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  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: October 2015

Chapter 26 - Rib fractures: a review of truncal blocks

from Section 4 - Orthopedic trauma
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3.Lotfipour, S., Kaku, S. K., Vaca, F. E., et al. Factors associated with complications in older adults with isolated blunt chest trauma. West J Emerg Med 2009; 10: 7984.
4.Kerr-Valentic, M. A., Arthur, M., Mullins, R. J., et al. Rib fracture pain and disability: can we do better? J Trauma 2003; 54: 10581064.
5.Jacobs, D. G., Plaisier, B. R., Barie, P. S., et al. Practice management guidelines for geriatric trauma: the EAST Practice Management Guidelines Work Group. J Trauma 2003; 54: 391416.
6.Carrier, F. M., Turgeon, A. F., Nicole, P. C., et al. Effect of epidural analgesia in patients with traumatic rib fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Can J Anaesth 2009; 56: 230242.
7.Rosenquist, R. W. and Birnbach, D. J.. Epidural insertion in anesthetized adults: will your patients thank you? Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 15451546.
8.Vila, H., Liu, J., and Kavasmaneck, D.. Paravertebral block: new benefits from an old procedure. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2007; 20: 316318.
9.Karmakar, M. K. and Ho, A. M.. Acute pain management of patients with multiple fractured ribs. J Trauma 2003; 54: 615625.
10.Riain, S. C. O., Donnell, B. O., Cuffe, T., et al. Thoracic paravertebral block using real-time ultrasound guidance. Anesth Analg 2010; 110:248251.
11.Klein, S. M., Nielsen, K. C., Ahmed, N., et al. In situ images of the thoracic paravertebral space. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 596599.
12.Karmakar, M. K.. Thoracic paravertebral block. Anesthesiology 2001; 95: 771780.
13.Mohta, M., Verma, P., Saxena, A. K., et al. Prospective, randomized comparison of continuous thoracic epidural and thoracic paravertebral infusion in patients with unilateral multiple fractured ribs— a pilot study. J Trauma 2009; 66: 10961101.
14.Richardson, J., Lönnqvist, P. A., and Naja, Z.. Bilateral thoracic paravertebral block: potential and practice. Br J Anaesth 2011; 106: 164171.
15.Wardhan, R.. Assessment and management of rib fracture pain in geriatric population: an ode to old age. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2013; 26: 626631.
16.Bjoro, K. and Herr, K.. Assessment of pain in the nonverbal or cognitively impaired older adult. Clin Geriatr Med 2008; 24: 237262.
17.Bakhos, C., O’Connor, J., Kyriakides, T., et al. Vital capacity as a predictor of outcome in elderly patients with rib fractures. J Trauma 2006; 61: 131134.
18.Pierson, D. J.. Foundations of Respiratory Care. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1992.
19.Todd, S. R., McNally, M. M., Holcomb, J. B., et al. A multidisciplinary clinical pathway decreases rib fracture-associated infectious morbidity and mortality in high-risk trauma patients. Am J Surg 2006; 192: 806811.
20.Pintaric, T. S., Potocnik, I., Hadzic, A., et al. Comparison of continuous thoracic epidural with paravertebral block on perioperative analgesia and hemodynamic stability in patients having open lung surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2011; 36: 256260.
21.McElwain, J., Freir, N. M., Burlacu, C. L., et al. The feasibility of patient-controlled paravertebral analgesia for major breast cancer surgery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of two regimens. Anesth Analg 2008; 107: 665668.