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  • Print publication year: 2019
  • Online publication date: October 2019



In broad strokes, Indian Country1 has experienced three waves of growth in jobs and incomes since the late 1960s. The first arose when the U.S. government shifted the agenda for its Indian policy from termination and relocation (ceasing to recognize tribal governments and strongly encouraging/compelling American Indians to move away from reservations) toward support of the poor. This shift placed Indian policy under the umbrella set of policies that constituted the War on Poverty and made reservation-based tribal communities a target population for Great Society programs. In aiding the poor, many of these programs also embraced the idea of community empowerment, in which impoverished communities had the opportunity to participate in program planning, direction, and administration.

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