic lesions of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 447–50.
Lerud KS, Tabbara SO, DelVecchio DM, Frost AR. Cytomorphology of cystic parathyroid lesions: report of four cases evaluated preoperatively by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1996; 15: 306–11.
Lieu D. Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol 2010; 38: 327–32.
Mevio E, Gorini E, Sbrocca M, et al. Parathyroid cysts: description of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Italica 2004; 24: 161–4.
Nonaka D. Study of parathyroid transcription factor Gcm2 expression in parathyroid lesions. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35: 145–51.
Silverman JF, Khazanie PG, Norris HT, Fore WW. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay of parathyroid cysts examined by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Am J Clin Path 1986; 86: 776–80.
Parathyroid adenoma
Abati A, Skarulis MC, Shawker T, Solomon D. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions: a morphological and immunocytochemical approach. Hum Pathol 1995; 26: 338–43.
Absher KJ, Truong LD, Khurana KK, Ramzy I. Parathyroid cytology: avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Head Neck 2002; 24: 157–64.
Agarwal AM, Bentz JS, Hungerford R, Abraham D. Parathyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of parathyroid adenoma: cytologic findings from 53 patients. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37: 407–10.
Bondeson L, Bondeson AG, Nissborg A, Thompson NW. Cytopathological variables in parathyroid lesions: a study based on 1,600 cases of hyperparathyroidism. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16: 476–82.
Cavaco BM, Torrinha F, Mendonca E, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of suspicious parathyroid adenomas by RT-PCR using mRNA extracted from leftover cells in a needle used for ultrasonically guided fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 2003; 47: 5–12.
Davey DD, Giant MD, Berger EK. Parathyroid cytopathology. Diagn Cytopathol 1986; 2: 76–80.
Friedman M, Shimaoka K, Lopez CA, Shedd DP. Parathyroid adenoma diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid on needle aspiration smears. Acta Cytol 1983; 27: 337–40.
Halbauer M, Crepinko I, Brzac HT, Simonovic I. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the pre-operative diagnosis of ultrasonically enlarged parathyroid glands. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 728–35.
Knezevic-Obad A, Tomic-Brzac H, Zarkovic K, Dodig D, Stromar IK. Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol 2010; 34: 25–9.
Layfield LJ. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cystic parathyroid lesions. A cytomorphologic overlap with cystic lesions of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 447–50.
Liu F, Gnepp DR, Pisharodi LR. Fine needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Acta Cytol 2004; 48: 133–6.
Lori AE, Long J, Peter W, et al. Parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma: differential expression of p27 protein. Am J Surg Pathol 1999; 23: 288–95.
Mincione GP, Borrelli D, Cicchi P, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid adenoma: A review of seven cases. Acta Cytol 1986; 30: 65–9.
Schachner SH, Hall A. Parathyroid adenoma and previous head-and-neck irradiation. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 804.
Tseleni-Balafouta S, Gakiopoulou H, Kavantzas N, et al. Parathyroid proliferations: a source of diagnostic pitfalls in FNA of thyroid. Cancer 2007; 111: 130–6.
Tseng FY, Hsiao YL, Chang TC. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid lesions. A review of 72 cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1029–36.
Parathyroid carcinoma
De la Garza S, Flores de la Garza E, Hernandez Batres F. Functional parathyroid carcinoma. Cytology, histology, and ultrastructure of a case. Diagn Cytopathol 1985; 1: 232–5.
Du SD, Chang TC, Chen YL, Hsiao YL, Kuo SH. Ultrasonography and needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis and management of parathyroid lesion. J Formos Med Assoc 1994; 93: 153–9.
Guazzi A, Gabrielli M, Guadagni G. Cytologic features of a functioning parathyroid carcinoma. A case report. Acta Cytol 1982; 26: 709–13.
Horwitz CA, Myers WP, Foote FW Jr. Secondary malignant tumors of the parathyroid glands. Report of two cases with associated hypoparathyroidism. Am J Med 1972; 52: 797–808.
Howell VM, Gill A, Clarkson A, et al. Accuracy of combined protein gene product 9.5 and parafibromin markers for immunohistochemical diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 434–41.
Ikeda K, Tate G, Suzuki T, Mitsuya T. Cytologic comparison of a primary parathyroid cancer and its metastatic lesions: A case report. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 50–5.
Lee HE, Kim DH, Cho YH, et al. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to parathyroid adenoma. Pathol Int 2011; 61: 593–7.
Osawa N, Onoda N, Kawajiri H, et al. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemical staining against hTERT. Int J Mol Med 2009; 24: 733–41.
Spinelli C, Bonadio AG, Berti P, Materazzi G, Miccoli P. Cutaneous spreading of parathyroid carcinoma after fine needle aspiration cytology. J Endocrinol Invest 2000; 23: 255–7.
Tan MH, Morrison C, Wang P, et al. Loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity is a distinguishing feature of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 6629–37.
Tang W, Kakudo K, Nakamura Y, et al. Parathyroid gland involvement by papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002; 126: 1511–14.
Tseng FY, Hsiao YL, Chang TC. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid lesions. A review of 72 cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1029–36.
Wang CA, Gaz RD. Natural history of parathyroid carcinoma. Diagnosis, treatment, and results. Am J Surg 1985; 149: 522–7.
Miscellaneous head and neck lesions
Branchial cleft cyst
Bhanote M, Yang GC. Malignant first branchial cleft cysts presented as submandibular abscess in fine-needle aspiration: report of three cases and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36: 876–81.
Burgess KL, Hartwick RW, Bedard YC. Metastatic squamous carcinoma presenting as a neck cyst. Differential diagnosis from inflamed branchial cleft cyst in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1993; 37: 494–8.
Chandan VS, Faquin WC, Wilbur DC, Khurana KK. The utility of GLUT-1 immunolocalization in cell blocks: an adjunct to the fine needle aspiration diagnosis of cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck. Cancer Cytopathol 2006; 25: 124–8.
Daoud FS. Branchial cyst: an often forgotten diagnosis. Asian J Surg 2005; 28: 174–8.
Glosser JW, Pires CA, Feinberg SE. Branchial cleft or cervical lymphoepithelial cysts: etiology. J Am Dent Assoc 2003; 134: 81–6.
Kadhim AL, Sheahan P, Colreavy MP, Timon CV. Pearls and pitfalls in the management of branchial cyst. J Laryngol Otol 2004; 118: 946–50.
Khurana KK, Ramzy I, Truong LD. p53 immunolocalization in cell block preparations of squamous lesions of the neck: an adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123: 421–5.
Nasuti JF, Braccia MG, Roberts S, Baloch ZW. Utility of cytomorphologic criteria and p53 immunolocalization in distinguishing benign from malignant cystic squamous-lined lesions of the neck on fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 10–14.
Pai RK, Erickson J, Pourmand N, Kong CS. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in distinguishing branchial cleft cysts from cystic squamous cell carcinomas originating in the oropharynx. Cancer 2009; 117: 108–19.
Weiner MF, Miranda RN, Bardales RH, et al. Diagnostic value of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity to distinguish benign from malignant cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck in fine-needle aspiration biopsy material. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31: 294–9.
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Agarwal K, Puri V, Singh S. Critical appraisal of FNAC in the diagnosis of primary papillary carcinoma arising in thyroglossal cyst: a case report with review of the literature on FNAC and its diagnostic pitfalls. J Cytol 2010; 27: 22–5.
Dedivitis RA, Camargo DL, Peixoto GL, Weissman L, Guimaraes AV. Thyroglossal duct: a review of 55 cases. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194: 274–7.
Falvo L, Giacomelli L, Vanni B, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst: case reports and literature review. Int Surg 2006; 91: 141–6.
Ferrer C, Ferrandez A, Dualde D, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst: report of a new case and literature review. Otolaryngol 2000; 29: 311–14.
Shaffer MM, Oertel YC, Oertel JE. Thyroglossal duct cysts: diagnostic criteria by fine-needle aspiration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1996; 120: 1039–43.
Shahin A, Burroughs FH, Kirby JP, Ali SZ. Thyroglossal duct cyst: a cytopathologic study of 26 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33: 365–9.
Epidermoid inclusion cysts/dermoid cysts
Golden BA, Zide MF. Cutaneous cysts of the head and neck. J Orol Maxillofac Surg 2005; 63: 1613–19.
Ramzy I, Rone R, Schantz HD. Squamous cells in needle aspirates of subcutaneous lesions: a diagnostic problem. Am J Clin Pathol 1986; 85: 319–24.
Roy M, Bhattacharyya A, Sanyal S, Dasgupta S. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology. J Indian Med Assoc 1995; 93: 8–9.
Cystic metastases: cystic squamous cell carcinoma
Andrews PJ, Giddings CE, Su AP. Management of lateral cystic swellings of the neck, in the over 40s’ age group. J Laryngol Otol 2003; 117: 318–20.
Chandan VS, Faquin WC, Wilbur DC, Khurana KK. The utility of GLUT-1 immunolocalization in cell blocks: an adjunct to the fine needle aspiration diagnosis of cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck. Cancer 2006; 108: 124–8.
Chiu-Lung Chan R, Chan JY. Effect of previous radiotherapy on cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnostic accuracy. Laryngoscope 2012; 122: 1779–81.
Goldenberg D, Sciubba J, Koch WM. Cystic metastasis from head and neck squamous cell cancer: a distinct disease variant? Head Neck 2006; 28: 633–8.
Nasuti JF, Braccia MG, Roberts S, Baloch ZW. Utility of cytomorphologic criteria and p53 immunolocalization in distinguishing benign from malignant cystic squamous-lined lesions of the neck on fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 10–14.
Pai RK, Erickson J, Pourmand N, Kong CS. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in distinguishing branchial cleft cysts from cystic squamous cell carcinomas originating in the oropharynx. Cancer 2009; 117: 108–19.
Pisharodi LR. False-negative diagnosis in fine-needle aspirations of squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 17: 70–3.
Sheahan P, Fitzgibbon J, O’Leary G, Lee G. Efficacy and pitfalls of fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of neck masses. Surgeon 2004; 2: 152–6.
Thompson LD, Heffner DK. The clinical importance of cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the neck: a study of 136 cases. Cancer 1998; 82: 944–56.
Ustun M, Risberg B, Davidson B, Berner A. Cystic change in metastatic lymph nodes: a common diagnostic pitfall in fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 387–92.
Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis
Cignarelli M, Ambrosi A, Marino A, et al. Diagnostic utility of thyroglobulin detection in fine-needle aspiration of cervical cystic metastatic lymph nodes from papillary thyroid cancer with negative cytology. Thyroid 2003; 13: 1163–7.
Domingues R, Mendonca E, Sobrinho L, Bugalho MJ. Searching for RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF V599E mutation in thyroid aspirates might contribute to establish a pre-operative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cytopathology 2005; 16: 27–31.
Inagaki Y, Sakamoto K, Inoue Y, et al. Thyroglobulin concentration measurement in fine-needle aspiration fluid from cystic cervical lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2011; 114: 912–16.
Koo JS, Kwak JY, Jung W, Hong S. Importance of foamy macrophages only in fine needle aspirates to cytologic diagnostic accuracy of cystic metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Acta Cytol 2010; 54: 249–54.
LiVolsi V. Thyroid papillary carcinoma in lateral neck cyst: missed primary tumour or ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a branchial cyst? (Letter to the editor with authors’ reply.) Laryngol Otol 2001; 115: 614–15.
Mehmood RK, Basha SI, Ghareeb E. A case of papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cyst with neck node metastasis. Ear Nose Throat J 2006; 85: 675–6.
Sidhu S, Lioe TF, Clements B. Thyroid papillary carcinoma in lateral neck cyst: missed primary tumour or ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a branchial cyst? Laryngol Otol 2000; 114: 716–18.
Wang Z, Qiu S, Eltorky MA, Tang WW. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a primary papillary thyroid carcinoma in the lateral cervical lymph node. Exp Mol Pathol 2007; 82: 91–4.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Jayaram G, Swain M, Khanijow V, Jalaludin MA. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19: 168–72.
Koller SM, El Hag IA. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes: comparison with metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma, and Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 28: 18–22.
Thompson L. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ear Nose Throat J 2005; 84: 404–5.
Tsou MH, Wu ML, Chuang AY, Lin CY, Terng SD. Nasopharyngeal biopsy imprint cytology: a retrospective analysis of 191 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 204–7.
Viguer JM, Jimenez-Heffernan JA, Lopez-Ferrer P, Banaclocha M, Vicandi B. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 32: 233–7.
Merkel cell carcinoma
Allen PJ, Bowne WB, Jaques DP, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: prognosis and treatment of patients from a single institution. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 2300–9.
Brissett AE, Olsen KD, Kasperbauer JL, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a retrospective case series. Head Neck 2002; 24: 982–8.
Byrd-Gloster AL, Khoor A, Glass LF, et al. Differential expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 in small cell lung carcinoma and Merkel cell tumor. Hum Pathol 2000; 31: 58–62.
Collins BT, Elmberger PG, Tani EM, Bjornhagen V, Ramos R. Fine needle aspiration of Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin with cytomorphology and immunocytochemical correlation. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 18: 251–7.
Dey P, Jogai S, Amir T. Fine needle aspiration cytology of Merkel cell carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 31: 364–5.
Gottschalk-Sabag S, Ne’eman Z, Glick T. Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Am J Dermatopathol 1996; 18: 269–72.
Sucui V, Botan E, Valent A, et al. The potential contribution of fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis to the cytopathological diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. Cytopathology 2008; 19: 48–51.
Paraganglioma (carotid body tumor)
Das DK, Gupta AK, Chowdhury V, et al. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of carotid body tumor: report of a case and review of experience with cytologic features in four cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 17: 143–7.
Gonzalez-Campora R, Otal-Salaverri C, Panea-Flores P, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of paraganglionic tumors. Acta Cytol 1988; 32: 386–90.
Gujrathi CS, Donald PJ. Current trends in the diagnosis and management of head and neck paragangliomas. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 13: 339–42.
Hood IC, Qizilbash AH, Young JE, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of paragangliomas. Cytologic, light microscopic and ultrastructural studies of three cases. Acta Cytol 1983; 27: 651–7.
Masilamani S, Duvuru P, Sundaram S. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of a case of carotid body tumour. Signapore Med J 2012; 53: e35–7.
Monabati A, Hodjati H, Kumar PV. Cytologic findings in carotid body tumors. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1101–4.
Fibromatosis
Dalen BPM, Meis-Kindblom JMM, Sumathi VP, Ryd W, Kindblom LG. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in the preoperative diagnosis of desmoid tumors. Acta Orthop 2006; 77: 926–31.
Dey P, Mallik MK, Gupta SK, Vasishta RK. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions. Cytopathology 2004; 15: 32–7.
Masson J, Soule E. Desmoid tumors of the head and neck. Am J Surg 1966; 112: 615–22.
Owens CL, Sharma R, Ali SZ. Deep fibromatosis (desmoid tumor): cytopathologic characteristics, clinicoradiologic features, and immunohistochemical findings on fine-needle aspiration. Cancer 2007; 111: 166–72.
Raab SS, Silverman JF, McLeod DL, Benning TL, Geisinger KR. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of fibromatoses. Acta Cytol 1993; 37: 323–8.
Skoog L, Pereira ST, Tani E. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunohistochemistry of soft-tissue tumors and osteo/chondrosarcomas of the head and neck. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20: 131–6.
Tanwar P, Gupta N, Vasishta RK, Singh G. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis. J Cytol 2012; 29: 66–8.
Pilomatrixoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe)
Agrawal L, Kaur P, Singh J, Singh N. Pilomarixoma misdiagnosed as round cell tumor on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Indian J Cancer 2010; 47: 483–5.
El Hag IA, Kollur SM. Fine needle aspiration cytology of pilomatrixoma of the neck region: differentiation from metastatic undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Acta Cytol 2003: 47: 526–7.
Ieni A, Todaro P, Bonanno AM, et al. Limits of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing pilomatrixoma: a series of 25 cases with clinic-pathologic correlations. Indian J Dermatol 2012; 57: 152–5.
Lemos MM, Kindblom LG, Meis-Kindblom JM, Ryd W, Willen H. Fine needle aspiration features of pilomatrixoma. Cancer 2001; 93: 252–6.
Wang J, Cobb CJ, Martin SE, et al. Pilomatrixoma: clinicopathologic study of 51 cases with emphasis on cytologic features. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 167–72.
Nodular fasciitis
Azua J, Arraiza A, Delgado B, Romeo C. Nodular fasciitis initially diagnosed by aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 1985; 29: 562–5.
Dodd LG, Martinez S. Fine needle aspiration cytology of pseudosarcomatous lesions of soft tissue. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24: 28–35.
Kong CS, Cha I. Nodular fasciitis. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 2004; 48: 473–7.
Saad RS, Talei H, Lipscomb J, Ruiz B. Nodular fasciitis of parotid region: a pitfall in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas on fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33: 191–4.
Silvanto AM, Melly L, Hannan SA, Kocjan G. FNAC of nodular fasciitis mimicking a pleomorphic adenoma: another diagnostic pitfall. Cytopathology 2010; 21: 276–7.
Wong NL, Di F. Pseudosarcomatous fasciitis and myositis: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132: 857–65.
Schwannoma
Domanski HA, Akerman M, Engellau J, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of neurilemoma (schwannoma). A clinicocytopathologic study of 116 patients. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 403–12.
Klijanienko J, Caillaud JM, Lagace R. Cytohistologic correlations in schwannomas (neurilemomas), including “ancient,” cellular, and epithelioid variants. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 517–22.
Satarkar RN, Kolte SS, Vuihini SK. Cystic schwannoma in neck: fallacious diagnosis arrived on fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2011; 39: 866–7.
Yu GH, Sack MJ, Baloch Z, Gupta PK. Difficulties in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of schwannoma. Cytopathology 1999; 10: 186–94.
Lipoma
Ahuja AT, King AD, Kew J, King W, Metreweli C. Head and neck lipomas: sonographic appearance. Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19: 505–8.
Butler SL, Oertel YC. Lipomas of the neck simulating thyroid nodules: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1992; 8: 528–31.
Chen X, Yu K, Tong GX, et al. Fine needle aspiration of pleomorphic lipoma of the neck: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2010; 38: 184–7.
El Monem MHA, Gaafar AH, Magdy EA. Lipomas of the head and neck: presentation variablility and diagnostic work-up. J Laryngol Otol 2006; 120: 47–55.

Parathyroid gland

Parathyroid cysts
Absher KJ, Truong LD, Khurana KK, Ramzy I. Parathyroid cytology: avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Head Neck 2002; 24: 157–64.
Fortson JK, Patel VG, Henderson VJ. Parathyroid cysts: a case report and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 2001; 111: 1726–8.
Katz AD, Dunkleman D. Needle aspiration of nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts. Arch Surg 1984; 119: 307–8.
Kodama T, Obara T, Fujimoto Y, et al. Eleven cases of non-functioning parathyroid cysts – significance of needle aspiration in diagnosis and management. Endocrinol Jpn 1987; 34: 769–77.
Layfield LJ. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cystic parathyroid lesions. A cytomorphologic overlap with cystic lesions of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 447–50.
Lerud KS, Tabbara SO, DelVecchio DM, Frost AR. Cytomorphology of cystic parathyroid lesions: report of four cases evaluated preoperatively by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1996; 15: 306–11.
Lieu D. Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol 2010; 38: 327–32.
Mevio E, Gorini E, Sbrocca M, et al. Parathyroid cysts: description of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Italica 2004; 24: 161–4.
Nonaka D. Study of parathyroid transcription factor Gcm2 expression in parathyroid lesions. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35: 145–51.
Silverman JF, Khazanie PG, Norris HT, Fore WW. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay of parathyroid cysts examined by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Am J Clin Path 1986; 86: 776–80.
Parathyroid adenoma
Abati A, Skarulis MC, Shawker T, Solomon D. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions: a morphological and immunocytochemical approach. Hum Pathol 1995; 26: 338–43.
Absher KJ, Truong LD, Khurana KK, Ramzy I. Parathyroid cytology: avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Head Neck 2002; 24: 157–64.
Agarwal AM, Bentz JS, Hungerford R, Abraham D. Parathyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of parathyroid adenoma: cytologic findings from 53 patients. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37: 407–10.
Bondeson L, Bondeson AG, Nissborg A, Thompson NW. Cytopathological variables in parathyroid lesions: a study based on 1,600 cases of hyperparathyroidism. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16: 476–82.
Cavaco BM, Torrinha F, Mendonca E, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of suspicious parathyroid adenomas by RT-PCR using mRNA extracted from leftover cells in a needle used for ultrasonically guided fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 2003; 47: 5–12.
Davey DD, Giant MD, Berger EK. Parathyroid cytopathology. Diagn Cytopathol 1986; 2: 76–80.
Friedman M, Shimaoka K, Lopez CA, Shedd DP. Parathyroid adenoma diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid on needle aspiration smears. Acta Cytol 1983; 27: 337–40.
Halbauer M, Crepinko I, Brzac HT, Simonovic I. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the pre-operative diagnosis of ultrasonically enlarged parathyroid glands. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 728–35.
Knezevic-Obad A, Tomic-Brzac H, Zarkovic K, Dodig D, Stromar IK. Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol 2010; 34: 25–9.
Layfield LJ. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cystic parathyroid lesions. A cytomorphologic overlap with cystic lesions of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 447–50.
Liu F, Gnepp DR, Pisharodi LR. Fine needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Acta Cytol 2004; 48: 133–6.
Lori AE, Long J, Peter W, et al. Parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma: differential expression of p27 protein. Am J Surg Pathol 1999; 23: 288–95.
Mincione GP, Borrelli D, Cicchi P, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid adenoma: A review of seven cases. Acta Cytol 1986; 30: 65–9.
Schachner SH, Hall A. Parathyroid adenoma and previous head-and-neck irradiation. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 804.
Tseleni-Balafouta S, Gakiopoulou H, Kavantzas N, et al. Parathyroid proliferations: a source of diagnostic pitfalls in FNA of thyroid. Cancer 2007; 111: 130–6.
Tseng FY, Hsiao YL, Chang TC. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid lesions. A review of 72 cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1029–36.
Parathyroid carcinoma
De la Garza S, Flores de la Garza E, Hernandez Batres F. Functional parathyroid carcinoma. Cytology, histology, and ultrastructure of a case. Diagn Cytopathol 1985; 1: 232–5.
Du SD, Chang TC, Chen YL, Hsiao YL, Kuo SH. Ultrasonography and needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis and management of parathyroid lesion. J Formos Med Assoc 1994; 93: 153–9.
Guazzi A, Gabrielli M, Guadagni G. Cytologic features of a functioning parathyroid carcinoma. A case report. Acta Cytol 1982; 26: 709–13.
Horwitz CA, Myers WP, Foote FW Jr. Secondary malignant tumors of the parathyroid glands. Report of two cases with associated hypoparathyroidism. Am J Med 1972; 52: 797–808.
Howell VM, Gill A, Clarkson A, et al. Accuracy of combined protein gene product 9.5 and parafibromin markers for immunohistochemical diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 434–41.
Ikeda K, Tate G, Suzuki T, Mitsuya T. Cytologic comparison of a primary parathyroid cancer and its metastatic lesions: A case report. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 50–5.
Lee HE, Kim DH, Cho YH, et al. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to parathyroid adenoma. Pathol Int 2011; 61: 593–7.
Osawa N, Onoda N, Kawajiri H, et al. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemical staining against hTERT. Int J Mol Med 2009; 24: 733–41.
Spinelli C, Bonadio AG, Berti P, Materazzi G, Miccoli P. Cutaneous spreading of parathyroid carcinoma after fine needle aspiration cytology. J Endocrinol Invest 2000; 23: 255–7.
Tan MH, Morrison C, Wang P, et al. Loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity is a distinguishing feature of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 6629–37.
Tang W, Kakudo K, Nakamura Y, et al. Parathyroid gland involvement by papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002; 126: 1511–14.
Tseng FY, Hsiao YL, Chang TC. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid lesions. A review of 72 cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1029–36.
Wang CA, Gaz RD. Natural history of parathyroid carcinoma. Diagnosis, treatment, and results. Am J Surg 1985; 149: 522–7.

Parathyroid cysts

Absher KJ, Truong LD, Khurana KK, Ramzy I. Parathyroid cytology: avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Head Neck 2002; 24: 157–64.
Fortson JK, Patel VG, Henderson VJ. Parathyroid cysts: a case report and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 2001; 111: 1726–8.
Katz AD, Dunkleman D. Needle aspiration of nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts. Arch Surg 1984; 119: 307–8.
Kodama T, Obara T, Fujimoto Y, et al. Eleven cases of non-functioning parathyroid cysts – significance of needle aspiration in diagnosis and management. Endocrinol Jpn 1987; 34: 769–77.
Layfield LJ. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cystic parathyroid lesions. A cytomorphologic overlap with cystic lesions of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 447–50.
Lerud KS, Tabbara SO, DelVecchio DM, Frost AR. Cytomorphology of cystic parathyroid lesions: report of four cases evaluated preoperatively by fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1996; 15: 306–11.
Lieu D. Cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Diagn Cytopathol 2010; 38: 327–32.
Mevio E, Gorini E, Sbrocca M, et al. Parathyroid cysts: description of two cases and review of the literature. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Italica 2004; 24: 161–4.
Nonaka D. Study of parathyroid transcription factor Gcm2 expression in parathyroid lesions. Am J Surg Pathol 2011; 35: 145–51.
Silverman JF, Khazanie PG, Norris HT, Fore WW. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay of parathyroid cysts examined by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Am J Clin Path 1986; 86: 776–80.

Parathyroid adenoma

Abati A, Skarulis MC, Shawker T, Solomon D. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions: a morphological and immunocytochemical approach. Hum Pathol 1995; 26: 338–43.
Absher KJ, Truong LD, Khurana KK, Ramzy I. Parathyroid cytology: avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Head Neck 2002; 24: 157–64.
Agarwal AM, Bentz JS, Hungerford R, Abraham D. Parathyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology in the evaluation of parathyroid adenoma: cytologic findings from 53 patients. Diagn Cytopathol 2009; 37: 407–10.
Bondeson L, Bondeson AG, Nissborg A, Thompson NW. Cytopathological variables in parathyroid lesions: a study based on 1,600 cases of hyperparathyroidism. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16: 476–82.
Cavaco BM, Torrinha F, Mendonca E, et al. Preoperative diagnosis of suspicious parathyroid adenomas by RT-PCR using mRNA extracted from leftover cells in a needle used for ultrasonically guided fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 2003; 47: 5–12.
Davey DD, Giant MD, Berger EK. Parathyroid cytopathology. Diagn Cytopathol 1986; 2: 76–80.
Friedman M, Shimaoka K, Lopez CA, Shedd DP. Parathyroid adenoma diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid on needle aspiration smears. Acta Cytol 1983; 27: 337–40.
Halbauer M, Crepinko I, Brzac HT, Simonovic I. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the pre-operative diagnosis of ultrasonically enlarged parathyroid glands. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 728–35.
Knezevic-Obad A, Tomic-Brzac H, Zarkovic K, Dodig D, Stromar IK. Diagnostic pitfalls in parathyroid gland cytology. Coll Antropol 2010; 34: 25–9.
Layfield LJ. Fine needle aspiration cytology of cystic parathyroid lesions. A cytomorphologic overlap with cystic lesions of the thyroid. Acta Cytol 1991; 35: 447–50.
Liu F, Gnepp DR, Pisharodi LR. Fine needle aspiration of parathyroid lesions. Acta Cytol 2004; 48: 133–6.
Lori AE, Long J, Peter W, et al. Parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma: differential expression of p27 protein. Am J Surg Pathol 1999; 23: 288–95.
Mincione GP, Borrelli D, Cicchi P, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid adenoma: A review of seven cases. Acta Cytol 1986; 30: 65–9.
Schachner SH, Hall A. Parathyroid adenoma and previous head-and-neck irradiation. Ann Intern Med 1978; 88: 804.
Tseleni-Balafouta S, Gakiopoulou H, Kavantzas N, et al. Parathyroid proliferations: a source of diagnostic pitfalls in FNA of thyroid. Cancer 2007; 111: 130–6.
Tseng FY, Hsiao YL, Chang TC. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid lesions. A review of 72 cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1029–36.

Parathyroid carcinoma

De la Garza S, Flores de la Garza E, Hernandez Batres F. Functional parathyroid carcinoma. Cytology, histology, and ultrastructure of a case. Diagn Cytopathol 1985; 1: 232–5.
Du SD, Chang TC, Chen YL, Hsiao YL, Kuo SH. Ultrasonography and needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis and management of parathyroid lesion. J Formos Med Assoc 1994; 93: 153–9.
Guazzi A, Gabrielli M, Guadagni G. Cytologic features of a functioning parathyroid carcinoma. A case report. Acta Cytol 1982; 26: 709–13.
Horwitz CA, Myers WP, Foote FW Jr. Secondary malignant tumors of the parathyroid glands. Report of two cases with associated hypoparathyroidism. Am J Med 1972; 52: 797–808.
Howell VM, Gill A, Clarkson A, et al. Accuracy of combined protein gene product 9.5 and parafibromin markers for immunohistochemical diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 434–41.
Ikeda K, Tate G, Suzuki T, Mitsuya T. Cytologic comparison of a primary parathyroid cancer and its metastatic lesions: A case report. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 50–5.
Lee HE, Kim DH, Cho YH, et al. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to parathyroid adenoma. Pathol Int 2011; 61: 593–7.
Osawa N, Onoda N, Kawajiri H, et al. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemical staining against hTERT. Int J Mol Med 2009; 24: 733–41.
Spinelli C, Bonadio AG, Berti P, Materazzi G, Miccoli P. Cutaneous spreading of parathyroid carcinoma after fine needle aspiration cytology. J Endocrinol Invest 2000; 23: 255–7.
Tan MH, Morrison C, Wang P, et al. Loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity is a distinguishing feature of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 2004; 10: 6629–37.
Tang W, Kakudo K, Nakamura Y, et al. Parathyroid gland involvement by papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2002; 126: 1511–14.
Tseng FY, Hsiao YL, Chang TC. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of parathyroid lesions. A review of 72 cases. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1029–36.
Wang CA, Gaz RD. Natural history of parathyroid carcinoma. Diagnosis, treatment, and results. Am J Surg 1985; 149: 522–7.

Miscellaneous head and neck lesions

Branchial cleft cyst
Bhanote M, Yang GC. Malignant first branchial cleft cysts presented as submandibular abscess in fine-needle aspiration: report of three cases and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36: 876–81.
Burgess KL, Hartwick RW, Bedard YC. Metastatic squamous carcinoma presenting as a neck cyst. Differential diagnosis from inflamed branchial cleft cyst in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1993; 37: 494–8.
Chandan VS, Faquin WC, Wilbur DC, Khurana KK. The utility of GLUT-1 immunolocalization in cell blocks: an adjunct to the fine needle aspiration diagnosis of cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck. Cancer Cytopathol 2006; 25: 124–8.
Daoud FS. Branchial cyst: an often forgotten diagnosis. Asian J Surg 2005; 28: 174–8.
Glosser JW, Pires CA, Feinberg SE. Branchial cleft or cervical lymphoepithelial cysts: etiology. J Am Dent Assoc 2003; 134: 81–6.
Kadhim AL, Sheahan P, Colreavy MP, Timon CV. Pearls and pitfalls in the management of branchial cyst. J Laryngol Otol 2004; 118: 946–50.
Khurana KK, Ramzy I, Truong LD. p53 immunolocalization in cell block preparations of squamous lesions of the neck: an adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123: 421–5.
Nasuti JF, Braccia MG, Roberts S, Baloch ZW. Utility of cytomorphologic criteria and p53 immunolocalization in distinguishing benign from malignant cystic squamous-lined lesions of the neck on fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 10–14.
Pai RK, Erickson J, Pourmand N, Kong CS. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in distinguishing branchial cleft cysts from cystic squamous cell carcinomas originating in the oropharynx. Cancer 2009; 117: 108–19.
Weiner MF, Miranda RN, Bardales RH, et al. Diagnostic value of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity to distinguish benign from malignant cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck in fine-needle aspiration biopsy material. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31: 294–9.
Thyroglossal duct cyst
Agarwal K, Puri V, Singh S. Critical appraisal of FNAC in the diagnosis of primary papillary carcinoma arising in thyroglossal cyst: a case report with review of the literature on FNAC and its diagnostic pitfalls. J Cytol 2010; 27: 22–5.
Dedivitis RA, Camargo DL, Peixoto GL, Weissman L, Guimaraes AV. Thyroglossal duct: a review of 55 cases. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194: 274–7.
Falvo L, Giacomelli L, Vanni B, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst: case reports and literature review. Int Surg 2006; 91: 141–6.
Ferrer C, Ferrandez A, Dualde D, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst: report of a new case and literature review. Otolaryngol 2000; 29: 311–14.
Shaffer MM, Oertel YC, Oertel JE. Thyroglossal duct cysts: diagnostic criteria by fine-needle aspiration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1996; 120: 1039–43.
Shahin A, Burroughs FH, Kirby JP, Ali SZ. Thyroglossal duct cyst: a cytopathologic study of 26 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33: 365–9.
Epidermoid inclusion cysts/dermoid cysts
Golden BA, Zide MF. Cutaneous cysts of the head and neck. J Orol Maxillofac Surg 2005; 63: 1613–19.
Ramzy I, Rone R, Schantz HD. Squamous cells in needle aspirates of subcutaneous lesions: a diagnostic problem. Am J Clin Pathol 1986; 85: 319–24.
Roy M, Bhattacharyya A, Sanyal S, Dasgupta S. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology. J Indian Med Assoc 1995; 93: 8–9.
Cystic metastases: cystic squamous cell carcinoma
Andrews PJ, Giddings CE, Su AP. Management of lateral cystic swellings of the neck, in the over 40s’ age group. J Laryngol Otol 2003; 117: 318–20.
Chandan VS, Faquin WC, Wilbur DC, Khurana KK. The utility of GLUT-1 immunolocalization in cell blocks: an adjunct to the fine needle aspiration diagnosis of cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck. Cancer 2006; 108: 124–8.
Chiu-Lung Chan R, Chan JY. Effect of previous radiotherapy on cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnostic accuracy. Laryngoscope 2012; 122: 1779–81.
Goldenberg D, Sciubba J, Koch WM. Cystic metastasis from head and neck squamous cell cancer: a distinct disease variant? Head Neck 2006; 28: 633–8.
Nasuti JF, Braccia MG, Roberts S, Baloch ZW. Utility of cytomorphologic criteria and p53 immunolocalization in distinguishing benign from malignant cystic squamous-lined lesions of the neck on fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 10–14.
Pai RK, Erickson J, Pourmand N, Kong CS. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in distinguishing branchial cleft cysts from cystic squamous cell carcinomas originating in the oropharynx. Cancer 2009; 117: 108–19.
Pisharodi LR. False-negative diagnosis in fine-needle aspirations of squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 17: 70–3.
Sheahan P, Fitzgibbon J, O’Leary G, Lee G. Efficacy and pitfalls of fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of neck masses. Surgeon 2004; 2: 152–6.
Thompson LD, Heffner DK. The clinical importance of cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the neck: a study of 136 cases. Cancer 1998; 82: 944–56.
Ustun M, Risberg B, Davidson B, Berner A. Cystic change in metastatic lymph nodes: a common diagnostic pitfall in fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 387–92.
Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis
Cignarelli M, Ambrosi A, Marino A, et al. Diagnostic utility of thyroglobulin detection in fine-needle aspiration of cervical cystic metastatic lymph nodes from papillary thyroid cancer with negative cytology. Thyroid 2003; 13: 1163–7.
Domingues R, Mendonca E, Sobrinho L, Bugalho MJ. Searching for RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF V599E mutation in thyroid aspirates might contribute to establish a pre-operative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cytopathology 2005; 16: 27–31.
Inagaki Y, Sakamoto K, Inoue Y, et al. Thyroglobulin concentration measurement in fine-needle aspiration fluid from cystic cervical lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2011; 114: 912–16.
Koo JS, Kwak JY, Jung W, Hong S. Importance of foamy macrophages only in fine needle aspirates to cytologic diagnostic accuracy of cystic metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Acta Cytol 2010; 54: 249–54.
LiVolsi V. Thyroid papillary carcinoma in lateral neck cyst: missed primary tumour or ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a branchial cyst? (Letter to the editor with authors’ reply.) Laryngol Otol 2001; 115: 614–15.
Mehmood RK, Basha SI, Ghareeb E. A case of papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cyst with neck node metastasis. Ear Nose Throat J 2006; 85: 675–6.
Sidhu S, Lioe TF, Clements B. Thyroid papillary carcinoma in lateral neck cyst: missed primary tumour or ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a branchial cyst? Laryngol Otol 2000; 114: 716–18.
Wang Z, Qiu S, Eltorky MA, Tang WW. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a primary papillary thyroid carcinoma in the lateral cervical lymph node. Exp Mol Pathol 2007; 82: 91–4.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Jayaram G, Swain M, Khanijow V, Jalaludin MA. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19: 168–72.
Koller SM, El Hag IA. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes: comparison with metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma, and Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 28: 18–22.
Thompson L. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ear Nose Throat J 2005; 84: 404–5.
Tsou MH, Wu ML, Chuang AY, Lin CY, Terng SD. Nasopharyngeal biopsy imprint cytology: a retrospective analysis of 191 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 204–7.
Viguer JM, Jimenez-Heffernan JA, Lopez-Ferrer P, Banaclocha M, Vicandi B. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 32: 233–7.
Merkel cell carcinoma
Allen PJ, Bowne WB, Jaques DP, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: prognosis and treatment of patients from a single institution. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 2300–9.
Brissett AE, Olsen KD, Kasperbauer JL, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a retrospective case series. Head Neck 2002; 24: 982–8.
Byrd-Gloster AL, Khoor A, Glass LF, et al. Differential expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 in small cell lung carcinoma and Merkel cell tumor. Hum Pathol 2000; 31: 58–62.
Collins BT, Elmberger PG, Tani EM, Bjornhagen V, Ramos R. Fine needle aspiration of Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin with cytomorphology and immunocytochemical correlation. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 18: 251–7.
Dey P, Jogai S, Amir T. Fine needle aspiration cytology of Merkel cell carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 31: 364–5.
Gottschalk-Sabag S, Ne’eman Z, Glick T. Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Am J Dermatopathol 1996; 18: 269–72.
Sucui V, Botan E, Valent A, et al. The potential contribution of fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis to the cytopathological diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. Cytopathology 2008; 19: 48–51.
Paraganglioma (carotid body tumor)
Das DK, Gupta AK, Chowdhury V, et al. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of carotid body tumor: report of a case and review of experience with cytologic features in four cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 17: 143–7.
Gonzalez-Campora R, Otal-Salaverri C, Panea-Flores P, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of paraganglionic tumors. Acta Cytol 1988; 32: 386–90.
Gujrathi CS, Donald PJ. Current trends in the diagnosis and management of head and neck paragangliomas. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 13: 339–42.
Hood IC, Qizilbash AH, Young JE, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of paragangliomas. Cytologic, light microscopic and ultrastructural studies of three cases. Acta Cytol 1983; 27: 651–7.
Masilamani S, Duvuru P, Sundaram S. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of a case of carotid body tumour. Signapore Med J 2012; 53: e35–7.
Monabati A, Hodjati H, Kumar PV. Cytologic findings in carotid body tumors. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1101–4.
Fibromatosis
Dalen BPM, Meis-Kindblom JMM, Sumathi VP, Ryd W, Kindblom LG. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in the preoperative diagnosis of desmoid tumors. Acta Orthop 2006; 77: 926–31.
Dey P, Mallik MK, Gupta SK, Vasishta RK. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions. Cytopathology 2004; 15: 32–7.
Masson J, Soule E. Desmoid tumors of the head and neck. Am J Surg 1966; 112: 615–22.
Owens CL, Sharma R, Ali SZ. Deep fibromatosis (desmoid tumor): cytopathologic characteristics, clinicoradiologic features, and immunohistochemical findings on fine-needle aspiration. Cancer 2007; 111: 166–72.
Raab SS, Silverman JF, McLeod DL, Benning TL, Geisinger KR. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of fibromatoses. Acta Cytol 1993; 37: 323–8.
Skoog L, Pereira ST, Tani E. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunohistochemistry of soft-tissue tumors and osteo/chondrosarcomas of the head and neck. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20: 131–6.
Tanwar P, Gupta N, Vasishta RK, Singh G. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis. J Cytol 2012; 29: 66–8.
Pilomatrixoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe)
Agrawal L, Kaur P, Singh J, Singh N. Pilomarixoma misdiagnosed as round cell tumor on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Indian J Cancer 2010; 47: 483–5.
El Hag IA, Kollur SM. Fine needle aspiration cytology of pilomatrixoma of the neck region: differentiation from metastatic undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Acta Cytol 2003: 47: 526–7.
Ieni A, Todaro P, Bonanno AM, et al. Limits of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing pilomatrixoma: a series of 25 cases with clinic-pathologic correlations. Indian J Dermatol 2012; 57: 152–5.
Lemos MM, Kindblom LG, Meis-Kindblom JM, Ryd W, Willen H. Fine needle aspiration features of pilomatrixoma. Cancer 2001; 93: 252–6.
Wang J, Cobb CJ, Martin SE, et al. Pilomatrixoma: clinicopathologic study of 51 cases with emphasis on cytologic features. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 167–72.
Nodular fasciitis
Azua J, Arraiza A, Delgado B, Romeo C. Nodular fasciitis initially diagnosed by aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 1985; 29: 562–5.
Dodd LG, Martinez S. Fine needle aspiration cytology of pseudosarcomatous lesions of soft tissue. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24: 28–35.
Kong CS, Cha I. Nodular fasciitis. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 2004; 48: 473–7.
Saad RS, Talei H, Lipscomb J, Ruiz B. Nodular fasciitis of parotid region: a pitfall in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas on fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33: 191–4.
Silvanto AM, Melly L, Hannan SA, Kocjan G. FNAC of nodular fasciitis mimicking a pleomorphic adenoma: another diagnostic pitfall. Cytopathology 2010; 21: 276–7.
Wong NL, Di F. Pseudosarcomatous fasciitis and myositis: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132: 857–65.
Schwannoma
Domanski HA, Akerman M, Engellau J, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of neurilemoma (schwannoma). A clinicocytopathologic study of 116 patients. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 403–12.
Klijanienko J, Caillaud JM, Lagace R. Cytohistologic correlations in schwannomas (neurilemomas), including “ancient,” cellular, and epithelioid variants. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 517–22.
Satarkar RN, Kolte SS, Vuihini SK. Cystic schwannoma in neck: fallacious diagnosis arrived on fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2011; 39: 866–7.
Yu GH, Sack MJ, Baloch Z, Gupta PK. Difficulties in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of schwannoma. Cytopathology 1999; 10: 186–94.
Lipoma
Ahuja AT, King AD, Kew J, King W, Metreweli C. Head and neck lipomas: sonographic appearance. Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19: 505–8.
Butler SL, Oertel YC. Lipomas of the neck simulating thyroid nodules: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1992; 8: 528–31.
Chen X, Yu K, Tong GX, et al. Fine needle aspiration of pleomorphic lipoma of the neck: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2010; 38: 184–7.
El Monem MHA, Gaafar AH, Magdy EA. Lipomas of the head and neck: presentation variablility and diagnostic work-up. J Laryngol Otol 2006; 120: 47–55.

Branchial cleft cyst

Bhanote M, Yang GC. Malignant first branchial cleft cysts presented as submandibular abscess in fine-needle aspiration: report of three cases and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol 2008; 36: 876–81.
Burgess KL, Hartwick RW, Bedard YC. Metastatic squamous carcinoma presenting as a neck cyst. Differential diagnosis from inflamed branchial cleft cyst in fine needle aspirates. Acta Cytol 1993; 37: 494–8.
Chandan VS, Faquin WC, Wilbur DC, Khurana KK. The utility of GLUT-1 immunolocalization in cell blocks: an adjunct to the fine needle aspiration diagnosis of cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck. Cancer Cytopathol 2006; 25: 124–8.
Daoud FS. Branchial cyst: an often forgotten diagnosis. Asian J Surg 2005; 28: 174–8.
Glosser JW, Pires CA, Feinberg SE. Branchial cleft or cervical lymphoepithelial cysts: etiology. J Am Dent Assoc 2003; 134: 81–6.
Kadhim AL, Sheahan P, Colreavy MP, Timon CV. Pearls and pitfalls in the management of branchial cyst. J Laryngol Otol 2004; 118: 946–50.
Khurana KK, Ramzy I, Truong LD. p53 immunolocalization in cell block preparations of squamous lesions of the neck: an adjunct to fine-needle aspiration diagnosis of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1999; 123: 421–5.
Nasuti JF, Braccia MG, Roberts S, Baloch ZW. Utility of cytomorphologic criteria and p53 immunolocalization in distinguishing benign from malignant cystic squamous-lined lesions of the neck on fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 10–14.
Pai RK, Erickson J, Pourmand N, Kong CS. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in distinguishing branchial cleft cysts from cystic squamous cell carcinomas originating in the oropharynx. Cancer 2009; 117: 108–19.
Weiner MF, Miranda RN, Bardales RH, et al. Diagnostic value of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity to distinguish benign from malignant cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck in fine-needle aspiration biopsy material. Diagn Cytopathol 2004; 31: 294–9.

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Agarwal K, Puri V, Singh S. Critical appraisal of FNAC in the diagnosis of primary papillary carcinoma arising in thyroglossal cyst: a case report with review of the literature on FNAC and its diagnostic pitfalls. J Cytol 2010; 27: 22–5.
Dedivitis RA, Camargo DL, Peixoto GL, Weissman L, Guimaraes AV. Thyroglossal duct: a review of 55 cases. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194: 274–7.
Falvo L, Giacomelli L, Vanni B, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst: case reports and literature review. Int Surg 2006; 91: 141–6.
Ferrer C, Ferrandez A, Dualde D, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroglossal duct cyst: report of a new case and literature review. Otolaryngol 2000; 29: 311–14.
Shaffer MM, Oertel YC, Oertel JE. Thyroglossal duct cysts: diagnostic criteria by fine-needle aspiration. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1996; 120: 1039–43.
Shahin A, Burroughs FH, Kirby JP, Ali SZ. Thyroglossal duct cyst: a cytopathologic study of 26 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33: 365–9.

Epidermoid inclusion cysts/dermoid cysts

Golden BA, Zide MF. Cutaneous cysts of the head and neck. J Orol Maxillofac Surg 2005; 63: 1613–19.
Ramzy I, Rone R, Schantz HD. Squamous cells in needle aspirates of subcutaneous lesions: a diagnostic problem. Am J Clin Pathol 1986; 85: 319–24.
Roy M, Bhattacharyya A, Sanyal S, Dasgupta S. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology. J Indian Med Assoc 1995; 93: 8–9.

Cystic metastases: cystic squamous cell carcinoma

Andrews PJ, Giddings CE, Su AP. Management of lateral cystic swellings of the neck, in the over 40s’ age group. J Laryngol Otol 2003; 117: 318–20.
Chandan VS, Faquin WC, Wilbur DC, Khurana KK. The utility of GLUT-1 immunolocalization in cell blocks: an adjunct to the fine needle aspiration diagnosis of cystic squamous lesions of the head and neck. Cancer 2006; 108: 124–8.
Chiu-Lung Chan R, Chan JY. Effect of previous radiotherapy on cervical lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnostic accuracy. Laryngoscope 2012; 122: 1779–81.
Goldenberg D, Sciubba J, Koch WM. Cystic metastasis from head and neck squamous cell cancer: a distinct disease variant? Head Neck 2006; 28: 633–8.
Nasuti JF, Braccia MG, Roberts S, Baloch ZW. Utility of cytomorphologic criteria and p53 immunolocalization in distinguishing benign from malignant cystic squamous-lined lesions of the neck on fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 10–14.
Pai RK, Erickson J, Pourmand N, Kong CS. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemical staining may be helpful in distinguishing branchial cleft cysts from cystic squamous cell carcinomas originating in the oropharynx. Cancer 2009; 117: 108–19.
Pisharodi LR. False-negative diagnosis in fine-needle aspirations of squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 17: 70–3.
Sheahan P, Fitzgibbon J, O’Leary G, Lee G. Efficacy and pitfalls of fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of neck masses. Surgeon 2004; 2: 152–6.
Thompson LD, Heffner DK. The clinical importance of cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the neck: a study of 136 cases. Cancer 1998; 82: 944–56.
Ustun M, Risberg B, Davidson B, Berner A. Cystic change in metastatic lymph nodes: a common diagnostic pitfall in fine-needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 387–92.

Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis

Cignarelli M, Ambrosi A, Marino A, et al. Diagnostic utility of thyroglobulin detection in fine-needle aspiration of cervical cystic metastatic lymph nodes from papillary thyroid cancer with negative cytology. Thyroid 2003; 13: 1163–7.
Domingues R, Mendonca E, Sobrinho L, Bugalho MJ. Searching for RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF V599E mutation in thyroid aspirates might contribute to establish a pre-operative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Cytopathology 2005; 16: 27–31.
Inagaki Y, Sakamoto K, Inoue Y, et al. Thyroglobulin concentration measurement in fine-needle aspiration fluid from cystic cervical lymph node metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2011; 114: 912–16.
Koo JS, Kwak JY, Jung W, Hong S. Importance of foamy macrophages only in fine needle aspirates to cytologic diagnostic accuracy of cystic metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Acta Cytol 2010; 54: 249–54.
LiVolsi V. Thyroid papillary carcinoma in lateral neck cyst: missed primary tumour or ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a branchial cyst? (Letter to the editor with authors’ reply.) Laryngol Otol 2001; 115: 614–15.
Mehmood RK, Basha SI, Ghareeb E. A case of papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cyst with neck node metastasis. Ear Nose Throat J 2006; 85: 675–6.
Sidhu S, Lioe TF, Clements B. Thyroid papillary carcinoma in lateral neck cyst: missed primary tumour or ectopic thyroid carcinoma within a branchial cyst? Laryngol Otol 2000; 114: 716–18.
Wang Z, Qiu S, Eltorky MA, Tang WW. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a primary papillary thyroid carcinoma in the lateral cervical lymph node. Exp Mol Pathol 2007; 82: 91–4.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Jayaram G, Swain M, Khanijow V, Jalaludin MA. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 19: 168–72.
Koller SM, El Hag IA. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes: comparison with metastatic squamous-cell carcinoma, and Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2003; 28: 18–22.
Thompson L. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ear Nose Throat J 2005; 84: 404–5.
Tsou MH, Wu ML, Chuang AY, Lin CY, Terng SD. Nasopharyngeal biopsy imprint cytology: a retrospective analysis of 191 cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 204–7.
Viguer JM, Jimenez-Heffernan JA, Lopez-Ferrer P, Banaclocha M, Vicandi B. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 32: 233–7.

Merkel cell carcinoma

Allen PJ, Bowne WB, Jaques DP, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma: prognosis and treatment of patients from a single institution. J Clin Oncol 2005; 23: 2300–9.
Brissett AE, Olsen KD, Kasperbauer JL, et al. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a retrospective case series. Head Neck 2002; 24: 982–8.
Byrd-Gloster AL, Khoor A, Glass LF, et al. Differential expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 in small cell lung carcinoma and Merkel cell tumor. Hum Pathol 2000; 31: 58–62.
Collins BT, Elmberger PG, Tani EM, Bjornhagen V, Ramos R. Fine needle aspiration of Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin with cytomorphology and immunocytochemical correlation. Diagn Cytopathol 1998; 18: 251–7.
Dey P, Jogai S, Amir T. Fine needle aspiration cytology of Merkel cell carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 31: 364–5.
Gottschalk-Sabag S, Ne’eman Z, Glick T. Merkel cell carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Am J Dermatopathol 1996; 18: 269–72.
Sucui V, Botan E, Valent A, et al. The potential contribution of fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis to the cytopathological diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. Cytopathology 2008; 19: 48–51.

Paraganglioma (carotid body tumor)

Das DK, Gupta AK, Chowdhury V, et al. Fine needle aspiration diagnosis of carotid body tumor: report of a case and review of experience with cytologic features in four cases. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 17: 143–7.
Gonzalez-Campora R, Otal-Salaverri C, Panea-Flores P, et al. Fine needle aspiration cytology of paraganglionic tumors. Acta Cytol 1988; 32: 386–90.
Gujrathi CS, Donald PJ. Current trends in the diagnosis and management of head and neck paragangliomas. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 13: 339–42.
Hood IC, Qizilbash AH, Young JE, et al. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of paragangliomas. Cytologic, light microscopic and ultrastructural studies of three cases. Acta Cytol 1983; 27: 651–7.
Masilamani S, Duvuru P, Sundaram S. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of a case of carotid body tumour. Signapore Med J 2012; 53: e35–7.
Monabati A, Hodjati H, Kumar PV. Cytologic findings in carotid body tumors. Acta Cytol 2002; 46: 1101–4.

Fibromatosis

Dalen BPM, Meis-Kindblom JMM, Sumathi VP, Ryd W, Kindblom LG. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and core needle biopsy in the preoperative diagnosis of desmoid tumors. Acta Orthop 2006; 77: 926–31.
Dey P, Mallik MK, Gupta SK, Vasishta RK. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumours and tumour-like lesions. Cytopathology 2004; 15: 32–7.
Masson J, Soule E. Desmoid tumors of the head and neck. Am J Surg 1966; 112: 615–22.
Owens CL, Sharma R, Ali SZ. Deep fibromatosis (desmoid tumor): cytopathologic characteristics, clinicoradiologic features, and immunohistochemical findings on fine-needle aspiration. Cancer 2007; 111: 166–72.
Raab SS, Silverman JF, McLeod DL, Benning TL, Geisinger KR. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of fibromatoses. Acta Cytol 1993; 37: 323–8.
Skoog L, Pereira ST, Tani E. Fine-needle aspiration cytology and immunohistochemistry of soft-tissue tumors and osteo/chondrosarcomas of the head and neck. Diagn Cytopathol 1999; 20: 131–6.
Tanwar P, Gupta N, Vasishta RK, Singh G. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis. J Cytol 2012; 29: 66–8.

Pilomatrixoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe)

Agrawal L, Kaur P, Singh J, Singh N. Pilomarixoma misdiagnosed as round cell tumor on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Indian J Cancer 2010; 47: 483–5.
El Hag IA, Kollur SM. Fine needle aspiration cytology of pilomatrixoma of the neck region: differentiation from metastatic undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Acta Cytol 2003: 47: 526–7.
Ieni A, Todaro P, Bonanno AM, et al. Limits of fine-needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing pilomatrixoma: a series of 25 cases with clinic-pathologic correlations. Indian J Dermatol 2012; 57: 152–5.
Lemos MM, Kindblom LG, Meis-Kindblom JM, Ryd W, Willen H. Fine needle aspiration features of pilomatrixoma. Cancer 2001; 93: 252–6.
Wang J, Cobb CJ, Martin SE, et al. Pilomatrixoma: clinicopathologic study of 51 cases with emphasis on cytologic features. Diagn Cytopathol 2002; 27: 167–72.

Nodular fasciitis

Azua J, Arraiza A, Delgado B, Romeo C. Nodular fasciitis initially diagnosed by aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol 1985; 29: 562–5.
Dodd LG, Martinez S. Fine needle aspiration cytology of pseudosarcomatous lesions of soft tissue. Diagn Cytopathol 2001; 24: 28–35.
Kong CS, Cha I. Nodular fasciitis. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Acta Cytol 2004; 48: 473–7.
Saad RS, Talei H, Lipscomb J, Ruiz B. Nodular fasciitis of parotid region: a pitfall in the diagnosis of pleomorphic adenomas on fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2005; 33: 191–4.
Silvanto AM, Melly L, Hannan SA, Kocjan G. FNAC of nodular fasciitis mimicking a pleomorphic adenoma: another diagnostic pitfall. Cytopathology 2010; 21: 276–7.
Wong NL, Di F. Pseudosarcomatous fasciitis and myositis: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Am J Clin Pathol 2009; 132: 857–65.

Schwannoma

Domanski HA, Akerman M, Engellau J, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of neurilemoma (schwannoma). A clinicocytopathologic study of 116 patients. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 403–12.
Klijanienko J, Caillaud JM, Lagace R. Cytohistologic correlations in schwannomas (neurilemomas), including “ancient,” cellular, and epithelioid variants. Diagn Cytopathol 2006; 34: 517–22.
Satarkar RN, Kolte SS, Vuihini SK. Cystic schwannoma in neck: fallacious diagnosis arrived on fine needle aspiration cytology. Diagn Cytopathol 2011; 39: 866–7.
Yu GH, Sack MJ, Baloch Z, Gupta PK. Difficulties in the fine needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of schwannoma. Cytopathology 1999; 10: 186–94.

Lipoma

Ahuja AT, King AD, Kew J, King W, Metreweli C. Head and neck lipomas: sonographic appearance. Am J Neuroradiol 1998; 19: 505–8.
Butler SL, Oertel YC. Lipomas of the neck simulating thyroid nodules: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol 1992; 8: 528–31.
Chen X, Yu K, Tong GX, et al. Fine needle aspiration of pleomorphic lipoma of the neck: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol 2010; 38: 184–7.
El Monem MHA, Gaafar AH, Magdy EA. Lipomas of the head and neck: presentation variablility and diagnostic work-up. J Laryngol Otol 2006; 120: 47–55.