Recent studies of subaerial volcano carbon flux have challenged previous assumptions about carbon recycling in the mantle and the ratio of ingassing to outgassing. This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge of the flux of carbon from subaerial volcanoes at subduction zones and intraplate locations, as well as through diffuse degassing away from volcanic vents. It also reviews the importance of crustal carbonate assimilation and carbonate platforms on these fluxes. The chapter presents an overview of how these fluxes are estimated – including descriptions of new technologies and recent field campaigns – and the timescales of flux measurements. It also summarizes what is currently known about the flux of carbon versus other volatile elements in these various settings. Supplemental online material is available for this chapter at www.cambridge.org/9781108477499#resources.