Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2009
  • Online publication date: June 2012

13 - Models of personality and health

from Part III - Development, Health and Personality Change


Antonovsky, A. 1991. The structural sources of salutogenic strengths, in C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (eds.), Personality and stress: individual differences in the stress process, Wiley series on studies in occupational stress, pp. 67–104. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons
Appelberg, K., Romanov, K., Honkasalo, M. L. and Koskenvuo, M. 1991. Interpersonal conflicts at work and psychosocial characteristics of employees, Social Science and Medicine 32: 1051–6
Arnett, P. A. and Newman, J. P. 2000. Gray’s three-arousal model: an empirical investigation, Personality and Individual Differences 28: 1171–89
Baum, A. and Nesselhof, S. E. 1988. Psychological research and the prevention, etiology, and treatment of AIDS, American Psychologist 43: 900–6
Baum, A. and Posluszny, D. M. 1999. Health psychology: mapping biobehavioural contributions to health and illness, Annual Review of Psychology 50: 137–63
Besedovsky, H. O., del Rey, A., Klusman, I., Furukawa, H., Monge Arditi, G. and Kabiersch, A. 1991. Cytokines as modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 40: 613–18
Besedovsky, H. O., Herberman, R. B., Temoshok, L. R. and Sendo, F. 1996. Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: fifteenth Sapporo Cancer Seminar, Cancer Research 56: 4278–81
Bigaard, J., Tjonneland, A., Thomsen, B. L., Overvad, K., Heitmann, B. L. and Sorensen, T. I. A. 2003. Waist circumference, BMI, smoking, and mortality in middle-aged men and women, Obesity Research 7: 895–903
Blumenthal, J. A., Barefoot, J. C., Burg, M. M. and Williams, R. B. 1987. Psychological correlates of hostility among patients undergoing coronary angiography, British Journal of Medical Psychology 60: 349–55
Bowlby, J. 1973. Attachment and loss, vol. II, Separation: anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books
Brummett, B. H., Babyak, M. A., Barefoot, J. C., Bosworth, H. B., Clapp-Channing, N. E., Siegler, I. C. et al. 1998. Social support and hostility as predictors of depressive symptoms in cardiac patients one month after hospitalization: a prospective study, Psychosomatic Medicine 60: 707–13
Brummett, B. H., Maynard, K. E., Babyak, M. A., Haney, T. L., Siegler, I. C., Helms, M. J. et al. 1998. Measures of hostility as predictors of facial affect during social interaction: evidence for construct validity, Annals of Behavioural Medicine 20: 168–73
Buss, A. H., Plomin, R. and Willerman, L. 1973. The inheritance of temperaments, Journal of Personality 41: 513–24
Cantor, N. and Kihlström, J. F. 1989. Social intelligence and cognitive assessment of personality. Hillsdale: LEA
Carey, W. B., Hegvik, R. L. and McDevitt, S. C. 1988. Temperamental factors associated with rapid weight gain and obesity in middle childhood, Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics 9: 197–8
Carmelli, D., Chesney, M. A., Ward, M. M. and Rosenman, R. H. 1985. Twin similarity in cardiovascular stress response, Health Psychology 4: 413–23
Caspi, A., Begg, D., Dickson, N., Harrington, H. L., Langley, J., Moffitt, T. E. et al. 1997. Personality differences predict health-risk behaviours in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73: 1052–63
Cassidy, J. and Shaver, P. R. 1999. Handbook of attachment: theory, research and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press
Chen, E., Matthews, K. A. and Boyce, W. T. 2002. Socioeconomic differences in children’s health: how and why do these relationships change with age?, Psychology Bulletin 128: 295–329
Cloninger, C. R., Adolfsson, R. and Svrakic, N. M. 1996. Mapping genes for human personality, National Genetics 12: 3–4
Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M. and Przybeck, T. R. 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character, Archives of General Psychiatry 50: 975–90
Cohen, S., Hamrick, N., Rodriguez, M. S., Feldman, P. J., Rabin, B. S. and Manuck, S. B. 2000. The stability of and intercorrelations among cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and psychological reactivity, Annals of Behavioural Medicine 22: 171–9
Cohen, S., Tyrrell, D. A. and Smith, A. P. 1991. Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold, New England Journal of Medicine 325: 606–12
Cooper, M. L., Wood, P. K. and Orcutt, H. K. 2003. Personality and the predisposition to engage in risky or problem behaviours during adolescence, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84: 390–410
Davey Smith, G., Hart, C., Hole, D., MacKinnon, P., Gillis, C., Watt, G. et al. 1998. Education and occupational social class: which is the more important indicator of mortality risk?, Journal of Epidemiol Community Health 52: 153–60
Denollet, J. 1998. Personality and risk of cancer in men with coronary heart disease, Psychological Medicine 28: 991–5
Denollet, J., Vaes, J. and Brutsaert, D. L. 2000. Inadequate response to treatment in coronary heart disease: adverse effects of type D personality and younger age on 5-year prognosis and quality of life, Circulation 102: 630–5
Ebstein, R. P., Nemanov, L., Klotz, I., Gritsenko, I. and Belmaker, R. H. 1997. Additional evidence for an association between the dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III repeat polymorphism and the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking, Molecular Psychiatry 2: 472–7
Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, B., Osher, Y., Blaine, D. et al. 1996. Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking, National Genetics 12: 78–80
Elovainio, M., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Pulkki-Raback, L., Kivimäki, M., Puttonen, S., Viikari, L. et al. 2006. Depressive symptoms and C-reactive protein: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, Psychological Medicine 36: 797–805
Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. and Vahtera, J. 2003. Cognitive strategies as a mediator between hostility and health: a longitudinal study on the personal need for structure (PNS). Manuscript submitted for publication
Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., Puttonen, S., Heponiemi, T., Pulkki, L. and Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. 2004. Temperament and depressive symptoms: a population-based longitudinal study on Cloninger’s psychobiological temperament model, Journal of Affective Disorders 83: 227–32
Emery, E. M., Schmid, T. L., Kahn, H. S. and Filozof, P. P. 1993. A review of the association between abdominal fat distribution, health outcome measures and modifiable risk factors, American Journal of Health Promotion 7: 342–53
Friedman, M. and Rosenman, R. H. 1959. Association of specific overt behavior pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings, Journal of American Medical Association 169: 96–106
Friedman, M. and Rosenman, R. H. 1974. Type A: your behaviours and your heart. New York: Knoft
Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T. and Elliot, A. J. 2000. Behavioural activation and inhibition in everyday life, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78: 1135–49
Gallo, L. C. and Matthews, K. A. 2003. Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and physical health: do negative emotions play a role?, Psychological Bulletin 129: 10–51
Gallo, L. C. and Smith, T. W. 2006. Socioeconomic status, psychosocial processes, and perceived health: an interpersonal perspective, Annals of Behavioural Medicine 31: 109–19
Gallo, L. C., Smith, T. W. and Cox, C. M. 2006. Socioeconomic status, psychosocial processes, and perceived health: an interpersonal perspective, Annals of Behavioural Medicine 31: 109–19
Gebhardt, C., Leisch, F., Schussler, P., Fuchs, K., Stompe, T., Sieghart, W. et al. 2000. Non-association of dopamine D4 and D2 receptor genes with personality in healthy individuals, Psychiatric Genetics 10: 131–7
Goldsmith, H. H. and Lemery, K. S. 2000. Linking temperamental fearfulness and anxiety symptoms: a behaviour-genetic perspective, Biological Psychiatry 48: 1199–1209
Gray, J. A. 1982. The neuropsychology of anxiety: an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. New York: Oxford University Press
Gray, J. A. 1991. The neuropsychology of temperament, in J. Strelau and A. Angleitner (eds.), Explorations in temperament: international perspectives on theory and measurement. Perspectives on individual differences, pp. 105–28. New York: Plenum Press
Halsey, C. L., Collin, M. F. and Anderson, C. L. 1996. Extremely low-birth-weight children and their peers: a comparison of school-age outcomes, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 150: 790–4
Hemingway, H. and Marmot, M. 1999. Evidence based cardiology: psychosocial factors in the aetiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease. Systematic review of prospective cohort studies, British Medical Journal 318: 1460–7
Heponiemi, T., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Kettunen, J., Puttonen, S. and Ravaja, N. 2004. BIS-BAS sensitivity and cardiac autonomic stress profiles, Psychophysiology 41: 37–45
Heubeck, B. G., Wilkinson, R. B. and Cologon, J. 1998. A second look at Carver and White’s (1994) BIS/BAS scales, Personality and Individual Differences 25: 785–800
Houston, B. K. and Vavak, C. R. 1991. Cynical hostility: developmental factors, psychosocial correlates, and health behaviours, Health Psychology 10: 9–17
Jorm, A. F., Christensen, H., Henderson, A. S., Jacomb, P. A., Korten, A. E. and Rodgers, B. 1999. Using the BIS/BAS scales to measure behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation: factor structure, validity and norms in a large community sample, Personality and Individual Differences 26: 49–58
Kamarck, T. W., Jennings, J. R., Debski, T. T., Glickman-Weiss, E., Johnson, P. S., Eddy, M. J. et al. 1992. Reliable measures of behaviourally-evoked cardiovascular reactivity from a PC-based test battery: results from student and community samples, Psychophysiology 29: 17–28
Kamarck, T. W., Peterman, A. H. and Raynor, D. A. 1998. The effects of the social environment on stress-related cardiovascular activation: current findings, prospects, and implications, Annals of Behavioural Medicine 20: 247–56
Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., Ekelund, J. and Peltonen, L. 2003. Novelty seeking as a mediator in relationship between type 4 dopamine receptor gene polymorphism and predisposition to higher education, Learning and Individual Differences 14: 23–8
Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Elovainio, M., Kivimäki, M., Lichtermann, D., Ekelund, J. and Peltonen, L. 2003. Association between the type 4 dopamine receptor gene polymorphism and novelty seeking, Psychosomatic Medicine 65: 471–6
Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. and Heponiemi, T. 2004. Vital exhaustion, temperament, and cardiac reactivity in task-induced stress, Biological Psychology 65: 121–35
Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Räikkönen, K. and Hautanen, A. 1996. Type A behaviour and vital exhaustion as related to the metabolic hormonal variables of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Behavioural Medicine 22: 15–22
Kendler, K. S., Kessler, R. C., Walters, E. E., MacLean, C., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C. et al. 1995. Stressful life events, genetic liability, and onset of an episode of major depression in women, American Journal of Psychiatry 152: 833–42
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. and Glaser, R. 1999. Chronic stress and mortality among older adults, Jama 282: 2259–60
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Marucha, P. T., Malarkey, W. B., Mercado, A. M. and Glaser, R. 1995. Slowing of wound healing by psychological stress, Lancet 346: 1194–6
Kiesler, D. J. 1996. From communications to interpersonal theory: a personal odyssey, Journal of Personality Assessment 66: 267–82
Kivimäki, M., Elovainio, M., Kokko, K., Pulkkinen, L., Kortteinen, M. and Tuomikoski, H. 2003. Hostility, unemployment and health status: testing three theoretical models, Social Science and Medicine 56: 2139–52
Kivimäki, M., Vahtera, J., Koskenvuo, M., Uutela, A. and Pentti, J. 1998a. Response of hostile individuals to stressful changes in their working lives: test of a psychosocial vulnerability model, Psychological Medicine 28: 903–13
Kivimäki, M., Vahtera, J., Koskenvuo, M., Uutela, A. and Pentti, J. (1998b). Response of hostile individuals to stressful changes in their working lives: test of a psychosocial vulnerability model, Psychological Medicine 28: 903–13
Kivimäki, M., Virtanen, M., Elovainio, M. and Vahtera, J. 2006. Personality, work, career and health, in L. Pulkkinen, J. Kaprio and R. J. Rose (eds.), Socioemotional Development and Health from Adolescence to Adulthood, pp. 328–42. New York: Cambridge University Press
Krantz, D. S. and Manuck, S. B. 1984. Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: a review and methodologic critique, Psychological Bulletin 96: 435–64
Krantz, D. S. and McCeney, M. K. 2002. Effects of psychological and social factors on organic disease: a critical assessment of research on coronary heart disease, Annual Review of Psychology 53: 341–69
Kuh, D., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Lynch, J., Hallqvist, J. and Power, C. 2003. Life course epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57: 778–83
Lazarus, R. S. 1984. On the primacy of cognition, American Psychologist 36: 124–9
Lazarus, R. S. 1991. Cognition and motivation in emotion, American Psychologist 46: 352–67
Lazarus, R. S. 1993. From psychological stress to the emotions: a history of changing outlooks, Annual Review of Psychology 44: 1–21
Lazarus, R. S. and Folkman, S. 1984. Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer
Lean, M. E. J., Han, T. S. and Seidell, J. C. 1998. Impairment of health and quality of life in people with large waist circumference, Lancet 351: 853–6
Lindfors, P., Lundberg, O. and Lundberg, U. 2005. Sense of coherence and biomarkers of health in 43-year-old women, International Journal of Behavioural Medicine 12: 98–102
Lipowski, Z. J. 1984. What does the word ‘psychosomatic’ really mean? A historical and semantic inquiry, Psychosomatic Medicine 46: 153–71
Lynch, J. W., Kaplan, G. A. and Shema, S. J. 1997. Cumulative impact of sustained economic hardship on physical, cognitive, psychological, and social functioning, New England Journal of Medicine 337: 1889–5
Lyness, S. A. 1993. Predictors of differences between Type A and B individuals in heart rate and blood pressure reactivity, Psychological Bulletin 114: 266–95
Maier, S. F. and Watkins, L. R. 1998. Cytokines for psychologists: implications of bidirectional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behaviour, mood, and cognition, Psychological Review 105: 83–107
Magnusson, D. and Törestad, B. 1993. A holistic view of personality: a model revisited, Annual Review of Psychology 44: 427–52
Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R. G. 2001. Psychosocial and material pathways in the relation between income and health: a response to Lynch et al., British Medical Journal 322: 1233–6
Masse, L. C. and Tremblay, R. E. 1997. Behaviour of boys in kindergarten and the onset of substance use during adolescence, Archives of General Psychiatry 51: 732–9
McCaffery, J. M., Bleil, M., Pogue-Geile, M. F., Ferrell, R. E. and Manuck, S. B. 2003. Allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and cardiovascular reactivity in young adult male and female twins of European-American descent, Psychosomatic Medicine 65: 721–8
McEwen, B. S. 1998. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators, New England Journal of Medicine 338: 171–9
McEwen, B. S. and Stellar, E. 1993. Stress and the individual: mechanisms leading to disease, Archives of Internal Medicine 153: 2093–101
McGrath, J. E. and Beehr, T. A. 1990. Time and the stress response, Stress Medicine 6: 93–104
Miller, S. B. and Ditto, B. 1991. Exaggerated sympathetic nervous system response to extended psychological stress in offspring of hypertensives, Psychophysiology 28: 103–13
Miller, T. Q., Markides, K. S., Chiriboga, D. A. and Ray, L. A. 1995. A test of the psychosocial vulnerability and health behaviour models of hostility: results from an 11-year follow-up study of Mexican Americans, Psychosometric Medicine 57: 572–81
Miller, T. Q., Smith, T. W., Turner, C. W., Guijarro, M. L. and Hallet, A. J. 1996. A meta-analytic review of research on hostility and physical health, Psychological Bulletin 119: 322–48
Mischel, W. and Shoda, Y. 1995. A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure, Psychological Review 102: 246–68
Munafo, M. R., Clark, T. G., Moore, L. R., Payne, E., Walton, R. and Flint, J. 2003. Genetic polymorphisms and personality in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Molecular Psychiatry 8: 471–84
Paunonen, S. V. and Ashton, M. C. 2001. Big Five factors and facets and the prediction of behaviour, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81: 524–39
Pope, M. K. and Smith, T. W. 1991. Cortisol excretion in high and low cynically hostile men, Psychosomatic Medicine 53: 386–92
Power, C., Matthews, S. and Manor, O. 1998. Inequalities in self-rated health: explanations from different stages of life, Lancet 351: 1009–14
Pulkki, L., Kivimäki, M., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Elovainio, M., Leino, M. and Viikari, J. 2003. Contribution of adolescent and early adult personality to the inverse association between education and cardiovascular risk behaviours: prospective population-based cohort study, International Journal of Epidemiology 32: 968–75
Pulkkinen, L. and Pitkänen, T. 1994. A prospective study of the precursors to problem drinking in young adulthood, Journal of Studies in Alcoholism 55: 578–87
Räikkönen, K., Matthews, K. A. and Salomon, K. 2003. Hostility predicts metabolic syndrome risk factors in children and adolescents, Health Psychology 22: 279–86
Ravaja, N. 1996. Psychological antecedents of metabolic syndrome precursors in the young. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino
Ravaja, N. 2004. Effects of a small talking facial image on autonomic activity: the moderating influence of dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities and emotions, Biological Psychology 65: 163–83
Ravaja, N. and Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. 1995. Temperament and metabolic syndrome precursors in children: a three-year follow-up, Preventive Medicine 24: 518–27
Rexrode, K. M., Carey, V. J., Hennekens, C. H., Walters, E. E., Golditz, G. A., Stampfer, M. J. et al. 1998. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women, Journal of the American Medical Association 280: 1843–8
Rosenberg, E. L., Ekman, P. and Blumenthal, J. A. 1998. Facial expression and the affective component of cynical hostility in male coronary heart disease patients, Health Psychology 17: 376–80
Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S. and Bridges, M. W. 1994. Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test, Journal of Personal Social Psychology 67: 1063–78
Scherwitz, L. W., Perkins, L. L., Chesney, M. A., Hughes, G. H., Sidney, S. and Manolio, T. A. 1992. Hostility and health behaviours in young adults: the CARDIA study, American Journal of Epidemiology 136: 136–45
Schneiderman, M. A. 1987. Mortality experience of employees with occupational exposure to DBCP, Archives of Environmental Health 42: 245–7
Schneiderman, N. 1987. Psychophysiologic factors in atherosgenesis and coronary artery disease, Circulation 76: 541–7
Selye, H. 1956. What is stress?, Metabolism 5: 525
Selye, H. 1973. The evaluation of the stress concept, American Scientist 61: 692–9
Sheldon, K. M. and Elliot, A. J. 2000. Personal goals in social roles: divergences and convergences across roles and levels of analysis, Journal of Personality 68: 51–84
Singh, J. P., Larson, M. G., O’Donnell, C. J. and Levy, D. 2001. Genetic factors contribute to the variance in frequency domain measures of heart rate variability, Autonomic Neuroscience-Basic and Clinical 90: 122–6
Smith, T. W. (1992). Hostility and health: current status of a psychosomatic hypothesis, Health Psychology 11: 139–50
Smith, T. W., Allred, K. D., Sanders, J. D., Pope, M. K. and O’Keeffe, J. L. 1988. Cynical hostility at home and work: psychosocial vulnerability across domains, Journal of Research in Personality 22: 525–48
Smith, T. W. and Frohm, K. D. 1985. What’s so unhealthy about hostility? Construct validity and psychosocial correlates of the Cook and Medley Ho scale, Health Psychology 4: 503–20
Smith, T. W., Glazer, K., Ruiz, J. M. and Gallo, L. C. 2004. Hostility, anger, aggressiveness, and coronary heart disease: an interpersonal perspective on personality, emotion, and health, Journal of Personality 72: 1217–70
Smith, T. W. and Mackenzie, J. 2006. Personality and risk of physical illness, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 2: 435–67
Smith, T. W. and Pope, M. K. 1990. Cynical hostility as a health risk: current status and future directions, Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality 5: 77–88
Stansfeld, S. A., Fuhrer, R., Shipley, M. J. and Marmot, M. G. 2002. Psychological distress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in the Whitehall II Study, International Journal of Epidemiology 31: 248–55
Strike, P. C., Perkins-Porras, L., Whitehead, D. L., McEwan, J. and Steptoe, A. 2006. Triggering of acute coronary syndromes by physical exertion and anger: clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, Heart 92: 1035–40
Suls, J. and Wan, C. K. 1993. The relationship between trait hostility and cardiovascular reactivity: a quantitative review and analysis, Psychophysiology 30: 615–26
Sweeting, H. and West, P. 1995. Family life and health in adolescence: a role for culture in the health inequalities debate?, Social Science and Medicine 40: 163–75
Swinburn, B. A., Caterson, I., Seidell, J. C. and James, W. P. T. 2004. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity, Public Health Nutrition 7: 123–46
Tranel, D. T., Fisher, A. E. and Fowles, D. C. 1982. Magnitude of incentive effects on heart rate, Psychophysiology 19: 514–19
Virtanen, M., Kivimäki, M., Elovainio, M. and Vahtera, J. 2002. Selection from fixed term to permanent employment: prospective study on health, job satisfaction, and behavioural risks, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56: 693–9
Yang, X., Telama, R., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L. and Räikkönen, K. 1998. Type A behaviour as a determinant of participation in physical activity and sport among adolescents, European Physical Education Review 4: 21–33
Yang, X., Telama, R. and Leskinen, E. 2000. Testing a multidisciplinary model of socialization into physical activity: a 6-year follow-up study, European Journal of Physical Education 5: 67–87