1. , , , et al. Pubertal correlates in black and white girls. J Pediatr 2006;148:234–240.
2. , . Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in girls. Arch Dis Child 1969;44:291–303.
3. , , , . Nipple and areola diameter in Turkish pubertal girls. J Adolesc Health 1998;23:55–57.
4. . Changes in areolar size during the steroid growth phase. Child Devel 1952;23:55–60.
5. , . Individual differences in physical changes associated with adolescence in girls. Am J Dis Child 1948;75:329–350.
6. . Nipple (papilla) development in puberty: longitudinal observations in girls. Pediatrics 1987;79:745–747.
7. . Der Korper des Kindes und sine Pflege [The Body of the Child and its Care], 3rd edn. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1909.
8. , , . Growth diagrams for patient care. Tijdschr Kindergeneeskd 1985;53:147–152.
9. . , . Sex differences in pubic hair distribution, Hum Biol 1945;17:137–142.
10. , . Gesetzmassigkeiten im Autreten des extragenitalen sekendaren Geschlechtsmerkmale bei Madchen. Ztschr Menschl Vererb Konstritutionslehre 1931;15:333–352.
11. . Certain physical and physiological aspects of adolescent development. J Pediatr 1936;8:52–62.
12. , , , et al. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: a study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network. Pediatrics 1997;99:505–512.
13. , , , et al. Examination of US puberty-timing data from 1940 to 1994 for secular trends: Panel findings. Pediatrics 2008;121(Suppl 3):S172–S191.
14. , , , , . Recent decline in age at breast development: The Copenhagen Puberty Study. Pediatrics 2009;123:e932–e939.
15. , , , et al. Pubertal assessment method and baseline characteristics in a mixed longitudinal study of girls. Pediatrics 2010;126:e583–e590.
16. , , . Has age at menarche changed? Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. J Adolesc Health 2007;40:227–231.
17. , . Reexamination of the age limit for defining when puberty is precocious in girls in the United States: implications for evaluation and treatment. Pediatrics 1999;104:936–941.
18. , , . Are pubertal changes in girls before age 8 benign?Pediatrics 2003;111:47–51.
19. , . Normal pubertal development: Part I: The endocrine basis of puberty. Pediatr Rev 2011;32:223–229.
20. , . Puberty: ontogeny, neuroendocrinology, physiology, and disorders. In (ed). Williams Textbook in Endocrinology, 12th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier-Saunders, 2011, pp. 969–1166.
21. . Coming of age in the kisspeptin era: sex differences, development, and puberty. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010;324:51–63.
22. , , , et al. Common genetic influences on BMI and age of menarche. Hum Biol 1995;67:739–753.
23. , . Age at menarche as a fitness trait: nonadditive genetic variance detected in a large twin sample. Am J Hum Genet 1990;47:337–348.
24. , , , et al. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nat Genet 2010;42:1077–1085.
25. , , , et al. Associations between the pubertal timing-related variant in LIN28B and BMI vary across the life course. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:E125–129.
26. , , . Percent body fat at age 5 predicts earlier pubertal development among girls at age 9. Pediatrics 2003;111:815–821.
27. , , , et al. Weight status in young girls and the onset of puberty. Pediatrics 2007;119:e624–e630.
28. , , . Childhood obesity and the timing of puberty. Trends Endocrinol Metabol 2009;20:237–242.
29. , . Obesity and the pubertal transition in girls and boys. Reproduction 2010;140:399–410.
30. , . Adolescent obesity and puberty: The “perfect storm.” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008;1135:265–279.
31. . Link between body fat and the timing of puberty. Pediatrics 2008;121:S208–S217.
32. , , , et al. The timing of normal puberty and the age limits of sexual precocity: Variations around the world, secular trends, and changes after migration. Endocr Rev 2003;24:668–693.
33. , . Puberty as a window of susceptibility. In (ed.) Environment and Breast Cancer. New York: Springer, 2011, pp. 29–41.
34. , , , et al. Environmental factors and puberty timing: expert panel research needs. Pediatrics 2008;121:S192–S207.
35. , , , et al. Relation of isoflavones and fiber intake in childhood to the timing of puberty. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:556–564.
36. , , , et al. Environmental exposures and puberty in inner-city girls. Environ Res 2008;107:393–400.
37. , , , et al. Investigation of relationships between urinary biomarkers of phytoestrogens, phthalates, and phenols and pubertal stages in girls. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118:1039–1046.
38. , , , et al. Phthalate exposure in girls during early puberty. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2009;22:69–77.
39. , , , et al. Blood lead concentration and delayed puberty in girls. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1515–1516.
40. , , . Blood lead levels and sexual maturation in US girls: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Environ Health Perspect 2003;111:737–741.
41. . Premature sexual development in children following the use of estrogen- or placenta-containing hair products. Clin Pediatr 1998;37:733–739.
42. , . Hormone-containing cosmetics may cause signs of early sexual development. Mil Med 1995;160:628–630.
43. , , , , . Effect of light perception on menarche in blind women. Ophthal Epidemiol 2009;16:243–248.
44. , , , . Relation of childhood diet and body size to menarche and adolescent growth in girls. Am J Epidemiol 2000: 152:446–452.
45. , , . Dietary patterns are associated with sexual maturation in Korean children. Br J Nutr 2006;95:817–823.
46. , , , et al. Prepubertal adrenarchal androgens and animal protein intake independently and differentially influence pubertal timing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:3002–3009.
47. , , , et al. Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet 1989;ii:577–580.
48. , , , et al. Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 2004;430:419–421.
49. , . Developmental origins of disease paradigm: A mechanistic and evolutionary perspective. Pediatr Res 2004;56:311–317.
50. , . Puberty and prenatal growth. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2006;25:254–255.
51. , , , et al. Family rearing antecedents of pubertal timing. Child Dev 2007;78:1320–1321.
52. . Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychol Bull 2004;130:920–958.
53. . Age at puberty and father absence in a national probability sample. J Adolesc Health 2005;28:541–546.
54. , , , et al. Father absence, body mass index, and pubertal timing in girls: Differential effects by family income and ethnicity. J Adolesc Health 2011;48:441–447.
55. , , , , . Quality of early family relationships and the timing and tempo of puberty: Effects depend on biological sensitivity to context. Dev Psychopathol 2011;23:85–99.
56. , , , et al. Pubertal maturation in girls and the relationship to anthropometric changes: pathways through puberty. J Pediatr 2003;142:643–646.
57. , , , . Rapid maturation of the reproductive axis during perimenarche independent of body composition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1021–1025.
58. , , , et al. Salivary progesterone levels before menarche: a prospective study of adolescent girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:3507–3511.
59. , , , , . Menstrual irregularity in the first postmenarchal years: an early clinical sign of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence. Gynecol Endocrinol 2001;15:170–177.
60. , . Pediatric and adolescent gynecology. In , (eds.) Atlas of Pediatric Physical Diagnosis, 4th edn. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2002, p. 611.
61. , , , . Pubertal staging in boys. J Pediatr 1995;127:100–102.
62. . The teen brain: insights from neuroimaging. J Adolesc Health 2008;42:335–343.
63. , , , et al. Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behavior in adolescents. J Neurosci 2006;26:6885–6892.
64. , , . Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence. Psychol Med 2006;36:299–312.
65. . Adolescent brain development: a period of vulnerabilities and opportunities. Keynote Address. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004;1021:1–22.
66. , , . Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 2003;112:424–430.
67. , , , et al. Childhood body composition in relation to body mass index. Pediatrics 2001;107:344–350.
68. , , , et al. Do changes in body mass index percentile reflect changes in body composition in children? Data from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Pediatrics 2006;117:e487–495.
69. , , , , . Body mass index and waist-to-height changes during teen years in girls are influenced by childhood body mass index. J Adolesc Health 2010;46:245–250.
70. , , , et al. Relation of body mass index and waist-to-height ratio to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:33–40.
71. , , . Waist-to-height ratio, a useful index to identify high metabolic risk in overweight children. J Pediatr 2008;152:207–213.
72. , , , et al. Revised reference curves for bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density according to age and sex for black and non-black children: results of the bone mineral density in childhood study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:3160–3169.
73. , , , , . Bone mineral accrual from 8 to 30 years of age: an estimation of peak bone mass. J Bone Miner Res 2011;26:1729–1739.
74. , , , . Effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in healthy children: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2006;333:775.
75. , , , . A longitudinal study of the relationship of physical activity to bone mineral accrual from adolescence to young adulthood. Bone 2008;43:1101–1107.
76. , , . Implications of a new definition of vitamin D deficiency in a multiracial US adolescent population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Pediatrics 2009;123:797–803.
77. , , , . Effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in healthy children: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2011;342:c7254.
78. , , , . Determinants of skeletal loss and recovery in anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2931–2937.
79. , . Bone health in anorexia nervosa. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2011;18:376–382.