Skip to main content Accessibility help
  • Print publication year: 2015
  • Online publication date: July 2015

39 - Using Simulation to Examine Perceptual Challenges Faced by Health Care Providers

from Part VI - Perception and Domains of Work and Professional Practice


Adams, J. A. (1956). Vigilance in the detection of low-intensity visual stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, 204–208.
Anderson, B. L., Scerbo, M. W., Belfore, L. A. and Abuhamad, A. Z. (2008). Detecting critical patterns in maternal-fetal heart rate signals. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 52nd Annual Meeting (pp. 1478–1482). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Anderson, B. L., Scerbo, M. W., Belfore, L. A. and Abuhamad, A. (2010). When is a deceleration perceived as a late deceleration? Simulation in Healthcare, 4, 311.
Anderson, B. L., Scerbo, M. W., Belfore II, L. A. and Abuhamad, A. Z. (2011). Time and number of displays impact critical signal detection in fetal heart rate tracings. American Journal of Perinatology, 28, 435–442.
Anderson, B. L., Scerbo, M. W., Belfore II, L. A., Abuhamad, A. Z. and Davis, S. S. (2011). Can clinicians tell when a decel is a late decel? Poster presented at the 2011 International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare.
Baddeley, A. D. and Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In G. A. Bower (Ed.), Recent advances in learning and motivation (Vol. 8, pp. 47–90). New York: Academic Press.
Belfore, L. A. II, Scerbo, M. W. and Anderson, B. L. (2007, September). A fetal heart rate monitor simulator. Paper presented at the meeting of ModSim World. Virginia Beach, VA.
Berguer, R. (1999). Surgery and ergonomics. Archives of Surgery, 134, 1011–1016.
Berguer, R., Smith, W. D. and Chung, Y. H. (2001). Performing laparoscopic surgery is significantly more stressful for the surgeon than open surgery. Surgical Endoscopy, 15, 1204–1207.
Bogner, M. S. (1994). Human error in medicine. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Boles, D. B., Bursk, J. H., Phillips, J. B. and Perdelwitz, J. R. (2007). Predicting dual-task performance with the Multiple Resources Questionnaire (MRQ). Human Factors, 49, 32–45.
Brennan, T. A., Leape, L. L., Laird, N. M., Hebert, L., Localio, A. R., Lawthers, A. G., Newhouse, J. P., Weiler, P. C. and Hiatt, H. H. (1991). Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients: Results from the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 370–376.
Brunner, W. C., Korndorffer, J. R., Sierra, R., Massarweh, N. N., Dunne, J. B., Yau, C. L. et al. (2004). Laparoscopic virtual reality training: Are 30 repetitions enough? Journal of Surgical Research, 122, 150–156.
Byrne, E. A. and Parasuraman, R. (1996). Psychophysiology and adaptive automation. Biological Psychology, 42, 249–268.
Chez, B. F., Harvey, M. G. and Harvey, C. J. (2000). Intrapartum fetal monitoring: Past, present, and future. The Journal of Perinatal Neonatal Nursing, 14, 1–18.
Clark, J., Sodergren, M., Correia-Pinto, J., Zacharakis, E., Teare, J., Yang, G. Z. et al. (2009) Natural orifice translumenal thoracoscopic surgery: Does the slow progress and the associated risks affect feasibility and potential clinical applications? Surgical Innovation, 16, 9–15.
Conner, S. and Garden, O. J. (2006). Bile duct injury in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. British Journal of Surgery, 93, 158–168.
Davies, D. R. and Parasuraman, R. (1982). The psychology of vigilance. London: Academic Press.
Dawson, S. (2006). Procedural simulation: A primer. Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 17, 205–213.
Dekker, S. W. A. and Hugh, T. B. (2008). Laparoscopic bile duct injury: Understanding the psychology and heuristics of the error. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 78, 1109–1114.
Deziel, D. J., Millikan, K. W., Economou, S. G., Doolas, A., Ko, S. T. and Airan, M. C. (1993). Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A national survey of 4,292 hospitals and an analysis of 77,604 cases. The American Journal of Surgery, 165, 9–14.
Endsley, M. R. and Kaber, D. (1999). Level of automation effects on performance, situation awareness, and workload in a dynamic control task. Ergonomics, 42, 462–492.
Ericsson, K. A. (2004). Deliberate practice and the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains. Academic Medicine, 79, S70–81.
Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T. and Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363–406.
Figueras, F., Albela, S., Bonino, M. P., Palacio, M., Barrau, E., Hernandez, S. et al. (2005). Visual analysis of antepartum fetal heart rate tracings: Inter- and intra-observer agreement and impact of knowledge of neonatal outcome. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 33, 241–245.
Fitts, P. M. (1964). Perceptual-motor skill learning. In A. W. Melton (Ed.), Categories of human learning (pp. 243–285). New York: Academic Press.
Fitts, P. M. and Posner, M. I. (1967). Learning and skilled performance in human performance. Belmont, CA: Brock-Cole.
Freeman, F. G., Mikulka, P. J., Prinzel, L. J. and Scerbo, M. W. (1999). Evaluation of an adaptive automation system using three EEG indices with a visual tracking task. Biological Psychology, 50, 61–76.
Freeman, R. K. (2002). Problems with intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring interpretation and patient management. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 100, 813–826.
Gaba, D. M. (2004). The future vision of simulation in health care. Quality & Safety in Health Care, 13(1): i2–i10.
Gallagher, A. G., Cowie, R., Crothers, I., Jordan-Black, J. A. and Satava, R. M. (2003). An objective test of perceptual skill that predicts laparoscopic technical skill in three initial studies of laparoscopic performance. Surgical Endoscopy, 17, 1468–1471.
Gallagher, A. G., Ritter, E. M., Champion, H., Higgins, G., Fried, M. P., Moses, G., Smith, C. D. and Satava, R. M. (2005). Virtual reality simulation for the operating room: Proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training. Annals of Surgery, 241, 1–9.
Gawron, V. J. (2008). Human performance, workload, and situational awareness measures handbook (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Gevins, A. S., Smith, M. E., Leong, H., McEvoy, L., Whitfield, S., Du, R. and Rush, G. (1998). Monitoring working memory load during computer-based tasks with EEG pattern recognition methods. Human Factors, 40, 79–91.
Grant, R. C., Carswell, C. M., Lio, C. H., Seales, B. and Clarke, D. (2009). Verbal time production as a secondary task: Which metrics and target intervals are most sensitive to workload for fine motor laparoscopic training tasks? In Proceedings of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting (pp. 1191–1195). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors & Ergonomics Society.
Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. (1988). Development of NASA-TLX (Task Load Index): Results of empirical and theoretical research. In P. A. Hancock and N. Meshkati (Eds.), Human mental workload (pp. 139–183). Amsterdam: North Holland.
Hsu, K. E., Man, F. Y., Gizicki, R. A., Feldman, L. S. and Fried, G. M. (2008). Experienced surgeons can do more than one thing at a time: Effect of distraction on performance of a simple laparoscopic and cognitive task by experienced and novice surgeons. Surgical Endoscopy, 20, 196–201.
Jerison, H. J. (1963). On the decrement function in human vigilance. In D. N. Buckner and J. J. McGrath (Eds.), Vigilance: A symposium (pp. 199–216). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Keehner, M., Lippa, Y., Montello, D. R., Tendick, F. and Hegarty, M. (2006). Learning a spatial skill for surgery: How the contributions of abilities change with practice. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 487–503.
Klein, M. I., Riley, M. A., Warm, J. S. and Matthews, G. (2005). Perceived mental workload in an endoscopic surgery simulator. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th Annual Meeting (pp. 1014–1018). Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors & Ergonomics Society.
Kohn, L. T., Corrigan, J. M. and Donaldson, M. S. (Eds.) (1999). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington DC: National Academies Press.
Kramer, A. F. (1991). Physiologic metrics of mental workload: A review of recent progress. In D. L. Damos (Ed.), Multiple-task performance (pp. 279–328). Bristol: Taylor & Francis.
MacKenzie, C. L., Lomax, A. J. and Ibbotson, J. A. (2004). Safety and error issues in minimally invasive surgery. In M. S. Bogner (Ed.), Misadventures in health care: Inside stories (pp. 59–74). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mackworth, N. H. (1948). The breakdown of vigilance during prolonged visual search. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1, 6–21.
Macones, G. A., Hankins, G. D. V., Spong, C. Y., Hauth, J. and Moore, T. (2008). The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop report on electronic fetal monitoring: Update on definitions, interpretation, and research guidelines. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 177, 1385–1390.
Matern, U. (2004). The laparoscopic surgeon’s posture. In M. S. Bogner (Ed.), Misadventures in health care: Inside stories (pp. 75–88). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Menihan, C. A. and Zottoli, E. K. (2001). Electronic fetal monitoring: Concepts and applications. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Metzger, K. R., Warm, J. S. and Senter, R. J. (1974). Effects of background event rate and critical signal amplitude on vigilance performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38, 1175–1181.
Metzger, U. and Parasuraman, R. (2005). Automation in future air traffic management: Effects of decision aid reliability on controller performance and mental workload. Human Factors, 47, 35–49.
Moore, M. J. and Bennett, C. L. (1995). The learning curve for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The American Journal of Surgery, 170, 55–59.
Moray, N. (1979). Mental workload: Its theory and measurement. New York: Plenum.
Munz, Y., Kumar, B. D., Moorthy, K., Bann, S. and Darzi, A. (2004). Laparoscopic virtual reality and box trainers: Is one superior to the other? Surgical Endoscopy, 18, 485–494.
Murphy, A. A., Halamek, L. P., Lyell, D. J. and Druzin, M. L. (2003). Training and competency assessment in electronic fetal monitoring: A national survey. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 101, 1243–1248.
Nygren, T. E. (1991). Psychometric properties of subjective workload measurement techniques: Implications for their use in the assessment of perceived mental workload. Human Factors, 33, 17–33.
O’Donnell, R. D. and Eggemeier, F. T. (1986). Workload assessment methodology. In K. Boff, L. Kaufman and J. Thomas (Eds.), Handbook of perception and human performance, Vol. 2: Cognitive processes and performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Reed, K. and May, R. (2011). The eighth annual HealthGrades patient safety in American hospitals study. Denver: HealthGrades.
Reid, G. B. and Nygren, T. E. (1988). The subjective workload assessment technique: A scaling procedure for measuring mental workload. In P. A. Hancock and N. Meshkati (Eds.), Human mental workload (pp. 185–218). Amsterdam: North Holland.
Reznick, R. K. and MacRae, H. (2006). Teaching surgical skills – changes in the wind. New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 2664–2669.
Roviaro, G. C., Varoli, F., Saguatti, L., Vergani, C., Maciocco, M. and Scarduelli, A. (2002). Major vascular injuries in laparoscopic surgery. Surgical Endoscopy, 16, 1192–1196.
Rubio, S., Díaz, E., Martín, J. and Puente, J. M. (2004). Evaluation of subjective mental workload: A comparison of SWAT, NASA-TLX, and Workload Profile methods. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53, 61–86.
Scerbo, M. W. and Anderson, B. L. (2012). Medical simulation. In P. Carayon (Ed.), Handbook of human factors and ergonomics in health care and patient safety (2nd ed.) (pp. 557–571). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Schwartz, N. and Young, B. K. (2006). Intrapartum fetal monitoring today. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 34, 99–107.
Sirevaag, E. J., Kramer, A. F., Coles, M. G. H. and Donchin, E. (1989). Resource reciprocity: An event-related brain potentials analysis. Acta Psychologica, 70, 77–97.
Stefanidis, D., Scerbo, M. W., Korndorffer, J. R. Jr. and Scott, D. J. (2007). Redefining simulator proficiency using automaticity theory. The American Journal of Surgery, 193, 502–506.
Stefanidis, D., Scerbo, M. W., Sechrist, C., Mostafavi, A. and Heniford, B. T. (2008). Do novices display automaticity during simulator training? The American Journal of Surgery, 195, 210–213.
Stefanidis, D., Scerbo, M. W., Montero, P. N., Acker, C. E. and Smith, W. (2012). Simulator training to automaticity leads to improved skill transfer compared with traditional proficiency-based training: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Surgery, 255, 30–37.
Sweha, A., Hacker, T. W. and Nuovo, J. (1999). Interpretation of the electronic fetal heart rate during labor. American Family Physician, 59, 2487–2500.
Temple, J. G., Warm, J. S., Dember, W. N., Jones, K. S., LaGrange, C. M. and Matthews, G. (2000). The effects of signal salience and caffeine on performance, workload, and stress in an abbreviated vigilance task. Human Factors, 42, 183–194.
Tendick, F., Downes, M., Gogtekin, T., Cavusoglu, M. C., Feygin, D., Wu, X. et al. (2000). A virtual testbed for training laparoscopic surgical skills. Presence, 9, 236–255.
Todros, T., Preve, C. U., Plazzotta, C., Biolcati, M. and Lombardo, P. (1996). Fetal heart rate tracings: Observers versus computer assessment. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 68, 83–86.
Warm, J. S. (1984). An introduction to vigilance. In J. S. Warm (Ed.), Sustained attention in human performance (pp. 1–13). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Warm, J. S., Dember, W. N. and Hancock, P. A. (1996). Vigilance and workload in automated systems. In R. Parasuraman and M. Mouloua (Eds.), Automation and human performance: Theory and applications (pp. 183–200). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Warm, J. S. and Jerison, H. J. (1984). The psychophysics of vigilance. In J. S. Warm (Ed.), Sustained attention in human performance (pp. 15–59). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Weinger, M. B. and Englund, C. E. (1990). Ergonomic and human factors affecting anesthetic vigilance and monitoring performance in the operating room environment. Anesthesiology,73, 995–1021.
Weiss, P. M., Balducci, J., Reed, J., Klasko, S. K. and Rust, O. A. (1997). Does centralized monitoring affect perinatal outcome? The Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, 6, 317–319.
Welch, R. B., Choe, C. S. and Heinrich, D. R. (1974). Evidence for a three-component model of prism adaptation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 700–705.
Wentink, M., Fischer, H., Dankelman, J., Stassen, L. P. S. and Wieringa P. A. (2002) The perspective effect due to wide-angle lenses in endoscopes. Journal of Laparoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques, 12, 461–465.
Wickens, C. D. (1984a). Engineering psychology and human performance. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Wickens, C. D. (1984b). Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman and D. R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention (pp. 63–102). New York: Academic Press.
Wickens, C. D. (2002). Multiple resources and performance prediction. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, 3, 159–177.
Wiener, E. L. (1964a). Multiple channel monitoring. Ergonomics, 7, 453–460.
Wiener, E. L. (1964b). Transfer of training in monitoring: Signal amplitude. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 18, 104.
Wiener, E. L. (1984). Vigilance and inspection. In Warm J. S. (Ed.), Sustained attention in human performance (pp. 207–245). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Withiam-Leitch, M., Shelton, J. and Fleming, E. (2006). Central fetal monitoring: Effect on perinatal outcomes and cesarean section rate. Birth, 33, 284–288.
Wolf, J. S., Jr., Marcovich, R., Gill, I. S., Sung, G. T., Kavoussi, L. R., Clayman, R. V. et al. (2000). Survey of neuromuscular injuries to the patient and surgeon during urologic laparoscopic surgery. Urology, 55, 831–836.
Yurko, Y. Y., Scerbo, M. W., Prabhu, A. S., Acker, C. E. and Stefanidis, D. (2010). Higher mental workload is associated with poorer laparoscopic performance as measured by the NASA-TLX tool. Simulation in Healthcare, 5, 267–271.
Zheng, B., Cassera, M. A., Martinec, D. V., Spaun, G. O. and Swanstrom, L. L. (2010). Measuring mental workload during the performance of advanced laparoscopic tasks. Surgical Endoscopy, 24, 45–50.
Ziv, A. Wolpe, P. R., Small, S. D. and Glick, S. (2003). Simulation-based medical education: An ethical imperative. Academic Medicine, 78, 783–788.