Skip to main content Accessibility help
The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Cited by
    This book has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Klenk, Michael 2017. Old Wine in New Bottles. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Vol. 20, Issue. 4, p. 781.

    Sinclair, Neil 2018. The Naturalistic Fallacy.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Recommend this book

    Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection.

    The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Ethics
    • Online ISBN: 9781316459409
    • Book DOI:
    Please enter your name
    Please enter a valid email address
    Who would you like to send this to *
  • Buy the print book

Book description

Evolutionary ethics - the application of evolutionary ideas to moral thinking and justification - began in the nineteenth century with the work of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, but was subsequently criticized as an example of the naturalistic fallacy. In recent decades, however, evolutionary ethics has found new support among both the Darwinian and the Spencerian traditions. This accessible volume looks at the history of thought about evolutionary ethics as well as current debates in the subject, examining first the claims of supporters and then the responses of their critics. Topics covered include social Darwinism, moral realism, and debunking arguments. Clearly written and structured, the book guides readers through the arguments on both sides, and emphasises the continuing relevance of evolutionary theory to our understanding of ethics today.


'No comprehensive understanding of where the debates over evolutionary ethics currently lie would be possible without The Cambridge Handbook. It is an indispensable guide to critical philosophical disputes.'

Scott M. James Source: Metascience

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive
  • Send content to

    To send content items to your account, please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account. Find out more about sending content to .

    To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

    Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

    Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

    Please be advised that item(s) you selected are not available.
    You are about to send

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Page 1 of 2

Page 1 of 2

Abbot, Patrick, Jun Abe, John Alcock, Samuel Alizon, Joao A. C. Alpedrinha, Malte Andersson, Jean-Baptiste Andre, et al. 2011. “Inclusive Fitness Theory and Eusociality.” Nature 471 (March 24): E1E4.
Abend, G. 2010. “What’s New and What’s Old about the New Sociology of Morality?” In Handbook of the Sociology of Morality, eds. Hitlin, S. and Vaisey, S., 561584. New York: Springer.
Adams, Robert M. 1999. Finite and Infinite Goods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Adams, R. S., et al. 1995. “Calculating Drinking Water Intake for Lactating Cows.” Dairy Reference Manual (NRAES-63). Ithaca, NY: Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service.
Addams, Jane. 1893. “The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements.” In Philanthropy and Social Progress: Seven Essays, ed. Adams, Henry C., 126. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Addams, Jane. 1902. Democracy and Social Ethics. New York: Macmillan.
Addams, Jane. 1907. Newer Ideals of Peace. New York: Macmillan.
Alcock, John. 2003. The Triumph of Sociobiology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Alexander, R. 1985. “A Biological Interpretation of Moral Systems.” Zygon 20 (1): 320.
Alexander, Samuel. 1889. Moral Order and Progress: An Analysis of Ethical Conceptions. London: Trübner.
Alexander, Samuel. 1920. Space, Time and Deity. London: MacMillan and Co.
Allee, Warder Clyde. 1927. “Animal Aggregations.” Quarterly Review of Biology 2: 367398.
Allee, Warder Clyde. 1938. The Social Life of Animals. Norton: New York
Allee, Warder Clyde. 1940. “Concerning the Origin of Sociality in Animals.” Scientia LXVII: 154160.
Allen, Elizabeth, Barbara Beckwith, Jon Beckwith, Steven Chorover, David Culver, Margaret Duncan, Steven Gould, et al. 1975. “Against Sociobiology.” New York Review of Books 22: 4344.
Allhoff, Fritz. 2003. “Evolutionary Ethics from Darwin to Moore.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 25: 5179.
Anderson, Elizabeth. 1991. “John Stuart Mill and Experiments in Living.” Ethics 102: 426.
Anderson, Elizabeth. 1998. “Pragmatism, Science, and Moral Inquiry.” In In Face of the Facts: Moral Inquiry in American Scholarship, eds. Fox, Richard Wightman and Westbrook, Robert B., 1039. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center.
Anderson, Elizabeth. 2014a. “Dewey’s Moral Philosophy.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Anderson, Elizabeth. 2014b. “Social Movements, Experiments in Living, and Moral Progress: Case Studies from Britain’s Abolition of Slavery.” Lindley Lectures. University of Kansas.
Anderson, Melissa E. 2004. “Jane Addams’ Democracy and Social Ethics: Defending Care Ethics.” Macalester Journal of Philosophy 13(1): Article 2.
Annas, J., and Barnes., J. 2000. Sextus Empiricus: Outlines of Scepticism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Appiah, K. 2008. Experiments in Ethics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica (1265–1274 – 3 vols.).
Arumugam, Manimozhiyan, Raes, Jeroen, Pelletier, Eric, Paslier, Denis Le, Yamada, Takuji, Mende, Daniel R., Fernandes, Gabriel R., et al. 2011. “Enterotypes of the Human Gut Microbiome.” Nature 473 (7346): 174180. doi:10.1038/nature09944.
Atran, S., and Henrich, J.. 2010. “The Evolution of Religion: How Cognitive By-Products, Adaptive Learning Heuristics, Ritual Displays, and Group Competition Generate Deep Commitments to Prosocial Religions.” Biological Theory 5 (1): 1830.
Audi, R. 1993. “Ethical Reflectionism.” The Monist 76: 295315.
Audi, R. 1996. The Good in the Right. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Audi, R. 2004. The Good in the Right: A Theory of Intuition and Intrinsic Value. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Axelrod, R. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Ayala, F. 2010. “The Difference of Being Human: Morality.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107: 90159022.
Baillargeon, R. 2008. “Innate Ideas Revisited for a Principle of Persistence in Infants’ Physical Reasoning.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 3: 213.
Bandura, A. 1999. “Moral Disengagement in the Perpetration of Inhumanities.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 3: 193–209.
Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. and Tooby., J. 1992. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.
Baron, S. 2007. Thinking and Deciding, 4th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bartels, D., Bauman, C., Cushman, F., Pizarro, D. and McGraw., A. P. 2016. “Moral Judgment and Decision Making.” In The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, Volume 1, eds. 479491. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Beck, N. 2012. “Be Fruitful and Multiply: Growth, Reason and Cultural Group Selection in Hayek & Darwin. Biological Theory 6(4): 413423.
Beck, N. 2013. “Social Darwinism.” In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Darwin and Evolutionary Thought, ed. Ruse, M., 195201. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bedke, Matt. “Intuitive Non-Naturalism Meets Cosmic Coincidence.” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90: 188209.
Bentham, J. 1978. “Offences Against One’s Self.” Journal of Homosexuality 4 (3): 389405.
Bentley, Michael. 2011. The Life and Thought of Herbert Butterfield: History, Science and God. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bergman, M., and Kain, P., eds. 2014. Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bergson, Henri. 1911. Creative Evolution. New York: Henry Holt and Co.
Berker, S., 2009. “The Normative Insignificance of Neuroscience.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 37: 293329.
Berker, Selim. 2014. “Does Evolutionary Psychology Show that Normativity Is Mind-Dependent?” In Moral Psychology & Human Agency. Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics, eds. D’Arms, Justin and Jacobson, Daniel, 215252. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bernhardi, F. V. 1912. Germany and the Next War (Deutschland und der Nächster Krieg), trans. A. H. Powells. Stuttgart und Berlin: J. G. Cotta.
Besaude-Vincent, Bernadette. 2014. “Concluding Remarks: A View of the Past through the Lens of the Present.” Osiris 29: 298309.
Binmore, K. 2005. Natural Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blackburn, Simon. 1984. Spreading the Word. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Blackburn, Simon. 1985. “Supervenience Revisited.” In Exercises in Analysis, ed. Hacking, Ian, 4767. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blackburn, Simon. 1993. Essays in Quasi-Realism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Boehm, C. 2012. Moral Origins: The Evolution of Virtue, Altruism and Shame. New York: Basic Books.
Borrello, Mark. 2004. “‘Mutual Aid’ and ‘Animal Dispersion’: An Historical Analysis of Alternatives to Darwin.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47: 1531.
Borrello, Mark. 2005. “The Rise, Fall, and Resurrection of Group Selection.” Endeavour 29: 4347.
Bouchard, Frédéric. 2009. “Understanding colonial traits using symbiosis research and ecosystem ecology.” Biological Theory 4 (3): 240246.
Bouchard, Frédéric. 2013. “What Is a Symbiotic Superindividual and How Do You Measure Its Fitness.” In From Groups to Individuals Evolution and Emerging Individuality, Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology, eds. Bouchard, Frédéric and Huneman, Philippe, 243264. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bouchard, Frédéric, and Huneman, Philippe, eds. 2013. From Groups to Individuals Evolution and Emerging Individuality, Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bowles, S., and Gintis, H.. 2006. “The Evolutionary Basis of Collective Action.” In The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy, eds. Barry G. Weingast and Donald A. Wittman, 951–70. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bowles, S., and Gintis, H.. 2011. A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and Its Evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Boyd, Robert, and Richerson, Peter J.. 1995. “Why Culture Is Common, but Cultural Evolution Is Rare.” Proceedings of the British Academy 88: 77–93.
Boyd, Robert, and Richerson, Peter J.. 2004. The Origin and Evolution of Cultures (Evolution and Cognition). New York: Oxford University Press
Boyer, P. 2002. Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought. New York: Basic Books.
Braddock, Matthew, Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter, and Mogensen, Andreas. 2012. “Comments on Justin Clarke-Doane’s ‘Morality and Mathematics: The Evolutionary Challenge.” Ethics at PEA Soup.
Brink, David O. 1989. Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Broad, C. D. 1925. The Mind and Its Place in Nature. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.
Broad, C. D. 1944. “Critical Notice of Julian Huxley’s Evolutionary Ethics.” Mind 53: 156187.
Broad, C. D. 1944. “Review of Evolution & Ethics by Julian S. Huxley.” Mind 53: 344367.
Brobjer, Thomas. 2008. Nietzsche’s Philosophical Context. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
Brosnan, K. 2011. “Do the Evolutionary Origins of Our Moral Beliefs Undermine Moral Knowledge?Biology and Philosophy 26: 5164.
Brosnan, S., and de Waal, F.. 2003. “Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay.” Nature 425: 297299.
Browne, Janet. 2010. “Asa Gray and Charles Darwin: Corresponding Naturalists.” Harvard Papers in Botany 15: 209220.
Budziszewski, J. 2011. What We Can’t Not Know: A Guide. Rev. ed. San Francisco: Ignatius.
Bulbulia, J. 2004. “Religious Costs as Adaptations that Signal Altruistic Intention.” Evolution and Cognition 10 (1): 1938.
Buller, David J. 2005. Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Burgess, J. 2007. “Against Ethics.” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (5): 427439.
Buss, D. M. 1996. “Evolutionary Insights into Feminism and the ‘Battle of the Sexes.’” In Sex, Power, Conflict: Evolutionary and Feminist Perspectives, eds. Buss, D. M. and Malamuth, N.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Buss, D. M. 1998. Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Buss, D. M. 2005.The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Buss, D. M., and Schmitt, D. P.. 2011. “Evolutionary Psychology and Feminism.” Sex Roles 64: 768787.
Butterfield, Herbert. 1931. The Whig Interpretation of History. London: Bell and Sons.
Butterworth, Brian. 1999. What Counts? How Every Brain Is Hardwired for Math. New York: Free Press.
Callebaut, Werner, and Rasskin-Gutman, Diego, eds. 2005. Modularity: Understanding the Development and Evolution of Natural Complex Systems, Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Campbell, R. 1996. “Can Biology Make Ethics Objective?Biology and Philosophy 11: 2131.
Cannon, Walter B. 1932. The Wisdom of the Body. New York: Norton and Co.
Caplan, Arthur L. 1980. Sociobiology Debate: Readings on Ethical and Scientific Issues. New ed. New York: Joanna Cotler Books.
Carabotti, Marilia, Scirocco, Annunziata, Maselli, Maria Antonietta, and Severi, Carola. 2015. “The Gut-Brain Axis: Interactions between Enteric Microbiota, Central and Enteric Nervous Systems.” Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology 28 (2): 203209.
Carr-Saunders, A.M. 1922. The Population Problem; A Study in Human Evolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Casebeer, W. D. 2003. Natural Ethical Facts: Evolution, Connectionism, and Moral Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca, and Feldman, Marcus W.. 1981. Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Chomsky, N. 1959. “Review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior.” Language 35: 2658.
Chudek, M., Zhao, W., and Henrich, J.. 2013. “Gene-Culture Coevolution, Large-Scale Cooperation, and the Shaping of Human Social Psychology.” In Cooperation and Its Evolution, eds. Sterelny, K., Joyce, R., Calcott, B., and Fraser, B., 425458. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Churchland, P. 2011. Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us About Morality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Clark, Maudemarie, and Dudrick, David. 2012. The Soul of Nietzsche’s Beyond Good & Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clarke-Doane, Justin. 2012. “Morality and Mathematics: The Evolutionary Challenge.” Ethics 122: 313340.
Clarke-Doane, Justin. 2015. “Justification and Explanation in Mathematics and Morality.” In Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 10, ed. Shafer-Landau, Russ80–104. New York: Oxford University Press.
Clarke-Doane, Justin. 2016. “Debunking and Dispensability.” In Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics, eds. Sinclair, Neil and Leibowitz, Uri. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clarke-Doane, Justin. 2017. “What is the Benacerraf Problem?” In New Perspectives on the Philosophy of Paul Benacerraf: Truth Objects Infinity, ed.Pataut, Fabrice, 17–43. Dordrecht: Springer.
Clements, Frederic. 1905. Research Methods in Ecology. Nebraska: University Pub. Co.
Clements, Frederic. 1916. Plant Succession. Washington DC: Carnegie Institution.
Clements, Frederic. 1949. “Competition in Plant Societies (1933).” In Dynamics of Vegetation, ed. Allred, B. W.. New York: H. W. Wilson Company.
Cobbe, F. P. 1872. Darwinism in Morals and Other Essays. London: Williams and Norgate.
Coe, Sophie D. 1994. America’s First Cuisines. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Cohen, G. E. 2003. “Facts and Principles.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 31: 211245.
Cohen, T., Montoya, R., and Insko, C.. 2006. “Group Morality and Intergroup Relations: Cross-cultural and Experimental Evidence.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 32 (11): 15591572.
Cook, L. 2003. “The Rise and Fall of the Carbonaria Form of the Peppered Moth.” Quarterly Review of Biology 78 (4): 399417.
Copp, David. (2008). “Darwinian Skepticism about Moral Realism.Philosophical Issues 18: 186206.
Coren, S., Ward, L. M. and Enns, J. T.. 2004. Sensation and Perception, 6th ed. Hobokan, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Corning, Peter. 2005. Holistic Darwinism: Synergy, Cybernetics, and the Bioeconomics of Evolution. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
Cosmides, Leda, and Tooby, John. 1987. “From Evolution to Behavior: Evolutionary Psychology as the Missing Link.” In The Latest on the Best: Essays on Evolution and Optimality, 1st ed., ed. Dupré, John, 277–306. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., and Barkow, J. H.. 1995. “Introduction: Evolutionary Psychology and Conceptual Integration.” In The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, eds. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J., 163–228. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Cottingham, J. 2005. The Spiritual Dimension. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cracraft, James. 2012. Two Shining Souls: Jane Addams, Leo Tolstoy, and the Quest for Global Peace. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Crippen, Matthew. 2010. “William James on Belief: Turning Darwinism against Empiricist Skepticism.” Transactions of the Charles S. Pierce Society 46: 477502.
Crisp, Roger. 2006. Reasons and the Good. Oxford: Clarendon.
Cross, Stephen J., and Albury, William R.. 1987. “Walter B. Cannon, L. J. Henderson, and the Organic Analogy.” Osiris 3: 165–192.
Cuneo, Terence, and Shafer-Landau, Russ. 2014. “The Moral Fixed Points: New Directions for Moral Nonnaturalism.Philosophical Studies. doi:10.1007/s11098-013-0277-5.
Cunningham, S. 1996. Philosophy and the Darwinian Legacy. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Cushman, F., Gray, K., Gaffey, A., and Mendes, W.. 2012. “Simulating Murder: The Aversion to Harmful Action.” Emotion 12: 17.
Dahaene, Stanislas. 1997. The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Daly, C., and Liggins., D. 2010. “In Defence of Error Theory.Philosophical Studies 149: 209230.
Dancy, J. 1985. An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: Blackwell.
Daniels, Norman. 1979. “Wide Reflective Equilibrium and Theory Acceptance in Ethics.” Journal of Philosophy 76: 256282.
Darwall, S., Gibbard, A., and Railton, P.. 1992. “Toward Fin de siècle Ethics: Some Trends.Philosophical Review, 101(1): 115189.
Darwin, C. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.
Darwin, C. 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Penguin.
Darwin, C. 1872. The Origin of Species, 6th ed. London: John Murray.
Darwin, C. (1879) 2004. The Descent of Man. London: Penguin Classics.
Darwin, C. 1881. Letter 13230. Darwin Correspondence Database.
Darwin, C. 1882. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2nd ed. New York: D. Appleton & Company.
Daston, Lorraine, and Richards, Robert J., eds. 2016. “Introduction.” In Structure of Scientific Revolutions at Fifty, 1–11. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Dawkins, Richard. 1976. The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dawkins, Richard. 2006. The God Delusion. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Dawkins, Richard. 2012. “The Descent of Edward Wilson.” Prospect Magazine (May 24).
de Araujo, Ivan E., Lin, Tammy, Veldhuizen, Maria G., and Small, Dana M.. 2013. “Metabolic Regulation of Brain Response to Food Cues.” Current Biology 23 (10): 878883. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.04.001.
de Lazari-Radek, K., and Singer., P. 2012. “The Objectivity of Ethics and the Unity of Practical Reason.” Ethics 123: 931.
DeMarco, J. P. 1996. Moral Theory, A Contemporary Overview. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
DePaul, Michael. 1993. Balance and Refinement: Beyond Coherence Methods of Moral Inquiry. London: Routledge.
De Waal, Frans. 1997. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
De Waal, Frans. 2006. Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Deegan, Mary Jo. 1988. Jane Addams and the Men of the Chicago School, 1892–1918. New Brunswick: Transaction.
Dennett, D. 1995. Darwin’s Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life. New York: Simon and Shuster.
Dennett, D. 2003. Freedom Evolves. New York: Penguin.
Dennett, D. 2006. Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon. New York: Penguin.
Dewey, John. 1891. Outlines of a Critical Theory of Ethics. Ann Arbor, MI: Inland Press.
Dewey, John. 1892. “Green’s Theory of the Moral Motive.” Philosophical Review 1: 593612.
Dewey, John. 1894. “Moral Philosophy.” In Johnson’s Universal Cyclopaedia: A New Edition, Volume 5, ed. Adams, Charles Kendall 880885. New York: A. J. Johnson.
Dewey, John. 1898. “Evolution and Ethics.” The Monist 8: 321341.
Dewey, John. 1902. “The Evolutionary Method as Applied to Morality.” Philosophical Review 11: 107124, 353371.
Dewey, John. 1910. The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy, and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought. New York: Henry Holt.
Dewey, John. 2010. “Sociology of Ethics (1902–1903).” In The Class Lectures of John Dewey, Vol. 1, ed. Koch, Donald F., 22462650. Charlottesville: Intelex.
Dewey, John, and Tufts, James H.. 1908. Ethics. New York: Henry Holt.
Donnellan, Brendan. 1982. “Friedrich Nietzsche and Paul Rée: Cooperation and Conflict.” Journal of the History of Ideas, 43: 595612.
Douglas, H. 2011. “Domestic Violence Research: Valuing Stories.” In Qualitative Criminology, 129139.
Driesch, H. 1908. The Science and Philosophy of the Organism. Aberdeen: University of Aberdeen Press.
Dugatkin, Lee Alan. 1997. Cooperation among Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dupré, John. 1993. The Disorder of Things: Metaphysical Foundations of the Disunity of Science, New ed. Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dupree, A. Hunter. 1959. “The First Darwinian Debate in America: Gray versus Agassiz.” Daedalus 88: 560569.
Durkheim, É . 1973. “The Division of Labour in Society.” Extracts in On Morality and Society, ed. Bellah, R. N.. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
Durkheim, É . 1982. The Rules of Sociological Method, ed. Lukes, S.. New York: Macmillan.
Durkheim, É . 1993. Ethics and the Sociology of Morals, ed. Hall, R. T.. New York: Prometheus Books.
Dwyer, S. 2006. “How Good Is the Linguistic Analogy?” In The Innate Mind, Volume 2: Culture and Cognition, eds.Carruthers, P., Laurence, S., and Stich, S., 237255. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Eddy, Beth. 2010. “Struggle or Mutual Aid: Jane Addams, Petr Kropotkin, and the Progressive Encounter with Social Darwinism.” The Pluralist 5: 2143.
Eddy, Beth. 2016. Evolutionary Pragmatism and Ethics. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
Eldakar, Omar Tonsi, and Wilson, David Sloan. 2011. “Eight Criticisms Not to Make about Group Selection.” Evolution 65: 15231526.
Emerson, Alfred E. 1939. “Social Coordination and the Superorganism.” American Midland Naturalist 21: 182209.
Enoch, David. 2010. “The Epistemological Challenge to Metanormative Realism.” Philosophical Studies 148: 413438.
Enoch, David. 2011. Taking Morality Seriously. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Feffer, Andrew. 1993. The Chicago Pragmatists and American Progressivism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Fesmire, Steven. 2003. John Dewey and the Moral Imagination: Pragmatism in Ethics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Field, Hartry. 1989. Realism, Mathematics, and Modality. Oxford: Blackwell.
Field, Hartry. 2005. “Recent Debates about the A Priori.” In Oxford Studies in Epistemology, Volume I, eds. Gendler, Tamar Szabo and Hawthorne, John, 69–88. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Fischer, Marilyn. 2013. “Reading Addams’s Democracy and Social Ethics as a Social Gospel, Evolutionary Idealist Text.” The Pluralist 8: 1731.
FitzPatrick, William. 2008. “Morality and Evolutionary Biology.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2008 Edition), ed. Zalta, Edward N..
FitzPatrick, William. 2014. “Why There Is No Darwinian Dilemma for Ethical Realism.” In Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution, eds. Bergmann, M. and Kain, P., 237–255. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
FitzPatrick, William. 2015. “Debunking Evolutionary Debunking of Ethical Realism.” Philosophical Studies 172: 883904.
Foot, Philippa. 2001. Natural Goodness. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Francis, M. 2007. Herbert Spencer and the Invention of Modern Life. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Francis, Mark. 2014. Herbert Spencer and the Invention of Modern Life. New York: Routledge.
Francis, Mark, and Taylor, Michael. 2015. Herbert Spencer: Legacies. New York: Routledge.
Frank, R. H. 1988. Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New York: Norton.
Fraser, B. 2014. “Evolutionary Debunking Arguments and the Reliability of Moral Cognition.” Philosophical Studies 168: 457473.
Fry, Iris. 1996. “On the Biological Significance of the Properties of Matter: L. J. Henderson’s Theory of the Fitness of the Environment.” Journal of the History of Biology 29: 155196.
Gardner, Andy. 2011. “Kin Selection Under Blending Inheritance.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 284: 125129.
Garner, R. 1994. Beyond Morality. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Garner, R. 2007. “Abolishing Morality.” Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10(5): 499–513.
Gaulin, S. J. C., and McBurney, D.. 2001. Psychology: An Evolutionary Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gayon, Jean. 1999. Nietzsche and Darwin. In Biology and the Foundation of Ethics, eds. Maienschein, Jane and Ruse, Michael. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gert, B. 2012. “The Definition of Morality.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2012 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta.
Gibbard, Alan. 2003. Thinking How to Live. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gintis, H., Henrich, J., Bowles, S., Boyd, R., and Fehr., E. 2008. “Strong Reciprocity and the Roots of Human Morality.” Social Justice Research 21: 241253.
Girón, Alvaro. 2003. “Kropotkin between Lamarck and Darwin: The Impossible Synthesis.” Asclepio 55: 189213.
Gissing, G. 1891. New Grub Street. Melbourne: E.A. Petherick.
Gladwell, M. 2005. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. New York: Back Bay Books.
Godfrey-Smith, Peter. 1996. Complexity and the Function of Mind in Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodwin, G., and Darley, J.. 2008. “The Psychology of Metaethics: Exploring Objectivism.” Cognition 106 (3): 13391366.
Goodwin, G., and Darley, J.. 2010. “The Perceived Objectivity of Ethical Beliefs: Psychological Findings and Implications for Public Policy.” Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2): 161188.
Goodwin, G., and Darley, J.. 2012. “Why Are Some Moral Beliefs Seen as More Objective than Others?” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48 (1): 250256.
Gouinlock, James. 1972. John Dewey’s Philosophy of Value. New York: Humanities.
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1977. Ever since Darwin Reflections in Natural History. New York: Norton.
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1978. “Sociobiology: The Art of Storytelling.” New Scientist 80: 530533.
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1987. “The Panda’s Thumb of Technology.” Natural History 1 (Jan.): 6874.
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1988. “On Replacing the Idea of Progress with an Operational Notion of Directionality.” In Evolutionary Progress, ed. Nitecki, M. H., 319338. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Gould, Stephen Jay. 1989. Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. New York: W. W. Norton Co.
Gould, S. J., and Lewontin., R. C. 1979. “The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossion Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme.” Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, Series B 205: 581598.
Grant, B. 1999. Fine Tuning the Peppered Moth Paradigm. Evolution 53 (3): 980984.
Gray, Asa. 1877. Darwiniana: Essays and Reviews Pertaining to Darwinism. New York: Appleton.
Gray, J. 1984. Hayek on Liberty. New York: Basil Blackwell Publishers.
Green, Judith M. 2010. “Social Democracy, Cosmopolitan Hospitality, and Intercivilizational Peace: Lessons from Jane Addams.” In Feminist Interpretations of Jane Addams, ed. Hamington, Maurice, 223253. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Green, Judith M. 2013. Moral Tribes. Emotion, Reason, and the Gap between Us and Them. New York: Penguin Press.
Greene, Joshua D. 2008. “The Secret Joke of Kant’s Soul.” In Moral Psychology, Vol. 3. The Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development, ed. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, 3580. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Greene, J. 2014. “Beyond Point-and-Shoot Morality: Why Cognitive (Neuro)science Matters for Ethics.” Ethics 124: 694726.
Greene, J., Sommerville, R., Nystrom, L., Darley, J., and Cohen., J. 2001. “An fMRI Investigation of Emotional Engagement in Moral Judgment.” Science 293 (5537): 21052108.
Greenwald, A., and Banaji., M. 1995. “Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes, Self-esteem, and Stereotypes.” Psychological Review 102 (1): 427.
Guttenplan, Samuel. 1994. A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind. Oxford: Blackwell.
Haber, Matt. 2013. “Colonies Are Individuals: Revisiting the Superorganism Revival.” In From Groups to Individuals: Perspectives on Biological Associations and Emerging Individuality, Vienna Series in Theoretical Biology, eds. Bouchard, Frédéric and Huneman, Philippe, 195–217. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Haidt, J. 2001. ‘The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgment.” Psychological Review 108: 814834.
Haidt, J. 2012. The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion. New York: Pantheon.
Haidt, J. and Graham, J.. 2007. “When Morality Opposes Justice: Conservatives Have Moral Intuitions that Liberals May Not Recognize.” Social Justice Research 20 (1): 98116.
Haidt, J. and Joseph, C.. 2007. “The Moral Mind: How Five Sets of Innate Intuitions Guide the Development of Many Culture-Specific Virtues, and Perhaps Even Modules.” The Innate Mind 3: 367392.
Haines, Valerie. 1991. “Spencer, Darwin, and the Question of Reciprocal Influence.” Journal of the History of Biology 24: 409431.
Haldane, . 1932. The Causes of Evolution. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hale, Piers J. 2014. Political Descent: Malthus, Mutualism, and the Politics of Evolution in Victorian England. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Hamilton, W. D. 1964a. “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour I.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 116.
Hamilton, W. D. 1964b. “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour II.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 1752.
Hamilton, W. D. 1975. “Innate Social Aptitudes of Man: An Approach from Evolutionary Genetics.” In ASA Studies 4: Biosocial Anthropology, ed. R. Fox, 133–153. London: Malaby Press.
Hamington, Maurice. 2009. The Social Philosophy of Jane Addams. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Hardin, G. 1968. “The Tragedy of the Commons.” Science 162 (3859): 12431248.
Harman, Gilbert. 1977. The Nature of Morality: An Introduction to Ethics. New York: Oxford.
Harman, Oren. 2010. The Price of Altruism: George Price and the Search for the Origins of Kindness. New York: W. W. Norton.
Harms, W. F. 2000. “Adaption and Moral Realism.” Biology and Philosophy 15: 699712.
Harrington, . 1996. Reenchanted Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Harris, S. 2004. The End of Faith: Religion, Terror and the Future of Reason. New York: Norton.
Hauser, Mark. 2006. Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong. New York: Ecco.
Hayek, F. A. 1958. “Freedom, Reason and Tradition.” Ethics LXVIII(4): 229245.
Hayek, F. A. (1960) 1971. The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, F. A. 1967. Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Hayek, F. A. 1973. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume I: Rules and Order. London: Routledge.
Hayek, F. A. 1976. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume II: The Mirage of Social Justice. London: Routledge.
Hayek, F. A. 1978. New Studies in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas. London: Routledge.
Hayek, F. A. 1979. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Volume III: The Political Order of a Free People. London: Routledge.
Hayek, F. A. 1984. The Essence of Hayek, eds. Nishiyama, C. and Leube, K. R.. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Hayek, F. A. 1988. The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Helfand, Michael S. 1977. “T. H. Huxley’s ‘Evolution and Ethics’: The Politics of Evolution and the Evolution of Politics.” Victorian Studies 20: 159177.
Henderson, Lawrence J. 1917. The Order of Nature. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Henson, Pamela. 2008. “Alfred Edwards Emerson.” Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography 20: 389393.
Herrel, Anthony Huyghe. 2008. “Rapid Large-Scale Evolutionary Divergence in Morphology and Performance Associated with Exploitation of a Different Dietary Resource.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105 (12): 47924795.
Hinckfuss, I. 1987. The Moral Society: Its Structure and Effects. Canberra: Australian National University.
Hitchens, C. 2007. God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. New York: Twelve.
Hobbes, Thomas. (1651) 2008. Leviathan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprint, Gaskin, J. C. A. Leviathan, edited with introduction.
Hodge, M. J. S. 2009. “Capitalist Contexts for Darwinian Theory: Land, Finance, Industry and Empire.” Journal of the History of Biology 42: 399416.
Hodgson, G. M. 1991. “Hayek’s Theory of Cultural Evolution: An Evaluation in the Light of Vanberg’s Critique.” Economics and Philosophy 7: 6782.
Hodgson, G. M. 1993. Economics and Evolution: Bringing Life Back into Economics. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hodgson, G. M. 2004. “Social Darwinism in Anglophone Academic Journals: A Contribution to the History of the Term.” Journal of Historical Sociology 17(4): 428463.
Hofstadter, Richard. 1944. Social Darwinism in American Thought. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Huemer, Michael. 2005. Ethical Intuitionism. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Huemer, Michael. 2008. “Revisionary Intuitionism.” Social Philosophy and Policy 25: 368392.
Hull, David L. 1978. “A Matter of Individuality.” Philosophy of Science 45 (3): 335360.
Hull, David L. 1980. “Individuality and Selection.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 311332.
Hume, David. (1739) 2000. A Treatise of Human Nature. London: John Noon. Reprint, eds. Norton, David Fate and Norton, Mary J.. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hurka, T. 2014. British Ethical Theorists from Sidgwick to Ewing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hutter, Thiago, Gimbert, Carine, Bouchard, Frédéric, and Lapointe, François-Joseph. 2015. “Being Human Is a Gut Feeling.” Microbiome 3 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/s40168-015-0076-7.
Huxley, J., ed. 1961. The Humanist Frame. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
Huxley, Julian. 1912. The Individual in the Animal Kingdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Huxley, Julian. (1923) 1970. Essays of a Biologist. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press.
Huxley, Julian. 1926. “The Biological Basis of Individuality.” Journal of Philosophical Studies 1 (July): 305319.
Huxley, Julian. 1934. If I Were Dictator. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Huxley, Julian. 1942. Evolution: The Modern Synthesis. London: Allen and Unwin.
Huxley, Julian. 1943. TVA: Adventure in Planning. London: Scientific Book Club.
Huxley, Julian. 1948. UNESCO: Its Purpose and Its Philosophy. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press.
Huxley, Leonard. 1900. Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley (2 vols). New York: D. Appleton.
Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1871. “Administrative Nihilism.” Fortnightly Review 16: 525543.
Huxley, Thomas Henry. (1888) 2011. “The Struggle for Existence in Human Society.” In Collected Essays, Volume 9: Evolution and Ethics, 195236. Cambridge: Cambridge Library Collection.
Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1888. “The Struggle for Existence: A Programme.” Nineteenth Century 23: 161180.
Huxley, Thomas Henry. (1893) 2011. “Evolution and Ethics.” In: Collected Essays, Volume 9: Evolution and Ethics, 46116. Cambridge: Cambridge Library Collection.
Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1893 Evolution and Ethics: The Romanes Lecture 1893. London: Macmillan
Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1894. Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays. London: MacMillan and Co.
Huxley, T. H., and Huxley., J. S. 1947. Evolution and Ethics 1893–1943. London: Pilot.
Ichikawa, J., and Steup., M. 2014. “The Analysis of Knowledge.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2014 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta.
Irons, W. 1996. “Morality, Religion, and Human Nature.” In Religion and Science: History, Method, Dialogue, eds. Richardson, W. M. and Wildman, W., 375399. New York: Routledge.
Jackson, Frank. 1998. From Metaphysics to Ethics: A Defense of Conceptual Analysis. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
James, William. 1904. “The Chicago School.” Psychological Bulletin 1: 15.
Janaway, Christopher. 2007. Beyond Selflessness: Reading Nietzsche’s Genealogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2007. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279692.001.0001.
Janaway, Christopher. 2012. Nietzsche on Morality, Drives, and Human Greatness. In Nietzsche, Naturalism, and Normativity, eds. Janaway, Christopher and Robertson, Simon. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2013. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199583676.003.0008.
Jardine, Nicholas. 2003. “Whigs and Stories: Herbert Butterfield and the Historiography of Science.” History of Science 41: 125140.
Jaworska, Agnieszka, and Tannenbaum, Julie. 2013. “The Grounds of Moral Status.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2013 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta.
Jennings, Herbert Spencer. 1906. Behavior of the Lower Organisms. New York: Columbia University Press.
Jennings, Herbert Spencer. 1927. “Diverse Doctrines of Evolution, Their Relation to the Practice of Science and Life.” Science 65: 1925.
Jensen, Christopher X. J. 2010. “Robert Trivers and Colleagues on Nowak, Tarnita, and Wilson’s ‘The Evolution of Eusociality.’” (October 10).
Joyce, R. 2001. The Myth of Morality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Joyce, R. 2005. “Moral Fictionalism.” In Fictionalism in Metaphysics, ed. Kalderon, M., 287313. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Joyce, R. 2006a. The Evolution of Morality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Joyce, R. 2006b. “Is Human Morality Innate?” In The Innate Mind: Culture and Cognition, eds.,Carruthers, P., Laurence, S., and Stich, S., 257279. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Joyce, R. 2008. “Precis of Evolution of Morality and Reply to Critics.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77: 213267.
Joyce, R. 2013. “Irrealism and the Genealogy of Morals.” Ratio 26: 351–372. doi:10.1111/rati.12027.
Joyce, R. 2014. “The Evolutionary Debunking of Morality.” In Reason and Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy, 15th ed., eds. J. Feinberg and R. Shafer-Landau, 527–534. Boston: Wadsworth.
Joyce, R. 2016. “Reply: Confessions of a Modest Debunker.” In Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics: Debunking and Dispensibility, eds. Leibowitz, U. and Sinclair, N.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jumonville, Neil. 2002. “The Cultural Politics of the Sociobiology Debate.” Journal of the History of Biology 35: 569593.
Kahane, Guy. 2011. “Evolutionary Debunking Arguments.Noûs 45: 103125.
Kant, I. 1959. Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Katsafanas, Paul. 2013. “Nietzsche’s Philosophical Psychology.” In The Oxford Handbook of Nietzsche, eds. Richardson, John and Gemes, Ken, 727757. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kelly, Thomas, and McGrath, Sarah. 2010. “Is Reflective Equilibrium Enough?Philosophical Perspectives 24: 325359.
Kettlewell, B. 1973. The Evolution of Melanism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kinna, Ruth. 1992. “Kropotkin and Huxley.” Politics 12: 4147.
Kitcher, P. 1985. Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kitcher, P. 2005. “Biology and Ethics.” In Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory, ed. Copp, David, 575–586. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kitcher, P. 2006. “Four Ways of ‘Biologicizing’ Ethics.” In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 3rd ed. (Bradford Books), ed. Sober, Elliott, 439–450. New York: MIT Press.
Kitcher, P. 2011. The Ethical Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kley, R. 1994. Hayek’s Social and Political Thought. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kozo-Polyansky, Boris. 2010. Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution, trans. Victor Fet, eds. Fet, Victor and Margulis, Lynn. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Krebs, D. 2011. The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kropotkin, Pyotr. 1887. “The Scientific Bases of Anarchy.” Nineteenth Century 21: 238252.
Kropotkin, Pyotr. 1890. “Mutual Aid among Animals.” Nineteenth Century 28: 337354, 699719.
Kropotkin, Pyotr. 1891. “Mutual Aid among Savages.” Nineteenth Century 29: 538559.
Kropotkin, Pyotr. 1896. “Mutual Aid amongst Ourselves.” Nineteenth Century 39: 914936.
Kropotkin, Pyotr. 1902. Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution. Boston, MA: Extending Horizons Books.
Kvanvig, Jonathan. 1992. The Intellectual Virtues and the Life of the Mind: On the Place of the Virtues in Contemporary Epistemology. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Laham, S. 2009. “Expanding the Moral Circle.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45 (1): 250253.
Lakatos, I. 1970. “Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes.” In Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge, eds. Lakatos, I. and Musgrave, A., 91195. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leach, C., Ellemers, N. and Barreto, M.. 2007. Group Virtue: The Importance of Morality (vs. Competence and Sociability) in the Positive Evaluation of In-Groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93 (2): 234249.
Leibowitz, U. D. 2011. “Scientific Explanation and Moral Explanation.” Noûs 45: 472503.
Leibowitz, U. D. 2014. “Explaining Moral Knowledge.” Journal of Moral Philosophy 11: 3556.
Leibowitz, U. D., and Sinclair, N. eds. 2016. Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics: Debunking and Indispensability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leiter, Brian. 2002. Nietzsche on Morality. London: Routledge.
Lekan, Todd. 2003. Making Morality: Pragmatist Reconstruction in Ethical Theory. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
Levins, R., and Lewontin, R. C.. 1985. The Dialectical Biologist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lévy-Bruhl, L. 1905. Ethics and Moral Science. London: Archibald Constable & Co.
Lewis, D. 1973. Counterfactuals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lewontin, Richard. 1976. “Sociobiology: A Caricature of Darwinism.” Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 2: 2223, 30.
Lillehammer, H. 2003. “Debunking Morality: Evolutionary Naturalism and Moral Error Theory.” Biology and Philosophy 18: 567581.
Lillehammer, H. 2010. “Methods of Ethics and the Descent of Man: Sidgwick and Darwin on Ethics and Evolution.” Biology and Philosophy 25: 361378.
Lillehammer, H. 2011. “The Epistemology of Ethical Intuitions.” Philosophy 86: 175200.
Lillehammer, H. 2016. “‘An Assumption of Extreme Significance’: Moore, Ross and Spencer on Ethics and Evolution.” In Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics: Debunking and Dispensability, eds. Uri D. Leibowitz and Neil Sinclair, 103–123. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Linville, Mark. 2012. “The Moral Argument.” In The Blackwell Companion to Natural Theology, eds. Craig, William Lane and Moreland, J. P., 391448. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lloyd, E., Wilson, D. and Sober, E.. 2011. Evolutionary Mismatch and What To Do about It: A Basic Tutorial. Wesley Chapel: The Evolution Institute.
Locke, Dustin. “Darwinian Normative Skepticism.” In Challenges to Moral And Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution, eds. Michael Bergmann and Patrick Kain, 220236, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Losco, Joseph. 2011. “From Outrage to Orthodoxy? Sociobiology and Political Science at 35.” Politics and the Life Sciences 30: 8084.
Machery, E., and Mallon., R 2010. “The Evolution of Morality.” In The Moral Psychology Handbook, eds. Doris, J., Harman, G., Nichols, S., Prinz, J., Sinnott-Armstrong, W., and Stich, S., 346. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
MacIntyre, A. 1984. After Virtue. London: Duckworth.
Mackie, J. 1977. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong. New York: Penguin.
Mackie, J. (1978) 1985. “The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution.” Republished in Persons and Values: Selected Papers, Volume II, eds. Mackie, J. and Mackie, P., 120131. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mackie, J. 1979. Hume’s Moral Theory. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Mackie, J. 1980. “Review of Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense, by Michael Ruse.” Erkenntnis 15: 189194.
Mackie, J. 1982a. “Co-operation, Competition, and Moral Philosophy.Erkenntnis 17: 152–169.
Mackie, J. 1982b. “Morality and Retributive Emotions.” Erkenntnis 15: 206219.
Mackie, J. L., 1982, “Morality and the Retributive Emotions,” Criminal Justice Ethics, 1: 3–10.
Marciano, A. 2007. “Economists on Darwin’s Theory of Social Evolution and Human Behaviour.” European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 14(4): 681700.
Margulis, Lynn. 1993. Symbiosis in Cell Evolution: Microbial Communities in the Archean and Proterozoic Eons. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co.
Mason, K. 2010. “Debunking Arguments and the Genealogy of Religion and Morality.” Philosophy Compass 5: 770778.
Marett, R. R. 1902. “Origin and Validity in Ethics.” In Personal Idealism: Philosophical Essays by Eight Members of the University of Oxford, ed., 221287. London: Macmillan.
Mates, B. 1996. The Skeptic Way: Sextus Empiricus’s Outlines of Pyrrhonism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Matheson, C., and Dallmann., J. 2015. “Historicist Theories of Scientific Rationality.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), ed. Zalta, Edward N..
Maund, B. 1995. Colors: Their Nature and Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mayr, Ernst. 1990. “When Is Historiography Whiggish?Journal of the History of Ideas 51: 301309.
Mayr, Ernst. 2001. What Evolution Is. New York: Basic Books.
Mayr, E. and Provine, W. B., eds. 1980. The Evolutionary Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McDonald, R., Newell, B. and Denson, T.. 2014. “Would You Rule Out Going Green? The Effect of Inclusion Versus Exclusion Mindset on Pro-environmental Willingness.” European Journal of Social Psychology 44 (5): 507513.
McDowell, J. 1985. “Values and Secondary Properties.” In Morality and Objectivity, ed. T. Honderich, 110–29. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
McDowell, J. 1988. “Values and Secondary Properties.” In Essays on Moral Realism, ed. Sayre-McCord, G., 110–129. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press.
McFarland, D. F. 1998. “Watering Dairy Cattle.” Dairy Feeding Systems Management, Components and Nutrients (NRAES-116). Ithaca, NY: Natural Resources, Agriculture and Engineering Services.
McGranahan, Lucas. 2011. “William James’s Social Evolutionism in Focus.” Pluralist 6: 8092.
Melis, A., Altricher, K., Schneider, A., and Tomasello., M. 2013. “Allocation of Resources to Collaborators and Free-Riders by 3-Year-Olds.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 114: 364370.
Mendelson, Everett. 2008. “Locating ‘Fitness’ and L. J. Henderson.” In Fitness of the Cosmos for Life: Biochemistry and Fine-Tuning, ed. Barrow, John D., Simon Conway Morris, Stephen J. Freeland, and Charles L. Harper Jr., 3–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Midgley, M. 1978. Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Midgley, M. 1979. “Gene-juggling.” Philosophy 54: 439–58.
Mikhail, J. 2011. Elements of Moral Cognition: Rawls’ Linguistic Analogy and the Cognitive Science of Moral and Legal Judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mill, John Stuart. 1863. On Liberty. Boston, MA: Ticknor and Fields.
Mitman, Gregg. 1992. The State of Nature: Ecology, Community, and American Social Thought, 1900–1950. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Moore, A.W 1910. Pragmatism and Its Critics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Moore, G. E. 1903. Principia Ethica, rev. ed., ed. Baldwin, Tom. Cambridge: University of Chicago Press.
Moore, G. E. 1912. Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moore, Gregory. 2002. Nietzsche, Biology, and Metaphor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morgan, C. Lloyd. 1923. Emergent Evolution. London: Williams and Norgate, Ltd.
Morris, Paul J. 1997. “Louis Agassiz’s Arguments against Darwinism in his Additions to the French Translation of the ‘Essay on Classification.’” Journal of the History of Biology 30: 121134.
Murphy, J. 1982. Evolution, Morality, and the Meaning of Life. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.
Myers, F. W. H. 1881. “George Eliot.” Century Magazine 23 (November): 57–64.
Nagel, Ernest. 1954. “Naturalism Reconsidered.” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 28: 517.
Nagel, T. 2012. Mind and Cosmos: Why the Materialist Neo-Darwinian Conception of Nature is Almost Certainly False. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nanay, B. 2005. “Can Cumulative Selection Explain Adaptation?Philosophy of Science 72: 10991112.
Neander, K. 1988. “What Does Natural Selection Explain? Correction to Sober.” Philosophy of Science 55: 422426.
Nichols, S. 2004. Sentimental Rules: On the Natural Foundations of Moral Judgment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1954. The Antichrist, trans. W. Kaufmann. New York: Viking.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1966. Beyond Good and Evil, trans. W. Kaufmann. New York: Vintage Books.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1968. The Will to Power, trans. W. Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale. New York: Vintage.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1983. Untimely Meditations, trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1986. Human, All-too-Human, trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1997. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality, eds. Clark, Maudemarie and Leiter, Brian, trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 1998. On the Genealogy of Morality, trans. Maudemarie Clark and Alan Swensen. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. 2001. The Gay Science, trans. Josephine Nauckhoff. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nolan, D., Restall, G. and West, C.. 2005. “Moral Fictionalism Versus the Rest.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (3): 307330.
Nowak, Martina A., Tarnita, Corina E., and Wilson, Edward O.. 2010. “The Evolution of Eusociality.” Nature 446 (August 26): 10571062.
Nozick, Robert. 1981. Philosophical Explanations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Okasha, Samir. 2006. Evolution and the Levels of Selection. New York: Oxford University Press.
Okasha, Samir. 2010. “Altruism Researchers Must Cooperate.” Nature 467 (October 7): 653655.
Olsen, J. 2011. “Getting Real About Moral Fictionalism.” Oxford Studies in Metaethics 6: 181.
Olson, Jonas. 2011. “In Defence of Moral Error Theory.” In New Waves in Metaethics, ed. Brady, M., 6284. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Olson, Jonas. 2014. Moral Error Theory: History, Critique, Defence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Osborn, Henry Fairfield. 1894. “The Discussion between Spencer and Weismann.” Psychological Review 1: 312315.
Pappas, Gregory Fernando. 2008. John Dewey’s Ethics: Democracy as Experience. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Parascandola, John. 1971. “Organismic and Holistic Concepts in the Thought of L. J. Henderson.” Journal of the History of Biology 4: 63113.
Parfit, D. 1984. Reasons and Persons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Parfit, D. 2011. On What Matters, 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Parker, George Howard. 1924a. “Some Implications of the Evolutionary Hypothesis.” Philosophical Review 33 (November): 593603.
Parker, George Howard. 1924b. “Organic Determinism.” Science 59: 517521.
Parker, George Howard. 1938. “Biographical Memoir of William Morton Wheeler.” Biographical Memoirs 19 (National Academy of Science, 1938): 203241.
Peacocke, C. 2004. The Realm of Reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pearce, Trevor. 2010a. “From ‘Circumstances’ to ‘Environment’: Herbert Spencer and the Origins of the Idea of Organism-Environment Interaction.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41: 241252.
Pearce, Trevor. 2010b. “‘A Great Complication of Circumstances’ – Darwin and the Economy of Nature.” Journal of the History of Biology 43: 493528.
Pearce, Trevor. 2014a. “The Dialectical Biologist, circa 1890: John Dewey and the Oxford Hegelians.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 52: 747778.
Pearce, Trevor. 2014b. “The Origins and Development of the Idea of Organism-Environment Interaction.” In Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences, eds. Barker, Gillian, Desjardins, Eric and Pearce, Trevor, 1332. Dordrecht: Springer.
Pearce, Trevor. 2017. [Review of] Beth Eddy, Evolutionary Pragmatism and Ethics, Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 53.
Peterson, Erik L. 2011. “The Excluded Philosophy of Evo-Devo? Revisiting C. H. Waddington’s Failed Attempt to Embed Alfred North Whitehead’s ‘Organicism’ in Evolutionary Biology.” History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33: 301320.
Peterson, Michael. 2012. Reason and Religious Belief. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, Michael, and Ruse, Michael. 2017. Science, Evolution, and Religion: A Debate about Atheism and Theism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Philipse, Herman. 2012. God in the Age of Science: A Critique of Religious Reason. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Phillips, Paul T. 2007. “One World, One Faith: The Quest for Unity in Julian Huxley’s Religion of Evolutionary Humanism.” Journal of the History of Ideas 68 (October): 613633.
Pinker, S. 2009. How the Mind Works. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
Pinker, S. 2012. The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Penguin Books.
Plantinga, Alvin. 1993. Warrant and Proper Function. New York: Oxford University Press.
Plantinga, Alvin, and Dennett, Daniel. 2011. Science and Religion: Are They Compatible? New York: Oxford University Press.
Pollock, John. 1986. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge. Savage, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Pollock, John, and Cruz, Joseph. 1991. Contemporary Theories of Knowledge, 2nd ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Portier, . 1918. Les Symbiotes. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Library.
Pradeu, Thomas. 2012. The Limits of the Self: Immunology and Biological Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Prinz, J. 2007. The Emotional Construction of Morals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Prinz, J. 2008. “Is Morality Innate?” In Moral Psychology, Volume 1: The Evolution of Morality: Adaptations and Innateness, ed. Sinnott-Armstrong, W., 367406. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Prinz, J. 2009. “Against Moral Nativism.” In Stich and his Critics, eds. Murphy, D. and Bishop, M., 1 Malden: Blackwell.
Pritchard, H. A. 2002. Moral Writings, ed. MacAdam, J., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Putnam, H. 1981. Reason, Truth and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Quine, W. V. O. 1951. “Two Dogmas of Empiricism.” The Philosophical Review 60: 20–43.
Quine, W. V. O. 1969. “Epistemology Naturalized.” Reprint, Ontological Relativity and Other Essays, 6990. New York: Columbia University Press.
Quinn, W. 1986. “Truth and Explanation in Ethics.” Ethics 96: 524544.
Railton, P. 2003. Facts, Values and Norms: Essays Toward a Morality of Consequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rakison, D., and Derringer., J. 2008. “Do Infants Possess an Evolved Spider-Detection Mechanism?” Cognition 107: 381393.
Rashdall, H. 1907. The Theory of Good and Evil, 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ratnieks, Francis L. W., Kevin R. Foster, and Tom Wenseleers. 2011. “Darwin’s Special Difficulty: The Evolution of ‘Neuter Insects’ and Current Theory.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65: 481492.
Rawls, J. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Rée, Paul. 2003. Basic Writings, ed. and trans. Small, Robin. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Richards, R. A. 2005. “Evolutionary Naturalism and the Logical Structure of Valuation.” Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 1(2): 270294.
Richards, Robert J. 1986. “A Defense of Evolutionary Ethics.” Biology and Philosophy 1: 265293.
Richards, Robert J. 1987. Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Richards, Robert J. 1993. The Meaning of Evolution: The Morphological Construction and Ideological Reconstruction of Darwin’s Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Richards, Robert J. 2013. Was Hitler a Darwinian? Disputed Questions in the History of Evolutionary Theory. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Richards, Robert J., and Ruse, Michael. 2016. Debating Darwin. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Richardson, John. 2004. Nietzsche’s New Darwinism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Richerson, P., and Henrich, J.. 2012. “Tribal Social Instincts and the Cultural Evolution of Institutions to Solve Collective Action Problems.” Cliodynamics 3 (1): 3880.
Richerson, Peter J., and Boyd, Robert. 2005. Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Robinson, S. J. 2008. “How to Be an Error Theorist about Morality.Polish Journal of Philosophy 2: 107125.
Rosenberg, Eugene, and Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana. 2011. “Symbiosis and Development: The Hologenome Concept.” Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews 93 (1): 5666. doi:10.1002/bdrc.20196.
Ross, W. D. 1930. The Right and the Good. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ross, W. D. 1939. The Foundations of Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ross, W. D. 1995. Aristotle, 6th ed. London: Routledge.
Rottschaefer, W. A., and Martinsen., D. 1995. “Really Taking Darwin Seriously: An Alternative to Michael Ruse’s Darwinian Metaethics.” In Issues in Evolutionary Ethics, ed. Thompson, P., 375–408. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. 1762. “Du Contrat Social.” In Collected Writings, 13 vols., eds. Masters, Roger and Kelly, Christopher. Dartmouth: University Press of New England, 1990–2010.
Royce, Josiah. 1885. The Religious Aspect of Philosophy. Boston, MA: Houghton, Mifflin.
Ruse, Michael. 1979a. The Darwinian Revolution: Science Red in Tooth and Claw. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ruse, Michael. 1979b. Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense?. London: D. Reidel.
Ruse, Michael. 1986. Taking Darwin Seriously. Oxford: Blackwell.
Ruse, Michael. 1989. The Darwinian Paradigm. London: Routledge.
Ruse, Michael. 1993. “The New Evolutionary Ethics.” In Evolutionary Ethics, eds. Nitecki, M. H. and Nitecki, D. V., 133162. Albany, NY: Suny Press.
Ruse, Michael. 1995. Evolutionary Naturalism. New York: Routledge.
Ruse, Michael. 1998. Taking Darwin Seriously. A Naturalistic Approach to Philosophy. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
Ruse, Michael. 2006. “Is Darwinian Metaethics Possible (And If It Is, Is It Well Taken)?” In Giovanni Boniolo an Gabriele de Anna, Evolutionary Ethics and Contemporary Biology, 1326. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ruse, Michael.2009a. “Evolution and Ethics: The Sociobiological Approach.” In Philosophy After Darwin, ed. Ruse, Michael, 489511. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ruse, Michael. 2009b. “Introduction.” In Evolution and Ethics, Huxley, Thomas Henry, viixxxvi. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ruse, Michael. 2011. “Harvard Holism.” Chronicle of Higher Education (March 30).
Ruse, Michael. 2012. The Philosophy of Human Evolution. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ruse, Michael. 2013. The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ruse, Michael. 2017. Darwinism as Religion: What Literature Tells Us about Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ruse, Michael, and Wilson, E. O.. 1985. “The Evolution of Morality.” New Scientist 1478: 108128.
Ruse, Michael, and Wilson, E. O.. 1986. “Moral Philosophy as Applied Science.” Philosophy 61 (236): 173192.
Ruse, Michael, 1989. “The Evolution of Ethics.” New Scientist 17: 108128.
Russell, B. (1912) 1988. The Problems of Philosophy. Great Books in Philosophy. Buffalo). New York: Prometheus Books.
Russell, B. (1950) 2009. Unpopular Essays. London: Routledge.
Russell, Doug. 2015. “Toward a Pragmatist Epistemology: Arthur O. Lovejoy’s and H. S. Jennings’s Biophilosophical Responses to Neovitalism, 1909–1914.” Journal of the History of Biology 48: 3766.
Russett, C. E. 1976. Darwin in America: The Intellectual Response. 1865-1912. San Francisco: Freeman.
Rutland, Adam, Killen, Melanie, and Abrams, Dominic. 2010. “A New Social-Cognitive Developmental Perspective on Prejudice.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 5(3): 279–291.
Sagan, C., and Druyan, A.. 1993. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors. New York: Random House.
Sapp, Jan. 1994. Evolution by Association: A History of Symbiosis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sarkissian, H., Parks, J., Tien, D., Wright, J. and Knobe, J.. 2011. “Folk Moral Relativism.” Mind and Language 26 (4): 482505.
Sayre-McCord, G. 1986. “The Many Moral Realisms.” Southern Journal of Philosophy 12 (1): 122.
Sayre-McCord, G. ed. 1988. Essays on Moral Realism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Sayre-McCord, G. 2015. “Moral Realism.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2015 Edition), ed. Edward N. Zalta. Available at
Schafer, Karl. 2010. “Evolution and Normative Skepticism.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (3): 471488.
Schermer, M. 2015. The Moral Arc: How Science and Reason Lead Humanity toward Truth, Justice, and Freedom. New York: Henry Holt.
Schloss, J., and Murray, M., eds. 2009. The Believing Primate: Scientific, Philosophical and Theological Reflections on the Origin of Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schmidt, M., Rakoczy, H., and Tomasello., M. 2013. “Young Children Understand and Defend the Entitlements of Others.” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 116(4): 930944.
Schneewind, J. 2003. Moral Philosophy from Montaigne to Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schweber, S. S. 1980. “Darwin and the Political Economists: Divergence of Character.” Journal of the History of Biology 13(2): 195289.
Sclafani, Anthony. 2004. “Oral and Postoral Determinants of Food Reward.” Physiology & Behavior, Proceedings from the 2003 Meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB) 81 (5): 773779. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.04.031.
Seabright, P. 2010. The Company of Strangers: A Natural History of Economic Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Searle, John R. 1964. “How to Derive ‘Ought’ from ‘Is.’Philosophical Review 73 (1): 4358.
Segerstrale, Ullica. 2000. Defenders of the Truth: the Battle for Science in the Sociobiology Debate and Beyond. Oxford: University Press.
Seigfried, Charlene Haddock. 1996. Pragmatism and Feminism: Reweaving the Social Fabric. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Seigfried, Charlene Haddock. 1999. “Socializing Democracy: Jane Addams and John Dewey.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29: 207230.
Sellars, Roy Wood. 1922. Evolutionary Naturalism. Chicago: Open Court.
Shafer-Landau, R. 2003. Moral Realism: A Defense. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shafer-Landau, R. 2007. “Moral and Theological Realism: The Explanatory Argument.” Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (3): 311329.
Shafer-Landau, R. 2012. “Evolutionary Debunking, Moral Realism and Moral Knowledge.Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy 7 (1): 137.
Sidgwick, H. 1876. “The Theory of Evolution in its Application to Practice.” Mind 1: 52–67.
Sidgwick, H. 1907. The Methods of Ethics, 7th ed. London: Macmillan.
Simion, F., Regolin, L., and Bulf, H.. 2008. “A Predisposition for Biological Motion in the Newborn Baby.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 809813.
Simpson, B., Harrell, A., and Willer., R. 2013. “Hidden Paths from Morality to Cooperation: Moral Judgments Promote Trust and Trustworthiness.” Social Forces 91: 15291548.
Simpson, G. G. 1949. The Meaning of Evolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Simpson, G. G. 1964. This View of Life. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.
Sinclair, N. 2012. “Metaethics, Teleosemantics and the Function of Moral Judgements.” Biology and Philosophy 27: 639662.
Singer, P. 1972. Famine, Affluence and Morality. Philosophy and Public Affairs 1: 229–43.
Singer, P. 1981. The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Singer, P. 1995. How Are We to Live? New York: Prometheus Books.
Singer, P. 2005. “Ethics and Intuitions.” Journal of Ethics 9: 331352.
Singer, P. 2011. The Expanding Circle: Ethics, Evolution and Moral Progress. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Singer, P. and de Lazari-Radek, K.. 2012. “The Objectivity of Ethics and the Unity of Practical Reason.” Ethics 123: 931.
Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter. 2006. Moral Skepticisms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Skarsaune, Knut. 2011. “Darwin and Moral Realism: Survival of the Iffiest.” Philosophical Studies 152: 229243.
Slater, A., and Quinn., P. 2001. “Face Recognition in the Newborn Infant.” Infant and Child Development 10: 2124.
Small, D., Loewenstein, G., and Slovic., P. 2007. “Sympathy and Callousness: The Impact of Deliberative Thought on Donations to Identifiable and Statistical Victims.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 102(2): 143153.
Small, Robin. 2005. Nietzsche and Rée: A Star Friendship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Oxford Scholarship Online, 2005. doi: 10.1093/0199278075.001.0001.
Small, Robin. 2007. “Nietzsche’s Evolutionary Ethics.” In Nietzsche and Ethics, ed. Gudrun von Tevenar, 119–135. Bern: Peter Lang.
Smocovitis, Betty. 1992. “Unifying Biology: The Evolutionary Synthesis and Evolutionary Biology.” Journal of the History of Biology 25: 165.
Smocovitis, Betty. 1996. Unifying Biology: The Evolutionary Synthesis and Evolutionary Biology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Smocovitis, Betty. 2008. “The Unifying Vision: Julian Huxley, Evolutionary Humanism, and the Evolutionary Synthesis.” In Pursuing the Unity of Science: Ideology and Scientific Practice between the Great War and the Cold War. Ashgate Press.
Smuts, Jan C. 1926. Holism and Evolution. New York: MacMillan Company.
Sober, Elliott. 1984. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Sober, Elliott. 1994. “Prospects for an Evolutionary Ethics.” From a Biological Point of View: Essays in Evolutionary Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sober, Elliott, and Wilson, David Sloan. 1998. Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sommers, Tamler, and Rosenberg, Alex. 2003. “Darwin’s Nihilistic Idea: Evolution and the Meaningless of Life.” Biology and Philosophy 18 (5): 653668.
Sosa, Ernest. 1999. “How to Defeat Opposition to Moore.” Noûs (Supplement: Philosophical Perspectives 13, Epistemology) 33: 141153.
Sosa, Ernest. 2002. “Reliability and the A Priori.” In Conceivability and Possibility, eds. Gendler, Tamar Szabo and Hawthorne, John, 369–384. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Spaulding, Edward Gleason. 1918. The New Rationalism. New York: Henry Holt.
Spencer, Herbert. 1851. Social Statics: Or, the Conditions Essential to Human Happiness Specified, and the First of them Developed. London: John Chapman.
Spencer, Herbert. 1852. “A Theory of Population, Deduced from the General Law of Animal Fertility.” Westminster Review 1: 468501.
Spencer, Herbert. 1853. “The Universal Postulate.Westminster Review 60: 513550.
Spencer, Herbert. 1855. The Principles of Psychology. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.
Spencer, Herbert. 1857. “Progress: Its Law and Cause.” Westminster Review 67 (April): 244–267.
Spencer, Herbert. 1860. “The Social Organism.” Westminster Review XVII: 90121.
Spencer, Herbert. 1864. The Principles of Biology, Volume 1. London: Williams and Norgate.
Spencer, Herbert. 1871. “Specialized Administration.” Fortnightly Review 16: 628654.
Spencer, Herbert. 1879. The Data of Ethics. London: Williams and Norgate.
Spencer, Herbert. 1881. The Principles of Sociology I. New York: Appleton and Co.
Spencer, Herbert. 1884. The Man versus the State. London: Williams and Norgate.
Spencer, Herbert. 1892. The Principles of Ethics. London: Williams and Northgate.
Sterelny, K. 2007. Dawkins vs Gould: Survival of the Fittest. Thriplow: Totem Books.
Sterelny, K. 2014a. “A Paleolithic Reciprocation Crisis: Symbols, Signals and Norms.” Biological Theory 9 (1): 6577.
Sterelny, K. 2014b. Cooperation, Culture and Conflict. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. doi: 10.1093/bjps/axu024.
Stich, S. Forthcoming. “The Moral Domain.” In The Atlas of Moral Psychology: Mapping Good and Evil in the Mind, eds. Gray, K. and Graham, J.. New York: Guilford.
Strauss, David Friedrich. 1872. The Old Faith and the New, trans. Mathilde Blind. New York: Prometheus Books.
Street, Sharon. 2006. “A Darwinian Dilemma for Realist Theories of Value.” Philosophical Studies 127 (1): 109166.
Street, Sharon. 2008a. “Reply to Copp: Naturalism, Normativity, and the Varieties of Realism Worth Worrying about.Philosophical Issues 18: 207228.
Street, Sharon. 2008b. “Constructivism about Reasons.” In Oxford Studies in Mathematics, ed. Shafer-Landau, Russ, 207–45. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Street, Sharon. 2009. “In Defense of Future Tuesday Indifference: Ideally Coherent Eccentrics and the Contingency of What Matters.” Philosophical Issues 19: 273298.
Street, Sharon. 2011. “Mind-Independence without the Mystery: Why Quasi-Realists Can’t Have It Both Ways.” In Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 6, ed. Shafer-Landau, Russ, 1–32. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Street, Sharon. 2016. “Objectivity and Truth: You’d Better Rethink It.” In Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 11, ed. Russ Shafer-Landau. Oxford University Press.
Streumer, B. 2013. “Can We Believe the Error Theory?Journal of Philosophy 110: 194212.
Stroud, Scott R. 2011. John Dewey and the Artful Life: Pragmatism, Aesthetics, and Morality. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Sturgeon, Nicholas. 1985. “Moral Explanations.” In Morality, Reason, and Truth: New Essays on the Foundations of Ethics, eds. Copp, David and Zimmerman, David, 49–78. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld.
Sturgeon, Nicholas. 1988. “Moral Explanations.” In Essays on Moral Realism, ed. Sayre-McCord, G., 229–255. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Sturgeon, Nicholas. 2002. “Ethical Intuitionism and Ethical Naturalism.” In Ethical Intuitionism: Re-Evaluations, ed. Philip Stratton-Lake, 184–211. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sullivan, Shannon. 2001. Living Across and Through Skins: Transactional Bodies, Pragmatism, and Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Tangney, J., and Fischer., K. 1995. Self-Conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride. New York: Guilford Press.
Teehan, John. 2002. “Evolution and Ethics: The Huxley/Dewey Exchange.” Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16: 225238.
Tenbrunsel, A. E., and Smith-Crowe., K. 2008. “Ethical Decision Making: Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going.” Academy of Management Annals 2: 545607.
Thompson, E. 2000. “Comparative Color Vision: Quality Space and Visual Ecology.” In Color Perception: Philosophical, Psychological, Artistic and Computational Perspectives, ed. Davis, S.. Oxford University Press.
Thompson, R. Paul 2011. Agro-Technology: A Philosophical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thornhill, R., and Palmer, C. T.. 2001. A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Todes, Daniel P. 1989. Darwin without Malthus: The Struggle for Existence in Russian Evolutionary Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., and Moll., H. 2005. “Understanding and Sharing Intentions: The Origins of Cultural Cognition.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28: 675691.
Tomasello, M., and Vaish., A. 2013. “Origins of Human Cooperation and Morality.” Annual Review of Psychology 64: 231255.
Toner, C. 2010. “Evolution, Naturalism, and the Worthwhile: A Critique of Richard Joyce’s Evolutionary Debunking of Morality.” Metaphilosophy 42: 520546.
Trachtenberg, Alan. 1982. The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. New York: Hill and Wang.
Tremaroli, Valentina, and Bäckhed, Fredrik. 2012. “Functional Interactions between the Gut Microbiota and Host Metabolism.” Nature 489 (7415): 242249. doi:10.1038/nature11552.
Trivers, R. 1971. “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism.” Quarterly Review of Biology 46 (1): 3557.
Tufts, James H. 1895. “[Review of] History and Natural Science. W. Windelband. Inaugural Address as Rector. Strassburg, May, 1894.” Psychological Review 2: 9697.
Turnbaugh, Peter J., Hamady, Micah, Yatsunenko, Tanya, Cantarel, Brandi L., Duncan, Alexis, Ley, Ruth E., Sogin, Mitchell L., et al. 2009. “A Core Gut Microbiome in Obese and Lean Twins.” Nature 457: 480484.
Turner, J. Scott. 2000. The Extended Organism the Physiology of Animal-Built Structures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Turner, J. Scott. 2004. “Extended Phenotypes and Extended Organisms.” Biology and Philosophy 19(3): 327–352.
Turner, J. Scott. 2013. “Superorganisms and Superindividuality: The Emergence of Individuality in a Social Insect Assemblage.” In From Groups to Individuals Evolution and Emerging Individuality, eds. Bouchard, Frédéric and Huneman, Philippe, 219241. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tversky, Amos and Kahneman, Daniel. 1981. “The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice.” Science 211(4481): 453–458.
Van der Linden, S. 2011. “Charitable Intent: A Moral or Social Construct? A Revised Theory of Planned Behavior Model.” Current Psychology 30: 355374.
Vavova, Katia. 2014. “Debunking Evolutionary Debunking.” In Oxford Studies in Metaethics, 76101. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vavova, Katia. 2015. “Evolutionary Debunking of Moral Realism.” Philosophy Compass 10: 104116.
Vavova, Katia. n.d. “A Dilemma for the Darwinian Debunker.”
Vlerick, Michael. 2012. “How Can Human Beings Transgress Their Biologically Based Views?South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (4): 717735.
Vlerick, Michael. 2014. “Biologising Putnam: Saving the Realism in Internal Realism.” South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (3): 271283.
Vlerick, Michael. 2016. “Explaining Universal Social Institutions: A Game-Theoretic Approach.” Topoi 35: 291–300.
Wainwright, William. 2010. “In Defense of Non-Natural Theistic Realism: A Response to Wielenberg.” Faith and Philosophy 27 (4): 457463.
Wallin, Ivan E. 1927. Symbionticism and the Origin of Species. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company.
Wallis Budge, E. A. 1901. Book of the Dead. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, and Co.
Walls, Ramona L., Deck, John, Guralnick, Robert, Baskauf, Steve, Beaman, Reed, Blum, Stanley, Bowers, Shawn, et al. 2014. “Semantics in Support of Biodiversity Knowledge Discovery: An Introduction to the Biological Collections Ontology and Related Ontologies.” PLoS ONE 9 (3): e89606. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089606.
Warneken, F., Lohse, K., Melis, A., and Tomasello., M. 2011. “Young Children Share the Spoils after Collaboration.” Psychological Science 22: 267273.
Watson, J. D and Crick, F. H.. April 1953. "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids; a Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid (PDF).” Nature 171(4356): 737–738.
Welchman, Jennifer. 1995. Dewey’s Ethical Thought. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Wharton, E. 1905. The House of Mirth. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
Wheeler, William Morton. 1910. Ants: Their Structure, Development and Behavior. New York: Columbia University Press.
Wheeler, William Morton. 1911. “The Ant Colony as an Organism.” Journal of Morphology 22: 307326.
Wheeler, William Morton. 1918. “A Study of Some Ant Larvae, with a Consideration of the Origin and Meaning of the Social Habit among Insects.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 57: 293343.
Wheeler, William Morton. 1923. “Social Life among the Insects.” Scientific Monthly 16: 160177.
Wheeler, William Morton. 1926. “Emergent Evolution and the Social.” Science 64(1662): 433–440.
Wheeler, William Morton. 1927. Emergent Evolution and the Social. London: Kegan Paul.
Wheeler, William Morton. 1928. Emergent Evolution and the Development of Societies. New York: Norton and Company.
White, R. 2010. “You Just Believe That Because....Philosophical Perspectives 24: 573615.
Whitehead, Alfred North. 1925. Science and the Modern World. New York: MacMillan.
Whitman, Charles Otis. 1891. “Specialization and Organization.” In Biological Lectures Delivered at Marine Biological Laboratory. Boston: Ginn and Company.
Whitman, Charles Otis. 1894. “The Inadequacy of the Cell-Theory of Development.” In Biological Lectures Delivered at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Boston: Ginn and Company.
Wielenberg, Eric. 2005. “In Defense of Non-Natural Non-Theistic Moral Realism.” Faith and Philosophy 26 (1): 2341.
Wielenberg, Eric. 2009. “A Defense of Moral Realism.” Faith and Philosophy 26 (1): 2341.
Wielenberg, Eric. 2010. “On the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality.” Ethics 120: 441464.
Wielenberg, Eric. 2014. Robust Ethics: The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Godless Normative Realism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wielenberg, Eric. 2016. “Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Religion and Morality.” In Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics: Debunking and Dispensibility, eds. Leibowitz, U. and Sinclair, N.. Oxford: Oxford University Press. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198778592.001.0001
Williams, B. 1985. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. London: Fontana.
Williams, G. C. 1966. Adaptation and Natural Selection: A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Williamson, T. 2009. “Reply to Alvin Goldman.” In Williamson on Knowledge, eds. Greenough, P. and Pritchard, D., 305–312. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wilson, D. 2002. Darwin’s Cathedral: Evolution, Religion and the Nature of Society. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Wilson, D. 2004. “The New Fable of the Bees: Multilevel selection, Adaptive Societies, and the Concept of Self Interest.” Ed. Koppl, R., 201220. Oxford: Elsevier.
Wilson, D. S., Dietrich, E., and Clark, A. B.. 2003. “On the Inappropriate Use of the Naturalistic Fallacy in Evolutionary Psychology.Biology and Philosophy 18: 669682.
Wilson, David Sloan, and Wilson, Edward O.. 2007. “Rethinking the Theoretical Foundations of Sociobiology.” Quarterly Review of Biology 82: 327348.
Wilson, David Sloan, and Wilson, Edward O.. 2008. “Evolution for the Good of the Group.” American Scientist 96: 380389.
Wilson, D. S, and Sober, E.. 1989. “Reviving the Superorganism.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 136 (3): 337356.
Wilson, Edward O. 1953. “The Origin and Evolution of Polymorphism in Ants.” Quarterly Review of Biology 28: 136156.
Wilson, Edward O. 1971. The Insect Societies. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
Wilson, Edward O. 1975. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
Wilson, Edward O. 1976. “Academic Vigilantism and the Political Significance of Sociobiology.” BioScience 26: 187190.
Wilson, Edward O. 1978. On Human Nature: With a New Preface, rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, Edward O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wilson, Edward O. 1994. Naturalist. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Wilson, Edward O. 2005. “Kin Selection as the Key to Altruism: Its Rise and Fall.” Social Research 72: 159166.
Wilson, Edward O. 2012. The Social Conquest of Earth. New York: Norton and Co.
Wilson, H. V. 1907. Migration and Rearrangement of Cells Within Sponges.
Wilson, H. V. 2014. The Meaning of Human Existence. Liveright: NYC.
Wilson, Jack. 1999. Biological Individuality the Identity and Persistence of Living Entities. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Wilson, Robert A. 2004. Genes and the Agents of Life: The Individual in the Fragile Sciences Biology. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Wittig, M., Jensen, K., and Tomasello., M. 2013. Five-Year-Olds Understand Fair as Equal in a Mini-Ultimatum Game. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 116(2): 324337.
Wolfe, Elaine Claire Daughetee. 1975. “Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution in America: Louis Agassiz vs. Asa Gray.” American Biology Teacher 37: 244247.
Wright, J., Grandjean, P. and McWhite, C.. 2013. “The Meta-Ethical Grounding of our Moral Beliefs: Evidence for Meta-Ethical Pluralism.” Philosophical Psychology 26 (3): 336361.
Wright, J. C., McWhite, C. B. and Grandjean, P. T.. 2014. “The Cognitive Mechanisms of Intolerance: Do Our Meta-Ethical Commitments Matter.” In Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy, Volume 1, eds. Lombrozo, T., Knobe, J. and Nichols, S., 2861. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wright, L. 1976. Teleological Explanations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Wright, R. 1994. The Moral Animal: Why We Are The Way We Are. New York: Vintage Books.
Wynne-Edwards, V. C. 1962. Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour. New York: Hafner Publishing.
Young, L., and Durwin, A.. 2013. “Moral Realism as Moral Motivation: The Impact of Meta-Ethics on Everyday Decision-making.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49 (2): 302306.