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  • Print publication year: 2011
  • Online publication date: December 2011

Section 2 - Monitoring and imaging

Further reading

Asgeirsson, B., Grande, P. O. and Nordstrom, C. H. (1994). A new therapy of post-trauma brain oedema based on haemodynamic principles for brain volume regulation. Intensive Care Med 20, 260–7.
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Bratton, S. L., Chestnut, R. M., Ghajar, J. et al. (2007). Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VI. Indications for intracranial pressure monitoring. J Neurotrauma 24 (Suppl. 1), S37–44.
Bratton, S. L., Chestnut, R. M., Ghajar, J. et al. (2007). Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. VII. Intracranial pressure monitoring technology. J Neurotrauma 24 (Suppl. 1), S45–54.
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Rosner, M. J., Rosner, S. D. and Johnson, A. H. (1995). Cerebral perfusion pressure: management protocol and clinical results. J Neurosurg 83, 949–62.
Schmidt, B., Czosnyka, M., Raabe, A. et al. (2003). Adaptive noninvasive assessment of intracranial pressure and cerebral autoregulation. Stroke 34, 84–9.
Steiner, L. A., Czosnyka, M., Piechnik, S. K. et al. (2002). Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 30, 733–8.
Whitfield, P. C., Patel, H., Hutchinson, P. J. et al. (2001). Bifrontal decompressive craniectomy in the management of posttraumatic intracranial hypertension. Br J Neurosurg 15, 500–7.
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Zhong, J., Dujovny, M., Park, H. K. et al. (2003). Advances in ICP monitoring techniques. Neurol Res 25, 339–50.

Further reading

Aaslid, R. (1986) The Doppler principle applied to measurement of blood flow velocities in cerebral arteries. In Aaslid, R. (ed.) The Doppler Principle Applied to Measurement of Blood flow Velocities in Cerebral Arteries. Vienna: Springer, pp. 22–38.
Aaslid, R., Markwalder, T. M. and Nornes, H. (1982). Noninvasive transcranial Doppler ultrasound recording of flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries. J Neurosurg 57, 769–74.
Anderson, R. E. (1996). Cerebral blood flow Xenon-133. Neurosurg Clin N Am 7, 703–8.
Azevedo, E., Teixeira, J., Neves, J. C. and Vaz, R. (2000). Transcranial Doppler and brain death. Transplant Proc 32, 2579–81.
Bonner, R. and Nossal, R. (1981). Model for laser Doppler measurements of blood flow in tissue. Appl Opt 20, 2097–107.
Cruz, J. (1993). Combined continuous monitoring of systemic and cerebral oxygenation in acute brain injury: preliminary observations. Crit Care Med 21, 1225–32.
Donley, R. F., Sundt, T. M. Jr, Anderson, R. E. and Sharbrough, F. W. (1975). Blood flow measurements and the ‘look-through’ artifact in focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 6, 121–31.
Gibbs, E. L. and Gibbs, F. A. (1934). The cross section areas of the vessels that form the torcular and the manner in which blood is distributed to the right and the left lateral sinus. Anat Rec 54, 419–26.
Gosling, R. G. and King, D. H. (1974). Arterial assessment by Doppler-shift ultrasound. Proc R Soc Med 67, 447–9.
Graham, D. I. and Adams, J. H. (1971). Ischaemic brain damage in fatal head injuries. Lancet 1, 265–6.
Gunn, H., Matta, B. F., Lam, A. M. and Mayberg, T. S. (1995). Accuracy of continuous jugular bulb venous oximetry during intracranial surgery. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 7, 174–7.
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Kirkpatrick, P. J., Czosynka, M., Smielewski, P. and Pickard, J. D. (1994). Continuous monitoring of cortical perfusion using laser Doppler flowmetry in ventilated head injured patients. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57, 1382–8.
Lam, J. M. and Smielewski, P. (2000). Predicting delayed ischemic deficits after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage using a transient hyperemic response test of cerebral autoregulation. Neurosurgery 47, 819–25.
Lindegaard, K. F., Nornes, H., Bakke, S. J., Sorteberg, W. and Nakstad, P. (1988). Cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage investigated by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasound. Acta Neurochir 42 (Supplement), 81–4.
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Matta, B. F. and Lam, A. M. (1995). Isoflurane and desflurane do not dilate the middle cerebral artery appreciably. Br J Anaesth 74, P486–7.
Matta, B. F. and Lam, A. M. (1996). The speed of blood withdrawal affects the accuracy of jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation measurements. Anesthesiology 86, 806–8.
Matta, B. F., Mayberg, T. S. and Lam, A. M. (1995). The effect of halothane, isoflurane, and desflurane on cerebral blood flow velocity during propofol-induced isoelectric electroencephalogram. Anesthesiology 83, 980–5.
Mayberg, T. and Lam, A. (1996). Jugular bulb oximetry for the monitoring of cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Neurosur Clin N Am 7, 755–65.
Melot, C., Berre, J., Moraine, J. J. and Kahn, R. J. (1996). Estimation of cerebral blood flow at bedside by continuous jugular thermodilution. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 16, 1263–70.
Meyerson, A., Halloran, R. D. and Hirsh, H. L. (1927). Technique for obtaining blood from the internal jugular vein and carotid artery. Arch Neurol Psychiat 17, 807–9.
Obrist, W. D. and Wilkinson, W. E. (1990). Regional cerebral blood flow measurements in humans by Xenon-133. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev 2, 283–327.
Obrist, W. D., Thompson, H. K., King, C. H. and Wang, H. S. (1967). Determination of regional cerebral blood flow by inhalation of Xenon-133. Circ Res 20, 124–35.
Paulson, O. B., Cronqvist, S., Risberg, J. and Jeppesen, F. I. (1968). Regional cerebral blood flow: comparison of 8-detector and 16-detector instrumentation. J Nucl Med 10, 164–73.
Richards, H. K., Czosnyka, M., Kirkpatrick, P. and Pickard, J. D. (1995). Estimation of laser Doppler flux biological zero using basilar artery flow velocity in the rabbit. Am J Physiol 268, 213–17.
Rothoerl, R. D., Woertgen, C. and Brawanski, A. (2004). Hyperemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: incidence, diagnosis, clinical features, and outcome. Intensive Care Med 30, 1298–302.
Shepherd, A. P. and Oberg, P. A. (eds) (1990). Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Soukup, J., Bramsiepe, I., Brucke, M., Sanchin, L. and Menzel, M. (2008). Evaluation of a bedside monitor of regional CBF as a measure of CO2 reactivity in neurosurgical intensive care patients. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 20, 249–55.
Stocchetti, N., Paparella, A., Bridelli, F. et al. (1994). Cerebral venous oxygenation studied with bilateral samples in the internal jugular veins. Neurosurgery 34, 38–44.
Taudorf, S., Berg, R. M. G, Bailey, D. M. and Moller, K. (2009). Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism measured with Kety–Schmidt method using nitrous oxide. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53, 159–67.
Vajkoczy, P. and Schomacher, M. (2007). Monitoring cerebral blood flow in Neurosurgical Intensive Care. U S Neurolog Dis 1–4.
Vajkoczy, P., Roth, H., Lucke, T. et al. (2000). Continuous monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow – experimental and clinical validation of a novel thermal diffusion microprobe. J Neurosurg 93, 265–74.
Vajkoczy, P., Horn, P., Thome, C., Munch, E. and Schmiedek, P. (2003). Regional cerebral blood flow monitoring in the diagnosis of delayed ischaemia following aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 98, 1227–34.
Waltz, A. G., Wanek, A. R. and Anderson, R. E. (1972). Comparison of analytic methods for calculation of cerebral blood flow after intracarotid injection of Xenon-133. J Nucl Med 13, 66–72.

Further reading

Al-Rawi, P. G. and Kirkpatrick, P. J. (2006). Tissue oxygenation thresholds for cerebral ischemia using near-infrared spectroscopy. Stroke 37, 2720–5.
Al-Rawi, P. G., Smielewski, P. and Kirkpatrick, P. J. (2001). Evaluation of a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRO300) for the detection of intracranial oxygenation changes in the adult head. Stroke 32, 2492–500.
Andrews, P. J. D., Dearden, N. M. and Miller, J. D. (1991). Jugular bulb cannulation: description of a cannulation technique and a validation of a new continuous monitor. Brit J Anaesth 67, 553–8.
Bankier, A. A., Fleischmann, D., Windisch, A. et al. (1995). Position of jugular oxygen saturation catheter in patients with head trauma: assessment by use of plain films. Am J Roentgenol 164, 437–41.
Buunk, G., van der Hoeven, J. G. and Meinders, A. E. (1999). Prognostic significance of the difference between mixed venous and jugular bulb oxygen saturation in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 41, 257–62.
Charbel, F. T., Du, X., Hoffman, W. E. and Ausman, J. I. (2000). Brain tissue PO2, PCO2 and pH during cerebral vasospasm. J Neurosurg 97, 1302–5.
Chieregato, A., Calzolari, F., Trasforini, G., Targa, L. and Latronico, N. (2003). Normal jugular bulb oxygenation saturation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 74, 784–6.
Coles, J. P., Minhas, P. S., Fryer, T. D. et al. (2002). Effect of hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow in traumatic head injury: clinical relevance and monitoring correlates. Crit Care Med 30, 1950–9.
Coles, J. P., Fryer, T. D., Smielewski, P. et al. (2004). Incidence and mechanisms of cerebral ischemia in early clinical head injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 24, 233–8.
Coplin, W. M., O’ Keefe, G. E., Grady, M. S. et al. (1997). Thrombotic, infectious, and procedural complications of the jugular bulb catheter in the intensive care unit. Neurosurgery 41, 101–7.
Croughwell, N. D., White, W. D., Smith, L. R. et al. (1995). Jugular bulb saturation and mixed venous saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass. J Card Surg 10 (Supplement), 503–8.
De Deyne, C., Vandekerckhove, T., Decruyenaere, J. and Colardyn, F. (1996). Analysis of abnormal jugular bulb oxygen saturation data in patients with severe head injury. Acta Neurochi 138, 1409–15.
Delpy, D. T. and Cope, M. (1997). Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 352, 649–59.
Díaz-Regañón, G., Miñambres, E., Holanda, M. et al. (2002). Usefulness of venous oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb for the diagnosis of brain death: report of 118 patients. Intensive Care Med 28, 1724–8.
Duncan, A., Meek, J. H., Clemence, M. et al. (1995). Optical pathlength measurement on adult head, calf, forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy. Phys Med Biol 40, 295–304.
Dunham, C. M., Sosnowski, C., Porter, J. M., Siegal, J. and Kohli, C. (2002). Correlation of noninvasive cerebral oximetry with cerebral perfusion in the severe head injured patient: a pilot study. J Trauma 52, 40–6.
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Fortune, J. B., Feustel, P. J., Weigle, C. G. and Popp, A. J. (1994). Continuous measurement of jugular venous oxygen saturation in response to transient elevations of blood pressure in head-injured patients. J Neurosurg 80, 461–8.
Gagnon, R. E., Macnab, A. J., Gagnon, F. A., Blackstock, D. and LeBlanc, J. G. (2002). Comparison of two spatially resolved NIRS oxygenation indices. J Clin Monit Comput 17, 385–91.
Germon, T. J., Kane, N. M., Manara, A. R. and Nelson, R. J. (1994). Near-infrared spectroscopy in adults: effects of extracranial ischaemia and intracranial hypoxia on estimation of cerebral oxygenation. Br J Anaesth 73, 503–6.
Gibbs, E. L., Lennox, W. G., Nims, L. F. and Gibbs, F. A. (1942). Arterial and cerebral blood. Arterial–venous differences in man. J Biol Chem, 144, 325–32.
Goetting, M. G. and Preston, G. (1991). Jugular bulb catheterization does not increase intracranial pressure. Intensive Care Med 17, 195–8.
Gupta, A. K., Menon, D. K., Czosnyka, M. et al. (1997). Non-invasive measurement of cerebral blood volume in volunteers. Br J Anaesth 78, 39–43.
Gupta, A. K., Hutchinson, P. J., Al-Rawi, P. et al. (1999). Measurement of brain tissue oxygenation compared with jugular venous oxygen saturation for monitoring cerebral oxygenation after traumatic brain injury. Anesth Analg 88, 549–53.
Gupta, A. K., Hutchinson, P. J., Fryer, T. et al. (2002). Measurement of brain tissue oxygenation performed using positron emission tomography to validate a novel monitoring method. J Neurosurg 96, 263–8.
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Kett-White, R., Hutchinson, P. J., Al-Rawi, P. G. et al. (2002). Adverse cerebral events detected after sub-arachnoid hemorrhage using brain oxygen and microdialysis probes. Neurosurgery 50, 1213–21.
Kirkpatrick, P. J., Smielewski, P., Whitfield, P. et al. (1995). An observational study of near infrared spectroscopy during carotid endarterectomy. J Neurosurg 82, 756–63.
Kirkpatrick, P. J., Smielewski, P., Czosnyka, M., Menon, D. K. and Pickard, J. D. (1995). Near-infrared spectroscopy use in patients with head injury. J Neurosurg 83, 963–70.
Lang, E. W. and Chesnut, R. M. (1999). A lesson learned from jugular venous oximetry. J Clin Neurosci 6, 70–3.
Macmillan, C. S. A., Andrews, P. J. D. and Easton, V. J. (2001). Increased jugular bulb saturation is associated with poor outcome in traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 70, 101–4.
Matcher, S. J., Kirkpatrick, P., Nahid, K., Cope, M. and Delpy, D. T. (1995). Absolute quantification methods in tissue near infrared spectroscopy. Proc SPIE 2389, 486–95.
Matta, B. F. and Lam, A. M. (1996). The speed of blood withdrawal affects the accuracy of jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation measurements. Anesthesiology 86, 806–8.
Matta, B. F., Lam, A. M., Mayberg, T. S., Shapira, Y. and Winn, H. R. (1994). A critique of the intraoperative use of jugular venous bulb catheters during neurosurgical procedures. Anesth Analg 79, 45–750.
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Nakajima, T., Kuro, M., Hayashi, Y. et al. (1992). Clinical evaluation of cerebral oxygen balance during cardiopulmonary bypass: on-line continuous monitoring of jugular venous oxyhemoglobin saturation. Anesth Analg 74, 630–5.
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Further reading

Bellander, B. M., Cantais, E., Enblad, P. et al. (2004). Consensus meeting on microdialysis in neurointensive care. Intensive Care Med 30, 2166–9.
Belli, A., Sen, J., Petzold, A. et al. (2006). Extracellular N-acetylaspartate depletion in traumatic brain injury. J Neurochem 96, 861–9.
Belli, A., Sen, J., Petzold, A. et al. (2008). Metabolic failure precedes intracranial pressure rises in traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study. Acta Neurochir 150, 461–9.
Clausen, T., Alves, O. L., Reinert, M. et al. (2005). Association between elevated brain tissue glycerol levels and poor outcome following severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg 103, 233–8.
Engstrom, M., Polito, A., Reinstrup, P. et al. (2005). Intracerebral microdialysis in severe brain trauma: the importance of catheter location. J Neurosurg 102, 460–9.
Goodman, J. C. and Robertson, C. S. (2009). Microdialysis: is it ready for prime time? Curr Opin Crit Care 15, 110–17.
Helmy, A., Carpenter, K. L. and Hutchinson, P. J. (2007). Microdialysis in the human brain and its potential role in the development and clinical assessment of drugs. Curr Med Chem 14, 1525–37.
Hillered, L., Vespa, P. M. and Hovda, D. A. (2005). Translational neurochemical research in acute human brain injury: the current status and potential future for cerebral microdialysis. J Neurotrauma 22, 3–41.
Hutchinson, P. J., O’Connell, M. T., Al-Rawi, P. G. et al. (2002). Increases in GABA concentrations during cerebral ischaemia: a microdialysis study of extracellular amino acids. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72, 99–105.
Hutchinson, P. J., O’Connell, M. T., Rothwell, N. J. et al. (2007). Inflammation in human brain injury: intracerebral concentrations of IL-1α, IL-1β, and their endogenous inhibitor IL-1ra. J Neurotrauma 24, 1545–57.
Lakshmanan, R., Loo, J. A., Drake, T. et al. (2010). Metabolic crisis after traumatic brain injury is associated with a novel microdialysis proteome. Neurocrit Care 12, 324–36.
Marcoux, J., McArthur, D. A., Miller, C. et al. (2008). Persistent metabolic crisis as measured by elevated cerebral microdialysis lactate–pyruvate ratio predicts chronic frontal lobe brain atrophy after traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med 36, 2871–7.
Maurer, M. H., Haux, D., Sakowitz, O. W., Unterberg, A. W. and Kuschinsky, W. (2007). Identification of early markers for symptomatic vasospasm in human cerebral microdialysate after subarachnoid hemorrhage: preliminary results of a proteome-wide screening. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27, 1675–83.
Nordstrom, C. H., Reinstrup, P., Xu, W, Gärdenfors, A. and Ungerstedt, U. (2003). Assessment of the lower limit for cerebral perfusion pressure in severe head injuries by bedside monitoring of regional energy metabolism. Anesthesiology 98, 809–14.
Oddo, M., Schmidt, J. M., Carrera, E. et al. (2008). Impact of tight glycemic control on cerebral glucose metabolism after severe brain injury: a microdialysis study. Crit Care Med 36, 3233–8.
Peerdeman, S. M., Girbes, A. R., Polderman, K. H. and Vandertop, W. P. (2003). Changes in cerebral interstitial glycerol concentration in head-injured patients; correlation with secondary events. Intensive Care Med 29, 1825–8.
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Reinstrup, P., Stahl, N., Mellergard, P. et al. (2000). Intracerebral microdialysis in clinical practice: baseline values for chemical markers during wakefulness, anesthesia, and neurosurgery. Neurosurgery 47, 701–9.
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Further reading

Chan, M., Gin, T. and Goh, K. Y. (2004). Interventional neurophysiologic monitoring. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 17, 389–96.
Chiappa, K. H. (1979). Results of electroencephalographic monitoring during 367 carotid endarterectomies. Use of a dedicated minicomputer. Stroke 10, 381–8.
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Ebersole, J. and Pedley, T. (2003). Current Practice of Clinical Electroencephalography, 3rd edn. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Guerit, J., Amantini, A., Amodio, P. et al. (2009). Consensus on the use of neurophysiological tests in the intensive care unit (ICU): electroencephalogram (EEG), evoked potentials (EP), and electroneuromyography (ENMG). Neurophysiol Clin 39, 71–83.
Hellstrom-Westas, L., Rosen, I. and de Vries, L. (2008). An Atlas of Amplitude-integrated EEGs in the Newborn, 2nd edn. London: Informa Healthcare.
Hirsch, L. and Brenner, R. (2010). Atlas of EEG in Critical Care. New York: Wiley.
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Guidelines and technical standards
Guideline 1: Minimum technical requirements for performing clinical electroencephalography (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 86–91.
Guideline 2: Minimum technical standards for pediatric electroencephalography (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 92–6.
Guideline 3: Minimum technical standards for EEG recording in suspected cerebral death (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 97–104.
Guideline 9A: Guidelines on evoked potentials (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 125–37.
Guideline 9C: Guidelines on short-latency auditory evoked potentials (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 157–67.
Guideline 9D: Guidelines on short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 168–79.
Guideline 11A: Recommended standards for neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring – principles (2009). American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Available at http://www.acns.org/pdfs/Guideline%2011A.pdf.
Guideline 11B: Recommended standards for intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials (2009). American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Available at http://www.acns.org/pdfs/Guideline%2011B.pdf.
Guideline 11C: Recommended standards for intraoperative monitoring of auditory evoked potentials (2009). American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Available at http://www.acns.org/pdfs/Guideline%2011C.pdf.

Guidelines and technical standards

Guideline 1: Minimum technical requirements for performing clinical electroencephalography (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 86–91.
Guideline 2: Minimum technical standards for pediatric electroencephalography (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 92–6.
Guideline 3: Minimum technical standards for EEG recording in suspected cerebral death (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 97–104.
Guideline 9A: Guidelines on evoked potentials (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 125–37.
Guideline 9C: Guidelines on short-latency auditory evoked potentials (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 157–67.
Guideline 9D: Guidelines on short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (2006). J Clin Neurophysiol 23, 168–79.
Guideline 11A: Recommended standards for neurophysiologic intraoperative monitoring – principles (2009). American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Available at http://www.acns.org/pdfs/Guideline%2011A.pdf.
Guideline 11B: Recommended standards for intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials (2009). American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Available at http://www.acns.org/pdfs/Guideline%2011B.pdf.
Guideline 11C: Recommended standards for intraoperative monitoring of auditory evoked potentials (2009). American Clinical Neurophysiology Society. Available at http://www.acns.org/pdfs/Guideline%2011C.pdf.

Further reading

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Steiner, L. A, Coles, J. P., Johnston, A. J. et al. (2003). Assessment of cerebrovascular autoregulation in head-injured patients: a validation study. Stroke 34, 2404–9.
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Vajkoczy, P., Horn, P., Thome, C., Munch, E. and Schmiedek, P. (2003). Regional cerebral blood flow monitoring in the diagnosis of delayed ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 98, 1227–34.
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