Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2014
  • Online publication date: October 2014

Chapter 31 - Spinal manipulation, osteopathic manipulative treatment, and spasticity

from Section 3 - Musculoskeletal Pain

Related content

Powered by UNSILO


1. Modi RG, Shah N. Clinical Anatomy and Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine: COMLEX Review 2006, 1st ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Inc. 2006.
2. Savarese RG, Capobianco JD, Cox JJ. OMT Review: A Comprehensive Review in Osteopathic Medicine, 3rd ed. Jacksonville: OMT Review. 2003.
3. Greenman PE. Principles of Manual Medicine, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2003.
4. Cook C, Hegedus E, Showalter C, Sizer PS Jr. Coupling behavior of the cervical spine: a systematic review of the literature. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2006;29(7):570–575.
5. Stevinson C, Ernst E. Risks associated with spinal manipulation. Am J Med. 2002;112(7):566–571.
6. Di Fabio RP. Manipulation of the cervical spine: risks and benefits. Phys Ther. 1999;79(1):50–65.
7. Jonsson ALNE. Neck and Back Pain: The Scientific Evidence of Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2000.
8. Bronfort G, Evans R, Anderson AV, et al. Spinal manipulation, medication, or home exercise with advice for acute and subacute neck pain: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156(1 Pt 1):1–10. doi: 10.1059/0003-4819-156-1-201201030-00002.
9. Chou R, Huffman LH. Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(7):492–504.
10. Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain: an update of a Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36(13):E825–846. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182197fe1.
11. Rubinstein SM, Terwee CB, Assendelft WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low back pain: an update of the Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013;38(3):E158–177. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31827dd89d.
12. Lance JW. Symposium synopsis. In Feldman RG, Young RR, Koella WP, eds. Spasticity: Disordered Motor Control. Chicago: Year Book Medical. 1980: pp. 485–494.
13. Bohannon RW, Smith MB. Interrater reliability of a modified Ashworth scale of muscle spasticity. Phys Ther. 1987;67(2):206–207.
14. Braddom RL, Chan L, Harrast MA. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 4th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. 2011.
15. Cuccurullo SJ. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Board Review, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Demos Medical Publishing. 2009.