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Index

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 September 2023

Henry Gao
Affiliation:
Singapore Management University
Damian Raess
Affiliation:
University of Bern
Ka Zeng
Affiliation:
University of Arkansas
Type
Chapter
Information
China and the WTO
A Twenty-Year Assessment
, pp. 534 - 550
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Print publication year: 2023
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NC
This content is Open Access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence CC-BY-NC 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/cclicenses/

Index

10th WTO Ministerial Conference, 209
11th WTO Ministerial Conference, 38, 56, 64, 239, 463, 464
12th WTO Ministerial Conference, 12, 38, 103, 240, 275
15th China-EU Summit, 459
16th China-EU Summit, 459
1995 Taiwan Strait Crisis, 405
2005 Hong Kong Declaration, 239
2007 Corporate Income Tax Law, 436
2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, 86
2008 financial crisis, 33
2015 Paris Accord, 522
2021 Global Innovation Index, 89
Accession Protocol, 21, 22, 24, 29, 30, 53, 162, 163, 166, 261, 266, 267268, 385, 461
Accessions Programme, 36, 210
Administrative Litigation Law (“ALL”), 118
Africa, 37, 38, 54, 136, 210, 222, 237, 501, 508
African Group, 35, 233
African Swine Fever, 154
African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, 35
AFSL. See Anti-foreign Sanction Law
Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), 133, 143
Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), 517
Agreement on Safeguards, 67, 518
Agreement on Services (GATS), 518
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM), 24, 59, 60, 237, 241, 261, 282, 284, 285, 517, 527
Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), 517
Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures, 27
agricultural disputes, 132, 147
agricultural imports, 135, 154
agricultural products, 24, 26, 140
agricultural trade, 2, 5, 8, 9, 133, 138, 154, 155, 220
agriculture, 9, 24, 51, 99, 147, 153, 191, 192, 208, 209, 214, 219221, 259, 278, 309, 389, 398, 409, 414, 419, 420, 422, 433, 516, 524526
Albania, 76
Alstom, 190
aluminum, 97, 278, 494, 495
American business community, 408
American Chamber of Commerce, 28, 30, 174
American hegemony, 197, 199
American imperium, 197
Ansung v. China, 473
Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), 102
antidumping (AD), 417
Anti-foreign Sanction Law (AFSL), 172, 173
Anti-Monopoly Law, 117, 436
AoA. See Agreement on Agriculture
Appellate Body, 40, 125, 152, 155, 183, 196, 199, 252, 280, 284, 285, 387, 401, 404, 417, 484, 515, 520
Argentina, 37, 232, 494
Armenia, 85
ASCM. See Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures
ASEAN-China Investment Agreement, 477
Asia, 38, 501
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, 211
AsiaPhos v. China, 473
assertiveness, 161, 168, 173, 174, 497
attitudes, 3, 12, 13, 301304, 306, 309310, 312313, 323, 325, 327, 334336, 338339, 342, 345346, 350351, 403, 480
Australia, 13, 40, 60, 67, 89, 127, 133, 144, 152154, 236, 237, 239, 268, 308, 334, 341, 342, 348, 474, 494
authorization procedures, 459
automobiles original equipment manufacturing (OEM), 502
baseline models, 312, 313, 325
Beijing, 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 15, 16, 172, 174, 196, 288, 307, 309, 376, 392, 499
Beijing Arbitration Commission (BAC), 488
Beijing Commerce Bureau, 172
Beijing Model, 52
Beijing Shougang et al. v. Mongolia, 471, 479481
Beijing Summer Olympics, 86, 87
Belgium, 472, 474
Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), 1, 14, 64, 378, 439, 441, 444, 448, 469, 487, 497
benign neglect, 99
Big Tech, 230
bilateral agreements, 12, 301, 310, 321, 323, 419, 463
bilateral analysis, 335
bilateral economic threats, 343
Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office, 390
bilateral investment treaties (BITs), 1, 454, 456, 459, 462, 465, 468, 475, 476, 480482, 528
bilateral negotiations, 309, 487
bilateral trade, 13, 66, 310, 340, 398, 411, 498, 499
bilateral trade policy interactions, 351
Bilaterals I, 309
Bilaterals II, 309
biodiversity, 16, 237, 430, 445, 516, 517, 521523, 526, 529530
BIS. See Bureau of Industry and Security
BITs. See bilateral investment treaties
blanket flexibilities, 60
Bloomberg News, 174
Bombardier, 190
“bottom–up” approach, 233
Brazil, 11, 36, 37, 51, 102, 151154, 191, 194, 211, 217, 220, 229, 231, 232, 243, 245, 453, 463, 464, 494, 502
Brazilian submission, 235
BRI. See Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)
BRICS, 11, 227232, 242, 244, 246, 247
Broches test, 479
Brunei, 491, 501
BUCG v. Yemen, 479
Buenos Aires, 38, 220, 232, 233, 464
Build Back Better plan, 425
Build Back Better World Partnership, 529
“build-operate-transfer” projects, 435
Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS), 170, 173
business activity, 503
Business Confidence Survey, 28, 30
CAI. See Comprehensive Agreement on Investment
Cambodia, 35, 77
Canada, 36, 40, 58, 60, 67, 133, 152, 153, 211, 227, 280, 335, 340, 342, 348, 350, 498
Caribbean, 35, 206, 237, 505, 507
Catalogue, 172
Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries, 435, 437
Catalogue of laws, 30
Catalogue of Sensitive Sectors for Overseas Investment, 442
Catholicism, 109
causality, 351
CCP. See Chinese Communist Party
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), 254
Center on Inclusive Trade and Development (CITD), 400
Central Asia, 505, 506
central government, 473
chemicals, 97, 192, 502
Chile, 127, 232, 239
China, 18, 1114, 21, 22, 29, 34, 36, 38, 4043, 45, 61, 62, 6670, 81, 82, 86, 87, 91, 92, 94, 110, 121, 164, 165, 176, 183, 217, 219, 236, 244, 268, 279, 310, 336, 340, 346, 348, 463, 468, 477, 494
accession, 27, 29, 42, 49, 137, 141, 161, 400, 404, 411, 419, 424, 492
agricultural exports, 132
agricultural imports, 153, 154
agricultural trade, 133, 134, 138
approach, 264
challenge for, 291
commitment, 422, 432
compliance, 112, 124, 268, 269, 413
economic growth of, 83
economy, 42, 74, 81, 87, 393, 414, 422424
exclusion of, 374
export growth, 376
exports, 32, 149, 183
fisheries sector, 243
foreign trade, 46
impact on TRIPS, 99
imports, 499
innovative turn, 92
inward and outward FDI, 34
livestock production, 139
national security, 474
paradox, 186
participation, 227
perception of, 334
regulation of FDI, 432
regulation of ODI, 438
rise of, 184, 199, 362
silence, 477, 478
strategy, 261
tariff rates of, 23
trade and agricultural policy, 140
trade war, 152
trading partners, 130, 131, 361, 363
trajectory of, 408
TRIPS impact on, 98
withdrawal of, 373
China – AD/CVD on Barley (Australia), 152
China – AD/CVD on Wine (Australia), 152
China – Agricultural Producers, 151
China – Certain Measures on the Transfer of Technology, 96
China – Measures Affecting Financial Information Services and Foreign Financial Information Suppliers, 96
China – Measures Affecting the Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights, 98, 101
China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Rare Earths, Tungsten and Molybdenum, 164
China – Measures Related to the Exportation of Various Raw Materials, 164
China – Publications and Audiovisual Products, 263
China – Raw Materials and China – Rare Earths, 263
china anniversary, 90
China Business Climate Survey Report 2020, 30
China Business Climate Survey Report 2021, 28
China Commission, 411, 412
China Economic Net, 29
China Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation Gazette, 30
China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC), 488
China paradox, 10, 184, 186
China Programme, 210
China PTA, 316, 318
China shock, 13, 302, 328, 337, 360, 419
China Trade Policy Review Report, 24
China WTO Tribune, 52
China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 392, 476
China-Canada BIT, 477
China – Canola Seed (Canada), 152
China – Certain Measures affecting Imports of Sugar, 151
China-Peru BIT, 481
China-Publications Case, 64
China-Russia(n) BIT, 476, 477, 479
China-Switzerland PTA, 12
China-US investment agreement, 458
China-US trade war, 393
China-USA trade frictions, 39
Chinese
administrative law, 123
assertiveness, 174
authorities, 92, 173, 292, 446, 514
behavior, 8
central government, 22, 242, 498
citizens, 118, 120, 121
compliance, 9
courts, 100, 119, 123, 129
culture, 2
economic coercion, 174
economy, 2, 13, 33, 49, 59, 73, 74, 121, 124, 130, 389, 390, 412, 418, 458, 501
export exposure, 378
export restrictions, 165, 167, 169
exports, 5, 12, 13, 162, 261, 305, 360362, 370, 373, 374
firms, 1, 6, 15, 55, 101, 167, 277, 367, 490, 491, 496503, 505, 508, 510
fiscal policy, 165
goods, 97, 333, 336, 386, 499
goods exports, 13, 366, 369, 375378
government, 8, 21, 87, 123, 162, 260, 268, 289, 290, 474
government policy, 363
greenfield FDI, 505508
imports, 69, 306, 386, 416, 490
incentives, 361
industry, 42
investments, 15, 438, 487, 499, 500, 505, 507, 510
investors, 487, 496
laws, 173, 175
laws and regulations, 160
leadership, 2, 131
legal system, 2
manufacturing exports, 363, 369371, 374
market, 130, 192
perspectives, 8, 45, 73
policymakers, 100, 192
politics, 121
products, 55, 66, 97
respondents, 281, 283285
service sector, 362
society, 2, 290
unilateral sanctions, 168, 175
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 117, 121, 403, 412, 413, 418, 433, 473
Chinese company law, 437
Chinese customs, 41, 91, 260
Chinese Economic Stimulus Program, 87
Chinese Ministry of Foreign Trade and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 46
Chinese renminbi (RMB), 412
Chinese-Foreign cooperative enterprises, 27
Chinese-Foreign Joint Ventures, 27
CIETAC. See China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission
citizens, 12, 110, 118, 120, 121, 301, 303, 309, 312, 327, 334336, 339340, 342, 346, 348, 350
City of London Corporations’ Green Finance Initiative, 446
clauses on expropriation, 455
climate change, 16, 277, 279, 292, 402, 424, 430, 445, 515, 516, 519525, 528530
coal, oil and gas, 492, 502, 510
coherent bloc, 11, 247
coherent rules, 230
Cold War, 46, 402, 515
Colombia, 232, 236
Committee on Agriculture (CoA), 147, 153, 283
Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade, 100
committees, 147, 211, 283, 284, 293, 294, 518
commodities, 22, 132, 133, 141, 187, 222, 362
Common Concern of Humankind (CCH), 521523, 528531
communications, 97, 99, 204, 217, 235, 236, 393, 495, 502, 515, 520
Communist Party, 113, 124, 423
community, 7, 8, 16, 17, 94, 111, 115, 268, 275, 309, 392, 408, 516, 520
compensation hypothesis, 327
compensation thesis, 305
competition law, 517, 521
competition policy, 291
competitiveness, 192, 236, 350
competitor, 10, 184, 190, 192, 199, 205, 207, 208, 216, 217, 219223, 291, 308, 384, 401402, 412
Complaining Party, 388
complexity, 37, 262, 263, 265
Comprehensive Agreement on Investment (CAI), 15, 40, 63, 290, 453, 459462, 465, 466
Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), 5, 276, 289291, 293, 294
Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada and the EU (CETA), 482
compulsory licensing, 517
computable general equilibrium models (CGE), 498
Confucian thought, 116
Confucianism, 116, 129
Confucius, 114, 115
consumer boycotts, 168
consumer goods, 187
consumer protection, 235
consumers, 34, 113, 166, 236, 279, 313, 316, 339, 515, 524
contemporary world economy, 351
Contract Law of the PRC, 435
contracting parties, 456
Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, 484
Convention on Settlement of International Investment Disputes between States and the Nationals of Other States, 482
Cooperation and Facilitation Investment Agreements (CFIA), 453, 463
Copyright Law, 29, 91
corn, 22, 26, 137, 143146, 151, 192
Costa Rica, 40, 232, 304
cotton, 22, 26, 141, 143145, 192, 220
cotton exports, 137
Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 100
Council of States, 326
Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), 400
countervailing duties (CVD), 417, 418
Covax, 522
COVID-19 pandemic, 28, 33, 39, 94, 240, 294, 370, 374, 499, 501, 505
COVID-19 vaccines, 42, 293
CPTPP. See Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership
cross-border data flows, 286, 291
cross-border digital transactions, 277
cross-border investment, 37
Cultural Revolution, 111, 112, 117
Customs Regulations, 91, 92
cyber sovereignty, 235
cybersecurity laws, 235
cyberspace, 235, 520
data blocs, 279
data localization requirements, 235
data privacy, 230, 235, 291
Data Security Law, 172
de minimis, 24, 26, 151
threshold, 143, 219
decarbonization, 522, 524
Declaration on the Right to Development, 188
democracy, 109, 116, 515, 516, 521
Democratic party, 14, 395, 397, 402
developed country, 11, 29, 34, 51, 101103, 143, 207, 211, 214, 216, 218, 219, 221, 236, 240, 247248, 280, 282, 455, 456
developing country, 2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 16, 29, 32, 34, 35, 37, 4042, 47, 51, 54, 60, 96, 99103, 143, 171, 184, 186, 188195, 197199, 205207, 209211, 213223, 229, 233236, 238244, 247248, 280, 281, 287, 288, 292, 293, 337, 455, 456, 462, 463, 528531
development partner, 204, 205, 208, 210, 213, 214, 216223
digital economy, 286, 424
digital profits tax, 230
digital services tax, 230
digital technologies, 279
digital trade, 39, 59, 230, 231, 233, 426
rules, 236
digital transformation, 231
dispute settlement, 11, 518, 530
dispute settlement crisis, 292
dispute settlement system (DSS), 4, 5, 11, 12, 160, 167, 175, 252254, 259, 260, 265, 269, 283, 285, 404
dispute settlement understanding (DSU), 143, 362, 364
distribution services, 259, 262, 414
distributional effects of trade, 313
division of labor, 528, 529
Doha Development Agenda (DDA), 209, 219, 229, 519, 529
Doha Development Round, 222
Doha Ministerial Conference, 48, 239
Doha Ministerial Declaration, 208, 239
Doha Round, 4, 10, 183, 184, 191193, 197199, 207, 210, 214, 239, 286
domestic grain production, 144
domestic industrial development, 236
domestic policy, 2, 10, 161, 163, 235, 263, 383, 398, 399
donor pool B, 8, 7477, 8286
DSS. See dispute settlement system
East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region, 371, 374, 505507
Eastern Europe, 515
ECL. See Export Control Law
e-commerce, 36, 38, 64, 209, 227, 228, 230232, 234, 235, 277
economic coercive strategy, 175
economic cooperation, 43, 248, 338, 386, 497, 515
economic development, 198
economic growth, 2, 5, 7, 8, 33, 37, 41, 52, 7375, 8186, 183184, 186187, 191, 198, 207, 247, 382, 402403, 405, 424, 463
economic insecurity, 306
economic reform, 46, 49, 111, 113, 114, 120, 123, 125, 128, 129, 138, 161, 162, 252, 254, 266, 269, 408, 460
economic resilience, 396
economic strategy, 93
Economic Vulnerability Index, 217
Economist, 333, 337
economy, 14, 8, 13, 22, 3234, 39, 4143, 45, 4750, 53, 5657, 59, 69, 7378, 8082, 8485, 87, 89, 9394, 111112, 115, 119, 121, 124, 129130, 138, 153, 175176, 183185, 187188, 190, 193, 197, 204, 213, 220, 230, 236, 248, 253, 266267, 277, 279280, 286, 291292, 301302, 305, 309, 312, 328, 351, 361, 376, 382383, 389390, 392393, 395396, 402403, 410, 412, 414415, 418, 420, 422424, 432433, 443, 455, 458, 462, 468, 490491, 498, 501, 510, 515, 521, 524, 530
Ecuador, 209, 239, 243
education, 350
EEC. See European Economic Community
EEZs. See Exclusive Economic Zones
effectiveness, 7, 30, 39, 59, 94, 195, 196, 227, 253, 254, 480
efficiency, 34, 40, 41, 59, 139, 166, 338, 432, 434437, 464, 485, 496, 525
Egypt, 501
Ekran v. China, 473
Electronic Commerce Work Programme, 234
electronic components, 502
electronic transmissions, 235
embedded liberalism, 301, 305, 336
Emerging Markets, 247
employment protection regulation, 306
Enabling e-commerce initiative, 64
enforceability, 290, 445
engagement, 55, 171, 206, 228, 252, 262, 282, 284, 291, 294, 389392, 401403, 405406
Enquiry Points, 31
Entity List, 170
Environmental Goods Agreement, 286
Environmental Impact Assessment Law, 444
environmental regulation, 291, 443
equal countermeasures, 172
Estonia, 85
Eurasia, 38
Europe, 54, 110, 280, 308, 326, 425, 455, 458, 460, 462, 490492, 501, 505, 507508, 510
European Chamber, 29
European Commission, 59, 459
European countries, 327, 333, 457, 460
European Economic Area, 309
European Economic Community (EEC), 127
European Free Trade Association (EFTA), 326
European investment treaty, 454455
European labor markets, 306
European Parliament, 459
European Union (EU), 11, 36, 39, 40, 58, 60, 62, 96, 164, 195, 227, 241, 279, 301, 309, 364, 367, 371, 373, 391, 498, 515
European Union Chamber of Commerce, 28, 30
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs), 243, 244
Expansion of the Information Technology Agreement, 215
expertise, 252, 285, 516
Export Control Law (ECL), 170172
export orientation, 313
extensive evidence, 277
external benchmark, 27
fair and equitable treatment (FET), 455
fair competition, 28, 278
fair use, 517
FDI. See foreign direct investment
Financial Express, 244
Finland, 89
flanking measures, 309
flexibility, 61, 189, 219, 228, 236, 239, 241, 244, 477, 486
food and beverages, 502
forcing technology transfer, 268
foreign business share, 313
foreign competition, 192
foreign direct investment (FDI), 6, 15, 28, 32, 87, 429433, 435439, 442, 443, 447, 454, 458, 491, 500, 501, 503, 505
foreign discrimination, 376
Foreign Exchange Administration, 439
foreign insurance institutions, 29
foreign intellectual property assets, 93
foreign investment, 286, 433
Foreign Investment Law, 28, 96, 268, 437, 438, 458
foreign trade discrimination, 361, 364, 369, 376
Foreign Trade Law, 169
Foreign Trade Law of the People’s Republic of China, 66
foreign trade policy, 486
foreign trade rights, 23
foreign trade vitality, 23
foreign-capital enterprises, 27
Fourteenth Five-Year Plan (2021–2025), 448
Fourteenth National Congress of the Communist Party, 47
Fourth Amendment to the Patent Law, 94
fragmentation, 10, 11, 37, 447
France, 367
free markets, 312, 404
free trade agreement (FTA), 461, 468, 482
Free Trade Zone (FTZ), 63
Friends of Fish, 239, 241
Friends of Fishers group, 241, 242
Friends of Investment Facilitation for Development (FIFD), 37, 464, 465
full compliance, 69
G-20, 425
G20 Hangzhou Summit, 37, 463
G-7, 425
GATT. See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
Gazette of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, 30
GDP. See gross domestic product
GE (General Electric), 190
gender, 341, 343
General Administration of Customs, 31
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 46, 47, 53, 125128, 162165, 175, 184, 197, 227, 241, 246, 278, 516, 518
General Agreement on Trade in Services, 6, 27, 97
General Council, 280, 287, 294
General Customs Administration, 46
Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), 60, 373
Geneva, 214
geopolitical tensions, 514, 518, 520
Georgetown Steel Corp. v. United States, 418
German citizens, 348
German respondents, 348
Germany, 13, 303, 334, 335, 341, 342, 348, 367, 454, 474, 494, 501, 515
Glasgow Climate Pact, 521
global economic cooperation, 43
global economic governance, 41, 453
global economic growth, 41
global economy, 3, 153, 175, 176, 185, 190, 193, 197, 279, 396, 443
Global Financial Crisis, 5, 13, 363, 366, 369, 376, 378, 383
global fishing, 241
Global Innovation Index, 94
global prices, 144
Global Public Policy Institute (GPPi), 204
Global South, 3, 5, 205, 207, 214, 215, 217, 218, 222
global supply chains, 174, 176
global trade, 199, 277
Global Trade Alert, 282
database, 13, 366, 374
team, 370
global trade community, 16
global trade flow matrix, 368
global trade governance, 5, 42, 277
global trade policy community, 8
global trading system, 2, 7, 8, 35, 197, 198
global value chains (GVCs), 32, 33, 37, 42, 161, 277, 498, 515, 529
globalization, 5, 42, 62, 277, 302, 306, 311, 328, 401, 528
losers, 305, 310, 314, 316318
Go Out policy, 497
Goh v. China, 473
Going Abroad Strategy, 487
going out strategy, 439
good faith, 124, 126
goods trade, 61, 213, 362, 366
Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), 214, 215, 286
Great Leap Forward, 111
Great Recession, 73, 83, 86, 87
Green Finance Committee, 446
Green Investment Principles, 446
Green Party, 326
gross domestic product (GDP), 32, 50, 7375, 7787, 138, 187, 213, 363, 419, 468, 498
GTA database, 366369
Guiding Principles for Global Investment Policymaking, 37, 463
harmonious society, 115, 116
Hela Schwarz v. China, 473
high-income country, 187
Hong Kong, 63, 475, 477, 478
hostility, 337
Huawei, 94, 101, 169, 170, 190, 514
human rights, 110112, 120, 302, 307309, 326327, 337, 406, 408409, 411, 439, 447, 459, 515, 520, 522, 529
Iceland, 40, 239, 308
ICSID. See International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
ideological divide, 523
idiosyncratic factors, 247
IIAs. See international investment agreements
illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU), 239
import materials, 41
import competition, 305, 313, 337
independent intellectual property, 93
India, 11, 40, 48, 51, 54, 102103, 141, 151, 191, 193194, 206209, 213215, 217, 220, 223, 227229, 231, 233, 235238, 243245, 247, 283, 286287, 304, 425, 453, 463, 474, 491, 501
India’s Commerce and Industry Minister Piyush Goyal, 244
indigenous innovation, 2, 9, 93, 424
Indonesia, 153, 209, 243, 501
industrial policies, 259, 262, 263, 391, 396, 401, 414, 426
industry dummies, 313, 329
Informal Dialogue on Plastics Pollution, 294
informal empire, 197
Informal WTO Ministerial Meeting, 38
Information Office of the State Council, 261
Information Technology Agreement, 286
Initiative on Investment Facilitation, 38
institutional power, 184, 196, 199, 337
intellectual property (IP), 89
intellectual property courts, 30
intellectual property laws, 93, 98, 99, 101, 104
intellectual property right (IPR), 2, 7, 8, 21, 29, 59, 89, 91, 93, 95, 96, 100, 104, 259, 366, 410, 414, 420, 514
intellectual property system, 93
inter alia, 24, 116, 431, 442
interdisciplinary approach, 3
Interim Measures for the Administration of Approval of Overseas Investment Projects, 440
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), 453, 472
International Code of Conduct on the Transfer of Technology, 96
international community, 17, 37, 268
international competitiveness, 49
international health, 522
international investment agreements (IIAs), 453458, 462, 465, 468, 469, 475, 478481, 489
international monetary relations, 453
international political competition, 334
international power, 351
International Registration of Marks, 94
International Relations (IR), 334
international rivalry, 337, 522
International Standard Classification of Occupations, 311
International Table Tennis Federation, 61
international trade, 161, 280, 325, 516
international trade economists, 366
internet censorship, 235
interpretive errors, 61
Investment Court System, 461
Investment Facilitation for Development, 36, 37, 463
investment liberalization, 291
investment related agenda, 16
investor-state arbitration (ISA), 469, 486488
investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS), 15, 455, 456, 461, 462, 469, 470, 472474, 476, 477, 480489
ISA. See investor-state arbitration
ISA plus model, 488
ISDS. See investor-state dispute settlement
Israel, 60, 89
Italy, 89, 367
Japan, 39, 60, 89, 91, 95, 167, 195, 211, 227, 237, 241, 242, 244, 280, 335, 342, 348, 391, 491
Japanese government, 128
Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT), 112, 413, 414
Joint Ministerial Statement, 464
Joint Ministerial Statement on Investment Facilitation for Development, 38
Joint Statement Initiatives (JSIs), 35, 38, 64, 231, 234, 236, 286, 291
JSI 2017, 234
JSIs. See Joint Statement Initiatives
judicial sovereignty, 480
Kanth, Ravi, 233, 234
Kazakhstan, 76, 78, 501
Kenya, 209, 232
Korea, 37, 40, 54, 133, 241, 494
labor standards, 291
Laos, 35, 195, 210, 220, 476
Laotian government, 476, 478
Latin America, 38, 54, 220, 474, 482, 505, 507, 508
Law Against Unfair Competition, 94
Law of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-foreign Contractual Joint Ventures, 27, 28
Law of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, 27, 28
Law of the People’s Republic of China on Foreign-capital Enterprises, 27, 28
Law of the PRC on Chinese-Foreign Contractual Joint Ventures, 435
Law of the PRC on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, 435
Law on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures, 96
lawlessness, 117
Layne, Christopher, 197
LDCs. See least developed countries
League of Nations, 126
least developed countries (LDCs), 35, 38, 205, 206, 210, 216218, 229, 232234, 237
legal reform, 2, 99, 111114, 117120, 129131, 430, 447
legal regime, 113, 114, 117, 120123, 129
legal system, 2, 9, 48, 114, 116118, 120, 439
legalism, 115116
Legislation Law of the People’s Republic of China, 30
liberal trade policy, 220, 402
licensing, 55, 90, 9596, 151, 162163, 175176, 385386, 409, 459, 461, 495, 517
Lithuania, 85
local governments, 22, 130, 414, 435, 473, 474
low education, 311
Lucky Goldstar (LG), 494
Macao, 475, 476
Macro v. China, 473
Made in China 2025 plan, 423
Majority Chief Trade Counsel, 111
Malaysia, 153, 494, 501
Malta, 457
manual workers, 311, 316, 318
Marine Science, 244
market access, 1, 6, 27, 32, 48, 63, 92, 97, 123, 124, 130, 140, 153, 175, 192, 206, 211, 218, 219, 232, 235, 259, 260, 288, 308, 361, 369, 371374, 376, 397398, 410, 423, 437, 458460, 462, 493, 516, 518
market economy, 47, 48, 423
market orientation, 39, 422, 424
Marrakesh Agreement, 422, 424
mass incidents, 120, 442
Measurement and Observation of Social Attitudes in Switzerland survey (MOSAiCH), 308
media exposure, 313
MEE. See Ministry of Ecology and Environment
Members of Parliament (MPs), 326
Memorandum on China’s Foreign Trade Regime, 47
metals, 162, 492, 502, 510
Mexico, 37, 40, 232, 243, 285, 494, 498
MFN. See Most Favored Nation
Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, 36, 38, 286
Middle East and North Africa, 505, 507
middle-income trap, 93
Mid-east and Latin America, 38
Ministerial Luncheon Meeting on Investment Facilitation for Development, 38
Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (MOFCOM), 52, 58, 65, 66, 68, 170, 264, 267, 431, 439, 440, 442, 446, 447, 469, 472, 483, 484
Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE), 443445, 447, 448
Ministry of Finance, 46, 431, 439
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 46, 431, 439
Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade (MOFERT), 46, 47
Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, 431
mobility, 304, 311, 313, 529
MOFCOM. See Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China
Moldova, 77, 85
Montenegro, 40, 77, 79
Most Favored Nation (MFN), 364, 374, 404, 455, 457
MPIA. See Multi-Party Interim Appeal Arrangement
multilateral cooperation, 16, 43
multilateral investment rules, 37
multilateral trade cooperation, 39
multilateral trading system, 42, 43, 176, 183, 188, 269, 280
multilateralism, 62, 68, 184, 186, 194, 376, 443, 486, 515, 520
multinational corporations, 230
Multi-Party Interim Appeal Arbitration Arrangement (MPIA), 40, 65, 252, 285, 520
Myitsone project, 446
NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement
Nairobi Ministerial Conference, 219
Nairobi Ministerial Declaration, 193
National Bureau of Statistics, 32, 213
National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 288
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 431, 439442, 446, 447
National Economic Council, 495
National Intellectual Property Administration, 30
National Intellectual Property Strategy, 92, 93
national interests, 101, 170, 206, 227, 474
National Long-term Scientific and Technological Development Program, 93
National People’s Congress, 30, 120, 431
National People’s Congress Legislative Affairs Commission, 118
nationalism, 313, 328, 343, 351, 520, 522
national-populist reactions, 302
NDRC. See National Development and Reform Commission
Negotiating Group on Rules, 239
Nepal, 77
neutral adjudication, 387, 390
New Zealand, 40, 60, 239, 308, 326
Nicaragua, 304
Nigeria, 232, 501
NME methodology, 58
non-agricultural market access (NAMA), 228
non-Chinese
export exposure, 377
non-discrimination, 65, 280, 292, 518, 524
non-market economy (NME), 265, 418
Normal Trade Relations (NTR), 406
North America, 505, 507
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 6, 457, 494
North-North PTAs, 12, 302, 305, 312, 321, 327, 328
North-North trade, 304, 305
North-South, 302, 312
North-South divide, 3, 10, 229, 241, 246
North-South PTAs, 12, 301, 302, 304, 306308, 314, 316, 321, 328
North-South trade, 12, 301, 304307, 314, 326, 337
Norway, 40, 60, 242, 418
NTR. See Normal Trade Relations
nullification impairment remedy, 127
occupational training, 307
ODI. See overseas direct investment
OECD. See Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
Oilseeds panel, 128
One Belt One Road initiative, 497
One Country Two Systems (OCTS), 475
Opinions on Encouraging and Regulating Foreign Investment and Cooperation, 440
Opium War, 51
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 145, 194, 195, 211, 292, 305, 425, 448, 452, 458
Ottawa Group proposal, 294
overseas direct investment (ODI), 15, 429432, 438443, 445, 447, 448
Pacific Ocean, 243
Pacific regions, 237, 374, 383
pacta sunt servanda, 57, 126
Pakistan, 232, 501
Paraguay, 232
partial withdrawal, 120
Party hierarchy, 121
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), 89, 94
Patent Law, 29, 93
PCT. See Patent Cooperation Treaty
People’s Bank of China, 119, 431, 439
People’s Republic of China (PRC), 21, 34, 309, 401, 412, 430, 432, 434, 443
per capita food supply, 138
permanent normal trade relations (PNTR), 404407, 411, 413, 419
personal data, 229, 231
Peru, 239
Phase One Agreement, 96, 153, 154, 381, 386, 387, 389391, 394396, 496, 499
The Phase One Economic and Trade Agreement, 153
Phase One trade agreement, 490
Philip Morris Asia Limited v. The Commonwealth of Australia, 482
Philippines, 239, 494, 501
planned commodity economy, 47
plurilateral negotiations, 11, 287
PNTR. See permanent normal trade relations
policy autonomy, 236
policy interventions, 360362, 366368, 370, 374, 376377
policy space, 184, 189, 190, 196, 198, 199, 228, 231, 247, 279, 288, 378, 524, 525, 529
policymakers, 401, 403
policymaking, 222, 252, 254, 260, 269, 465
political adversary, 13, 334, 338, 351
political freedom, 111
political pluralism, 404
political stalemate, 520
poor financial situation, 311
population and income growth, 138
Portugal, 475
PRC Constitution, 47, 433
preferential trade agreement (PTA), 1, 12, 276, 301304, 306308, 312314, 316, 318, 320, 321, 325327
preferential trade and investment agreements (PTIAs), 454, 457
pre-trade war, 491, 501, 508
privacy, 229231, 235, 279, 291
private property, 120
proactive trade, 16, 524, 530
Proclamation of the Ministry of Finance, 31
Proclamation of the People’s Bank of China, 31
Pro-CN PTA, 310
Producer Support Estimate (PSE), 145
Pro-EU PTA, 310
pro-globalization compensation, 312
Pro-PTA, 310, 316
protectionism, 5, 43, 62, 190, 303, 328, 333, 367, 486
Protocol of Accession, 164
PTA. See preferential trade agreement (PTA)
PTIAs. See preferential trade and investment agreements
public body, 59, 61, 196, 261, 285, 373
public debates, 335, 339, 342
purchasing power parity (PPP), 187
Qin dynasty, 115
Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 425
rail equipment, 190
Raw Materials, 164
RCEP. See Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership
real estate, 436, 441, 492, 502, 510
reciprocal provision, 456
reciprocal trade policy acts, 367
reciprocity, 13, 188, 293, 333, 337, 339, 350
recognition, 28, 57, 168, 188, 189, 207, 234, 280, 288, 433, 516, 522, 525, 526
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), 63, 104, 289, 290
Regional Economic Cooperation Partnership, 40
Regulations for the Protection of Computer Software, 29
Regulations for the Protection of Layout-design of Integrated Circuits, 29
Regulations on Customs Protection of Intellectual Property Rights, 91
Regulations on Procedures for the Formulation of Administrative Regulations, 30
Regulations on Procedures for the Formulation of Rules, 30
renewable energy, 502, 519, 524, 525
Report of the Working Party on the Accession of China, 21
Republic of China, 46
Republic of Korea, 40
Republican Party, 402, 495
Request for Information, 390
respondents, 36, 133, 147, 252, 254, 264, 275, 281, 283285, 291292, 302303, 308, 310313, 316, 321, 325, 335, 340346, 348, 350, 352, 387, 485
right ideology, 312
RMSPE. See root of mean squared prediction error
Road and Belt Initiative of China, 529
root of mean squared prediction error (RMSPE), 78, 80, 82
rule of law, 116, 123, 420
rule-breaker, 6, 7, 15, 16, 452, 465
rule-maker, 6, 15, 452, 453, 465
rule-making power, 197
rule-taker, 6, 15, 172, 452, 453, 462, 465
Russia, 13, 231, 235, 335, 336, 346, 348, 350, 501, 502
Russo-Georgian War, 84
Rwanda, 233
safeguards, 26, 27, 51, 53, 65, 67, 68, 122, 151, 220, 228, 260, 269, 280, 383, 415418, 439, 493494, 515, 520, 529
Samsung, 494
Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Committee, 147
sanitary registration, 41
Sanum v. Laos, 474, 476480
SARs. See special administrative region
Schedule of Concessions, 22
science and technology, 93
SCM. See synthetic control method
Second World War, 197
security, 14, 40, 65, 111, 116, 120, 170, 171, 174, 219, 230, 235, 239, 260, 279280, 302303, 334, 351, 392, 396, 405406, 408409, 411, 413, 424426, 431432, 436438, 441442, 444, 446, 474, 494, 498499, 514, 518, 520
selective adaption, 99
Senior Dialogue, 383, 384
service sectors, 29
services, 1, 6, 2122, 27, 29, 41, 54, 64, 97, 153, 170, 175, 230, 233, 235, 259, 262, 267, 277, 286, 310, 311, 313, 386387, 397, 407, 409410, 414, 420, 422, 458, 460, 493, 504, 516, 518, 521, 525528
Services Domestic Regulation, 36, 38
Seychelles, 77, 79
Shenzhen Court of International Arbitration (SCIA), 488
Siemens, 190
Silk Road initiative, 243
Singapore, 40, 194, 237, 308, 494
Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures Law, 433
Sino-Swiss PTA, 12, 308, 325, 326
Sino-U.S. trade war, 361, 374
small-scale fisheries (SSF), 238
social investment policies, 301302, 307, 312, 327
socialist market economy, 47, 49, 50, 129, 433
Socialist Party, 321, 326
South Africa, 11, 103, 194, 209, 217, 231, 233, 235237, 243, 286, 287, 453, 501
South China Morning Post (SCMP), 213
South China Sea, 412, 515
South Korea, 194, 215, 242, 244, 308, 494
Southeast Asia, 491
Soviet Union, 110, 515
Spain, 244, 418
SPC. See Supreme People’s Court
special administrative region (SARs), 475478, 489
special and differential treatment (SDT), 2, 10, 11, 60, 188, 189, 194196, 199, 205, 216218, 229, 231, 239, 240, 242248, 287, 288
special safeguard mechanism (SSM), 192
specific trade concerns (STCs), 283
Sri Lanka, 232
SSF. See small-scale fisheries
Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, 27
State Administration for Industry and Commerce, 431
State Administration of Foreign Exchange, 431
state capitalism, 4, 11, 16, 227, 386
State Council, 46, 9294, 96, 436, 437, 440
State Council Gazette, 30
State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China, 171
State Economic Commission, 46
State Intellectual Property Office, 93
state trading enterprises (STEs), 132, 140, 141, 155
state-invested enterprises (SIEs), 267
State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC), 423, 439
state-owned enterprises (SOEs), 121, 267, 268, 278, 282283, 289291, 423, 426, 460, 479, 480, 487
state-trading-enterprises (STE), 151
STCs. See specific trade concerns
steel, 97, 278, 411, 494, 495
Strategic Economic Dialogue, 383, 384, 413
strategic intentions, 49
structural reform, 39
Structured Discussions, 38, 464
subcentral governments, 60
sub-Saharan Africa, 492, 505, 506, 508
subsidies, 11, 24, 27, 130, 143, 151, 188190, 198, 219, 237, 239, 278, 282
agricultural, 10, 26, 191, 193, 207, 219, 221, 245, 278
amber box, 26
Australian, 126
blue box, 26
Chinese, 220, 261
domestic, 244
fisheries, 12, 193, 227, 228, 237239, 241242, 243247, 278, 519
fossil fuel, 294
fuel, 243, 245
green box, 26
harmful, 239, 242
industrial, 196, 197, 199, 261, 268, 278, 292, 397
irrational, 244
non-litigable, 279
war-time, 127
super-national treatment, 434, 436
Supreme People’s Court (SPC), 91, 119, 446
Supreme People’s Procuratorate, 91
surrogate country, 27
Survey, 275, 283, 284, 285, 288, 291, 292
sustainable and equitable fisheries, 237
sustainable development goals (SDGs), 237, 239, 292, 521, 522
Swiss citizens, 12, 309, 327
Swiss government, 309, 311
Swiss National Council, 326
Switzerland, 40, 91, 236, 301, 308310, 326, 457
synthetic China, 73, 77
synthetic China A, 78, 80, 81, 86
synthetic China B, 82, 86
synthetic control method (SCM), 7375, 77, 80, 82, 84
systematic impact, 474
Taiwan, 63, 77, 85, 194, 241242, 494, 515
Taiwan-invested enterprises, 27
tariff rate quotas (TRQs), 132, 141, 151
tariffs, 22, 24, 40, 4647, 5556, 63, 6667, 69, 97, 122, 125128, 130, 132, 140141, 143, 146, 155, 161163, 166, 184, 188192, 236, 264, 286, 333, 336337, 339344, 346, 348, 350, 360, 367, 374, 381386, 388, 393, 398, 401,