Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 2
  • Print publication year: 1996
  • Online publication date: March 2008

3 - Augustus: power, authority, achievement

from PART I - NARRATIVE

Summary

Those who urge the historian to look behind the 'facade' and confront the 'reality' of Augustus' power mostly imply that he should acknowledge that Augustus' ultimate possibility of coercion lay in control of the army. The triumviral age had been the culmination of changes: nevertheless, it was the achievement of Augustus to create a volunteer, professional army, its size determined by himself, 'depoliticize' it, and establish for it an ethos of loyalty to himself and the 'divine family'. One of the reasons why Augustus' formal authority cannot be detached from his actual power is that armies can only with difficulty and exceptionally be recruited and held without a legitimate claim. Tacitus offers an appraisal of Augustus, in contrasting paragraphs: what can be said in his favour and what against. For Tacitus, as for many historians after him, the bad outweighed the good. The shape of Roman Empire was Augustus' contribution.
Alföldi, A. Der Vater des Vaterlandes im römischen Denken. (Contains his papers ‘Die Geburt der kaiserlichen Bildsymbolik’ from Museum Helveticum 7 (1950) ; 8 (1951) ; 9 (1952) ; 10 (1953) ; 11 (1954).) Darmstadt, 1971.
Badian, E.Nobiles amici: art and literature in an aristocratic society’, CP 80 (1985).
Béranger, J.Diagnostic du principat: l'empereur romain, chef de parti’, Revue des études latines 37 (1959) (= C).
Bowersock, G. W. Augustus and the Greek World. Oxford, 1965.
Braund, D. Rome and the Friendly King: the Character of Client Kingship. London–Canberra–New York, 1984.
Bringmann, K.Zur Gerichtsreform des Kaisers Augustus’, Chiron 3 (1973).
Brunt, P. A. Review of Syme, R. Roman Papers III (Oxford, 1984), Classical Review 34 (1984).
Brunt, P. A.The lex Valeria Cornelia’, Journal of Roman Studies 51 (1961).
Brunt, P. A.Lex de Imperio Vespasiani’, Journal of Roman Studies 67 (1977).
Brunt, P. A.The administrators of Roman Egypt’, Journal of Roman Studies 65 (1975) (= (with addenda) a 12).
Campbell, B.The marriage of soldiers under the Empire’, Journal of Roman Studies 68 (1978).
Charlesworth, M. P.The refusal of divine honours, an Augustan formula’, Proceedings of the British Academy 2 (1939).
Chastagnol, A.La naissance de l'ordo senatorius’, Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'école française de Rome 85 (1973). (= D 54).
Coarelli, F. Roma (Guide archeologiche Laterza). 3rd edn. Rome and Bari, 1985.
Consigliere, L. ‘Slogans’ monetarie e poesia augustea. Genoa, 1978.
Crook, J. A. Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian. Cambridge, 1955.
Duthoy, R.Les Augustales’, Temporini, H., Haase, W. (eds.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. Berlin and New York, 1972II, 16.2 (1978), esp.
Eck, W.Augustus’ administrative Reformen: Pragmatismus oder systematisches Planen?’, Acta Classica. Proceedings of the Classical Association of South Africa 29 (1986).
Elia, S. d'.L'esilio di Ovidio e alcuni aspetti della storia Augustea’, Annali della Facoltà di Lettere e della Università di Napoli 5 (1955).
Frier, B. W. The Rise of the Roman Jurists: Studies in Cicero's pro Caecina. Princeton, 1985.
Gabba, E.La “Storia di Roma arcaica" di Dionigi d' Alicarnasso’, Temporini, H., Haase, W. (eds.), Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt. Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung. Berlin and New York, 1972II, 30.1 (1982).
Garnsey, P. and Sailer, R. The Roman Empire. Economy, Society and Culture. London, 1987.
Girard, P. F.Les leges Iuliae iudiciorum publicorum et priuatorum’, Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte 34 (1913).
González, J.Tabula Siarensis, Fortunales Siarenses et Municipia Civium Romanorum’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 55 (1984).
Grant, M. From Imperium to Auctoritas: a Historical Study of Aes Coinage in the Roman Umpire 49 b.c.–a.d. 14. Cambridge, 1946; repr. 1969.
Grenade, P. Essai sur les origines du principat. Paris, 1961.
Gros, P. Aurea templa: recherches sur l' architecture religieuse de Rome à l' èpoque d'Auguste (Bibliothèque des écoles françhises d'Athènes et de Rome 231). Paris, 1976.
Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1959.
Heldmann, K., Antike Tbeorien über Entwicklungtmd Verfall der Redekunst VI.I, Munich, 1982
Herrmann, P. Der römische Kaisereid (Hypomnemata 20). Göttingen, 1968.
Hopkins, K. Conquerors and Slaves. Sociological Studies in Roman History I. Cambridge, 1978.
Jolowicz, H. F. and Nicholas, B. Historical Introduction to the Study of Roman Law. 3rd edn. Cambridge, 1972.
Jones, A. H. M. Studies in Roman Government and Law. Oxford, 1960.
Kienast, D. Augustus. Prinzeps und Monarch. Darmstadt, 1982.
La Penna, A. Orazio e l'ideologia del Principato. Turin, 1963.
Lacey, W. K.Octavian in the senate, January 27 b.c.’, Journal of Roman Studies 64 (1974).
Levick, B. M.Propaganda and the imperial coinage’, Antichthon 16 (1982).
Levick, B. M.The Senatus Consultum from Larinum’, Journal of Roman Studies 73 (1983).
Magdelain, A. Auctoritas Principis. Paris, 1947.
Martino, F.. Storia delta costituzione romana IV, I. Naples, 1974.
Mellor, R. θEA PΩMH: the Worship of the Goddess Roma in the Greek World (Hypomnemata 42). Göttingen, 1975.
Millar, F. The Emperor in the Roman World (31 b.c.–a.d. 337). London, 1977.
Millar, F.The Mediterranean and the Roman revolution: politics, war and the economy’, Past and Present 102 (1984).
Musurillo, H. The Acts of the Pagan Martyrs: Acta Alexandrinorum. Oxford, 1954.
Nicolet, C. Le métier de citoyen dans la Rome républicaine. Paris, 1976; transl. as A 68.
Pippidi, D. M. (ed.) Assimilation et résistance à la culture gréco-romaine dans le monde ancien. Bucharest–Paris, 1976.
Raaflaub, K. A.The political significance of Augustus’ military reforms’, in Hanson, W. S. and Keppie, L. J. F. (eds.) Roman Frontier Studies 1979, III (British Archaeological Reports International Series 71). Oxford, 1980.
Rawson, E. D.Discrimina ordinum: the Lex Iulia Theatralis’, Proceedings of the British Academy 55 (1987).
Reynolds, J. Aphrodisias and Rome (Journal of Roman Studies Monographs I). London, 1982.
Rotondi, G. Lege spublicae populi romani. Milan, 1912; repr. with appendix, 1962.
Saller, R. Personal Patronage under the Early Empire. Cambridge, 1982.
Sherwin-White, A. N.Procurator Augusti’, Proceedings of the British Academy 15 (1939).
Simon, E. Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom urn die Zeitennwende. Munich, 1986.
Sutherland, C. H. V. The Emperor and the Coinage. Julio-Claudian Studies. London, 1976.
Syme, R. The Augustan Aristocracy. Oxford, 1986.
Szramkiewicz, R. Les gouverneurs de province à l'époque augustéenne (Etudes Prosopographiques iii–iv). Paris, 1975 and 1976.
Talbert, R. J. A.Augustus and the senate’, Greece and Rome 31 (1984).
Wallace-Hadrill, A.The emperor and his virtues’, Hist. 30 (1981).
Wallace-Hadrill, A. Suetonius: the Scholar and his Caesars. London, 1983.
Wallace-Hadrill, A.Image and authority in the coinage of Augustus’, Journal of Roman Studies 76 (1986).
Weinstock, S. Diuus Iulius. Oxford, 1971.
Wieacker, F.Respondere ex auctoritate principis’, in Ankum, J. A. et al. (eds.) Satura Roberto Feenstra oblata, 71–94. Fribourg, 1985.
Yuge, T. and Doi, M. (eds.) Forms of Control and Subordination in Antiquity. Leiden, 1988.
Zanker, P. Augustus und die Macht der Bilder. Munich, 1987.