Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
  • Print publication year: 2018
  • Online publication date: February 2018

Chapter 7 - Basal Ganglia

Bolam, J. P., Ingham, C. A., and Magill, P. J. (2006). The basal ganglia VIII. International Basal Ganglia Society. Symposium (8th: 2004: Crieff, Scotland) New York, NY, London, UK: Springer.
Kultas-Ilinsky, K., and Llinsky, I. A. (Eds.). (2001). Basal Ganglia and Thalamus in Health and Movement Disorders. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Ma, T. P. (2013). The basal nuclei. In: Haines, D. E. (Ed.), Fundamental Neuroscience for Basic and Clinical Applications (4th edn.). New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone, pp.354369.
Miguel, E. C., Rauch, S. L., and Leckman, J. F. (1997). Psychiatric Clinics of North America: Neuropsychiatry of the Basal Ganglia (vol. 20). Philadelphia: Saunders.
Moretti, R. (Ed.) 2009. Basal Ganglia and Thalamus: Their Role in Cognition and Behavior. New York, NY: Nova Science.
Nolte, J. (2009). The Human Brain: An Introduction to Its Functional Anatomy; Chapter 19, Basal Ganglia. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier.
Ahmari, S. E., Spellman, T., Douglass, N. L., Kheirbek, M. A., Simpson, H. B., Deisseroth, K.,… Hen, R. (2013). Repeated cortico-striatal stimulation generates persistent OCD-like behavior. Science, 40(6137), 12341239. doi:10.1126/science.1234733
Ambasudhan, R., Dolatabadi, N., Nutter, A., Masliah, E., Mckercher, S. R., and Lipton, S. A. (2014). Potential for cell therapy in Parkinson’s disease using genetically programmed human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells. J. Comp. Neurol., 522(12), 28452856. doi:10.1002/cne.23617
Ames, D., Cummings, J. L., Wirshing, W. C., Quinn, B., and Mahler, M. (1994). Repetitive and compulsive behavior in frontal lobe degenerations. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 6(2), 100113. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8044031
Barrow, T. R. (2015). Cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease. Biosci. Horiz., 8:hzv002. doi:10.1093/biohorizons/hzv002
Baxter, L. R. Jr. (1992). Neuroimaging studies of obsessive compulsive disorder. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 15, 871884. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1461802
Bekar, L., Libionka, W., Tian, G., Xu, Q., Torres, A., Wang, X.,… Nedergaard, M. (2008). Adenosine is crucial for deep brain stimulation–mediated attenuation of tremor. Nature Med. 14(1), 7580. doi:10.3410/f.1116345.572360
Bellucci, A., Mercuri, N. B., Venneri, A., Faustini, G., Longhena, F., Pizzi, M., … Spano, P. (2016). Review: Parkinson’s disease: from synaptic loss to connectome dysfunction. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 42(1), 7794. doi:10.1111/nan.12297
Benarroch, E. E. (2010). Acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex. Neurology, 75(7), 659665. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181ee267e
Beucke, J. C., Sepulcre, J., Talukdar, T., Linnman, C., Zschenderlein, K., Endrass, T.,… Kathmann, N. (2013). Abnormally high degree connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J.A.M.A. Psychiatry, 70(6), 619629. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.173
Bloch, M. H., Leckman, J. F., Zhu, H., and Peterson, B. S. (2005). Caudate volumes in childhood predict symptom severity in adults with Tourette syndrome. Neurology, 65, 12531258. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000180957.98702.69
Bloomfield, M. A., Morgan, C. J., Kapur, S., Curran, H. V., and Howes, O. D. (2014). The link between dopamine function and apathy in cannabis users: an [18F] DOPA PET imaging study. Psychopharmacol., 231, 22512259. doi:10.1007/s00213-014–3523-4.
Bogerts, B., Hantsch, J., and Herzer, M. (1983). A morphometric study of the dopamine-containing cell groups in the mesencephalon of normals, Parkinson patients, and schizophrenics. Biol. Psychiatry, 18, 951969. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6640008
Bohlhalter, S., Goldfine, A., Matteson, S., Garraux, G., Hanakawa, T., Kansaku, K.,… Hallett, M. (2006). Neural correlates of tic generation in Tourette syndrome: an event-related functional MRI study. Brain, 129, 20292037. doi:10.1093/brain/awl050 2029–2037
Borges, S., Coimbra, B., Soares-Cunha, C., Ventura-Silva, A. P., Pinto, L., Carvalho, M. M.,… Sousa, N. (2013). Glucocorticoid programing of the mesopontine cholinergic system. Front. Endocrinol., 4, 190. doi:10.3389/fendo.2013.00190
Braak, H., Del Tredici, K., Rüb, U., de Vos, R. A., Jansen Steur, E. N., and Braak, E. (2003). Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson’s disease. Neurobiol. Aging, 24, 197211. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00065–9
Brown, L. T., Mikell, C. B., Youngerman, B. E., Zhang, Y., McKhann, G. M. II, and Sheth, S. A. (2016). Dorsal anterior cingulotomy and anterior capsulotomy for severe, refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review of observational studies. J. Neurosurg., 124(1), 7789. doi:10.3171/2015.1.JNS14681
Burke, R. E., and O’Malley, K. (2013). Axon degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Exp. Neurol., 246, 7283. doi:10.1016/j.expneurol.2012.01.011
Butterworth, R. F. (2013). Parkinsonism in cirrhosis: pathogenesis and current therapeutic options. Metabolic Brain Dis., 28(2), 261267. doi:10.1007/s11011-012–9341-7
Carbon, M., Ma, Y., Barnes, A., Dhawan, V., Chaly, T., Ghilardi, M. F., and Eidelberg, D. (2004). Caudate Nucleus: influence of dopaminergic input on sequence learning and brain activation in Parkinsonism. Neuroimage, 21, 14971507. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.12.014
Carboni, E., Silvagni, A., Rolando, M. T., and Di Chiara, G. (2000). Stimulation of in vivo dopamine transmission in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis by reinforcing drugs. J. Neurosci. 20(20), RC102. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11027253
Casanova, M. F., Crapanzano, K. A., Mannheim, G., and Kruesi, M. (1995). Sydenham’s chorea and schizophrenia: A case report. Schizophrenia Res., 16(1), 7376. doi:10.1016/0920–9964(95)00004–6
Choi, S. H., Olabarrieta, M., Lopez, O. L., Maruca, V., Dekosky, S. T., Hamilton, R. L., and Becker, J. T. (2012). Gray matter atrophy associated with extrapyramidal signs in the Lewy body variant of Alzheimer’s disease. J. Alzheimers Dis., 32(4), 10431039. doi:10.3233/JAD-2012-121108
Crick, F. C., and Koch, C. (2005). What is the function of the claustrum? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 360, 12711279. doi:10.1098/rstb.2005.1661
Cummings, J. L. (1992). Depression and Parkinson’s disease: A review. Am. J. Psychiatry, 149, 443454. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1372794. doi:10.1176/ajp.1494.443
Deep-Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease Study Group (2001). Deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the pars interna of the globus pallidus in Parkinson’s disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 345, 956963. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa000827
DeLong, M. R., and Benabid, A-L. (2014). Discovery of high-frequency deep brain stimulation for treatment of Parkinson disease. J.A.M.A., 312(11), 10931094. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.11132.
Ehmann, T. S., Beninger, R. J., Gawel, M. J., and Riopelle, R. J. (1990). Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease: A comparison with disabled control subjects. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry Neurol., 1, 39. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2140682
Everitt, B. J., Belin, D., Economidou, D., Pelloux, Y., Dailey, J. W., and Robbins, T. W. (2008). Neural mechanisms underlying the vulnerability to develop compulsive drug-seeking habits and addiction. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci., 363, 31253135. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0089
Falkai, P., and Bogerts, B., (1993). Cytoarchitectonic and developmental studies in schizophrenia. In: Kerwin, R. W. (Ed.), Cambridge Medical Reviews: Neurobiology and Psychiatry, Vol. 2. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, pp.4352.
Figee, M., Luigjes, J., Smolders, R., Valencia-Alfonso, C-E., van Wingen, G., de Kwaastenient, B.,… Denys, D. (2013). Deep brain stimulation restores frontostriatal network activity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nat. Neurosci., 16, 386387. doi:10.1038/nn.3344
Folstein, S. E., Folstein, M. F., and Starkstein, S. E. (1990) Diseases of the caudate as a model for a manic depressive disorder. In Franks, A. J. (Ed.), Function and Dysfunction in the Basal Ganglia. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp.239246.
Folstein, S. E., Peyser, C. E., Starkstein, S. E., and Folstein, M. F. (1991). The subcortical triad of Huntington’s disease: A model for a neuropathology of depression, dementia and dyskinesia. In Carroll, B. J. and Barrett, J. E., (Eds.), Psychopathology and the Brain. New York, NY: Raven Press, pp.6575.
Garcia-Rill, E., Luster, B., O’Onofrio, S., Mahaffey, S., Bisagno, V., and Urbano, J. (2015). Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology – Deep brain stimulation (DBS). Sleep Sci., 8(3), 153161. doi:10.1016/j.slsci.2015.09.001
Ginovart, N., and Kapur, S. (2012). Role of dopamine D2 receptors for antipsychotic activity. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol., 212, 2752. doi:10.1007/978–3-642–25761-2_2
Gironell, A., Kulisevsky, J., Rami, L., Fortuny, N., Garcia-Sanchez, C., and Pascual-Sedano, B. (2003). Effects of pallidotomy and bilateral subthalamic stimulation on cognitive function in Parkinson disease. A controlled comparative study. J. Neurol., 250(8), 917923. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2008.06.010
Goll, Y., Atlan, G., Citri, A. (2015). Attention: The claustrum. Trends Neurosci., 38(8), 486495. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2015.05.006
Grabli, D., Karachi, C., Folgoas, E., Monfort, M., and Tande, D. (2013). Gait disorders in Parkinsonian monkeys with pedunculopontine nucleus lesions: A tale of two systems. J. Neurosci., 33(29), 1198611993. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1568–13
Gratwicke, J., Kahan, J., Zrinzo, L., Hariz, M., Limousin, P., Fltynei, T., and Jahanshahi, M. (2013). The nucleus basalis of Meynert: a new target for deep brain stimulation in dementia? Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 37, 26762688. doi:10.1016/brain/awu193
Haber, S. N., and Fudge, J. L. (1997). The primate substantia nigra and VTA: Integrative circuitry and function. Crit. Rev. Neurobiol., 11, 323342. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net/publication/13890443_The_Primate_Substantia_Nigra_and_VTA_Integrative_Circuitry_and_Function
Hallett, M. (2015). Tourette syndrome: update. Brain Develop., 37(7), 651655. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2014.11.005
Heimer, L., Alheid, G. F., de Olmos, J. S., Groenewegen, H. J., Haber, S. N., Harlan, R. E., and Zahm, D. S. (1997). The accumbens: Beyond the core-shell dichotomy. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 9, 354381. doi:10.1176/jnp.9.3.354
Hepp, D. H., Ruiter, A. M., Galis, Y., Voorn, P., Rozemuller, A. J. M., Berendese, H. W.,… van de Berg, W. D. J. (2013). Pedunclopointine cholinergic cell loss in hallucinating Parkinson disease patients but not in dementia with Lewy bodies patients. J. Neuropath. Exp. Neurol., 72(12), 11621170. doi:10.1097/NEN.0000000000000014
Herholz, K., Weisenbach, S., Zündorf, G., Lenz, O., Schröder, Bauer, B.,… Heiss, W.-D. (2004). In vivo study of acetylcholine esterase in basal forebrain, amygdala, and cortex in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Neuroimage 21, 136143. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.09.042
Hickey, P., and Stacy, M. (2016). Deep brain stimulation: A paradigm shifting approach to treat Parkinson’s disease. Front. Neurosci., Apr 28; 10:173. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00173
Hoebel, B. G., Avena, N. M., and Rada, P. (2007). Accumbens dopamine–acetylcholine balance in approach and avoidance. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol., 7, 617627. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2007.10.014
Hoexter, M. Q., de Souza Duran, F. L. D’Alcante, C. C., Dougherty, D. D., Shavitt, R. G., Lopes, A. C.,… Busatto, G. F. (2012). Gray matter volumes in obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after fluoxetine or cognitive-behavior therapy: a randomized clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacol., 37, 734745. doi:10.1038/npp.2011.250
Houck, J., and Wise, S. P. (1995). Distributed modular architectures linking basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex: Their role in planning and controlling action. Cereb. Cortex, 5, 95110. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7620294
Hunn, G. H. M., Cragg, S. J., Bolam, J. P., Spillantini, M-G., and Wade-Martins, R. (2016). Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson’s disease. Trends Neurosci., 38(3), 478188. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2014.12.009
Ikemoto, S. (2007). Dopamine reward circuitry: two projection systems from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens-olfactory tubercle complex. Brain Res. Rev., 56(1), 2778. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.05.004
Ito, R., Robbins, T. W., and Everitt, B. J. (2004). Differential control over cocaine-seeking behavior by nucleus accumbens core and shell. Nat. Neurosci. 7, 389397. doi:10.1038/nn1217
Jenkinson, N., Nandi, D., Miall, R. M., and Aziz, T. Z. (2004). Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improves akinesia in a Parkinsonian monkey. NeuroReport. 15(17), 26212624. doi:10.1097/00001756–200412030-00012
Kapur, S., Mizrahi, R., and Li, M. (2005). From dopamine to salience to psychosis – linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis. Schizophr. Res., 79, 5968. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.01.003
Kartsounis, L. D., Poynton, A., Bridges, P. K., and Bartlett, J. R. (1991). Neuropsychological correlates of stereotactic subcaudate tractotomy. A prospective study. Brain, 114(6), 26572673. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1782537
Kerstetter, K. A., Wunsch, A. M., Nakata, K. G., Donckels, E., Neumaier, J. F., and Ferguson, S. M. (2016). Corticostriatal afferents modulate responsiveness to psychostimulant drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41, 11281137. doi:10.1038/npp.2015.253
Koob, G. F. (2013). Negative reinforcement in drug addiction: the darkness within. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 323, 559563. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2013.03.011
Koubeissi, M. Z., Bartolomei, F., Beltagy, A., and Picard, F. (2014). Electrical stimulation of a small brain area reversibly disrupts consciousness. Epilepsy Behav., 37, 3235. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.05.027
Krauss, J. K. (2002). Deep brain stimulation for dystonia in adults. Overview and developments. Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg., 78(3–4), 168182. doi:10.1159/000068963
Kravitz, A. V., Tye, L. D., and Kreitzer, A. C. (2012). Distinct roles for direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons in reinforcement. Nat. Neurosci., 15, 816818. doi:10.1038/nn.3100
Kwon, J. S., Jang, J. H., Choi, J. S., and Kang, D. H. (2009). Neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Expert Rev. Neurother., 9, 255269. doi:org/10.1586/14737175.9.2.255
LaLumiere, R. T., Niehoff, K. E., and Kalivas, P. W. (2010). The infralimbic cortex regulates the consolidation of extinction after cocaine self-administration. Learn. Mem., 17, 168175. doi:10.1101/lm.1576810
Langston, J. W., and Palfreman, J. (2014). The Case of the Frozen Addicts. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press.
Latini, S., and Pedata, F. (2001). Adenosine in the central nervous system: release mechanisms and extracellular concentrations. J. Neurochem., 79, 463484. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471–4159.2001.00607.x/pdf
Lauterbach, E. C. (1999). The external globus pallidus in depression. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 11(4), 515516. doi.org/10.1176/jnp.11.4.515
Laviolette, S. R. (2007). Dopamine modulation of emotional processing in cortical and subcortical neural circuits: evidence for a final common pathway in schizophrenia? Schizophr. Bull., 33(4), 971981. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm048
Leckman, J. F., Grice, D. E., Boardman, J., Zhang, H., Vitale, A., Bondi, C.,… Pauls, D. L. (1997). Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 154, 911917. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9210740
Lerner, A., Bagic, A., Simmons, J. M., Mari, Z., Bonne, O., Xu, B.,… Hallett, M. (2012). Widespread abnormality of the γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic system in Tourette syndrome. Brain, 135, 19261936. doi:10.1093/brain/aws104
Lévesque, M. F., Neuman, T., and Rezak, M. (2009). Therapeutic microinjection of autologous adult human neural stem cells and differentiated neurons for Parkinson’s disease: five-year post-operative outcome. Open Stem Cell J., 1, 2029.
Liu, A. K. L., Chang, R. C-C., Pearce, R. K. B., and Gentleman, S. M. (2015). Nucleus basalis of Meynert revisited: anatomy, history and differential involvement in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neuropathol., 129(4), 527540. doi:10.1007/s00401-015–1392-5
Lozano, A. M., Mayberg, H. S., Giacobbe, P., Hamani, C., Craddock, R. C., and Kennedy, S. H. (2008). Subcallosal cingulate gyrus deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Biol. Psychiatry, 64, 461467. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1456
Luxenberg, J. S., Swedo, S. E., Flament, M. F., Friedland, R. P., Rapoport, J., and Rapoport, S. I. (1988). Neuroanatomical abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder determined with quantitative x-ray computed tomography. Am. J. Psychiatry, 145, 10891093. doi:10.1176/ajp.145.9.1089
Marin, R. S., and Wilkosz, P. A. (2005). Disorders of diminished motivation. J. Head Trauma Rehabil., 20(4), 377388. Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16030444
Mayberg, H. S. (1993). Neuroimaging studies of depression in neurologic disease. In: Starkstein, S. E., and Robinson, R. G. (Eds.), Depression in Neurologic Disease. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, pp.186216.
Mayberg, H. S., Lozano, A. M., Voon, V., McNeely, H. E., Seminowicz, D., Hamani, C.,… Kennedy, S. H. (2005). Deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression. Neuron, 45(5), 651660. doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp
Mendez, M. F., Adams, DN. L., and Skoog, K. M. (1989). Neurobehavioral changes associated with caudate lesions. Neurology, 39(3), 349354. doi:10.1212/WNL.39.3.349
Mendez, M. F., O’Connor, S. M., and Gerald, T. H. (2004). Hypersexuality after right pallidotomy for Parkinson’s Disease. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 16, 3740. Retrieved from www.pubpdf.com/pub/14990757/Hypersexuality-after-right-pallidotomy-for-Parkinsons-disease
Mendez, M. F., Owens, E. M., Reza-Berenji, G., Peppers, D. C., Liang, L. J., and Licht, E. A. (2013). Mild traumatic brain injury from primary blast vs. blunt forces: post-concussion consequences and functional neuroimaging. NeuroRehabilitation, 32(2), 397407. doi:10.3233/NRE-130861
Menza, M. A., and Mark, M. H. (1994). Parkinson’s disease and depression: The relationship to disability and personality. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 6, 165169. doi.org/10.1176/jnp.6.2.165
Miller, J. M., Vorel, S. R., Tranguch, A. J., Kenny, E. T., Mazzoni, P., van Gorp, W. G., and Kieber, H. D. (2006). Anhedonia after a selective bilateral lesion of the globus pallidus. Am. J. Psychiatry, 163(5), 786788. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2008.04.031
Munro-Davies, L. E., Winter, J., Aziz, T. Z., and Stein, J. F. (1999). The role of the pedunculopontine region in basal-ganglia mechanism of akinesia. Exp. Brain Res., 129, 511517. doi:10.1007/s002210050921
Nakamae, T., Sakai, Y., Abe, Y., Nishida, S., Fukui, K., Yamada, K.,… Narumoto, J. (2014). Altered fronto-striatal fiber topography and connectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder. PLoS One, 9(11), e112075. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112075
Nakamura, T., Ghilardi, M. F., Mentis, M., Dhawan, V., Fukuda, M., Hacking, A.,… Eidelberg, D. (2001). Functional networks in motor sequence learning: abnormal topographies in Parkinson’s disease. Hum. Brain Mapp., 12, 4260. doi:10.1002/1097–0193(200101)12:1<42::aid-hbm40>3.0.CO;2-D
Newsome, M. R., Durgerian, S., Mourany, L., Scheibel, R. S., Lowe, M. J., Beall, E. B.,… Rao, S. M. (2015). Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury. Neuroimage Clin., 8(8), 543553. doi:10.1016/j.nicl.2015.04.024
Okubo, Y., Suhara, T., Suzuki, K., Kobayashi, K., Inoue, O., Terasaki, O.,… Toru, M. (1997). Decreased prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in schizophrenia revealed by PET. Nature, 385(6617), 634636. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9024661
Palacios, J. M., (2015). Serotonin receptors in brain revisited. Brain Res., 15(1645), 4649. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2015.12.042
Peyser, C. E., and Folstein, S. E. (1993). Depression in Huntington disease. In: Starkstein, S. E. and Robinson, R. G. (Eds.), Depression in Neurologic Disease. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, pp.117138.
Plaha, P., and Gill, S. S. (2005). Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus for Parkinson’s disease. Neuroreport, 16, 18831887. doi:10.1080/02688690802448350
Price, L. H., Spencer, D. D., Marek, K. L., Robbins, R. J., Leranth, C., Farhi, A.,… Redmond, D. E. Jr. (1995). Psychiatric status after human fetal mesencephalic tissue transplantation in Parkinson’s disease. Biol. Psychiatry, 38, 498505. doi:10.1016/0006–3223(95)00129–5
Raff, M. C., Whitmore, A. V., and Finn, J. T. (2000). Axonal self-destruction and neurodegeneration. Science, 296, 868871. doi:10.1126/science.1068613
Remy, P., Doder, M., Lees, A., Turjanski, N., and Brooks, D. (2005). Depression in Parkinson’s disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic system. Brain, 128(6), 13141322. doi:10.1093/brain/awh445
Roussakis, A. A., Politis, M., Towey, D., and Piccini, P. (2016). Serotonin-to-dopamine transporter ratios in Parkinson disease: Relevance for dyskinesias. Neurology, 86(12), 11521158. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002494
Ryan, L., Martone, M., Linder, J., and Groves, P. (1990). Histological and ultrastructural evidence that d-amphetamine causes degeneration in neostriatum and frontal cortex of man. Brain Res. 518, 6777. doi:10.1016/0006–8993(90)90955-B
Saddoris, M. P., Cacciapaglia, F., and Wightman, R. M. (2015). Differential dopamine release dynamics in the nucleus accumbens core and shell reveal complementary signals for error prediction and incentive motivation. J. Neurosci., 35(33), 1157211582. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2344–15.2015
Saleh, C., and Fontaine, D. (2015). Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric diseases: what are the risks? Curr. Psychiatry Rep., 17(5). doi:10.1007/s11920-015–0565-1.
Salgado, S., and Kaplitt, M. G. (2015). The nucleus accumbens: a comprehensive review. Stereotact. Funct. Neurosurg., 93, 7593. doi:10.1159/000368279
Salloway, S. and Cummings, J. (1994). Subcortical disease and neuropsychiatric illness. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci., 6(2), 9399. Retrieved from http://neuro.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/jnp.6.2.93
Segawa, M. (2003). Neurophysiology of Tourette’s syndrome: pathophysiological considerations. Brain Dev., 25, S62S69. doi:10.1016/S0387-7604(03)90011–8
Simpson, E. H., Kennendonk, C., and Kandel, E. (2010). A possible role for the striatum in the pathogenesis of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuron, 65(5), 585596. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.02.014.
Smeding, H., Speelman, J., Koning-Haanstra, M., Esselink, R. A. J., de Bie, R. M. A., de Haan, Lenders, W. P. M.,… Speelman, J. D. (2006). Neuropsychological effects of bilateral STN stimulation in Parkinson disease: A controlled study. Neurology, 66(12), 18301836. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000234881.77830.66
Starkstein, S. E., and Mayberg, H. S. (1993). Depression in Parkinson disease. In: Starkstein, S. E. and Robinson, R. G. (Eds.), Depression in Neurologic Disease. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, pp.97116.
Stefani, A., Lozano, A. M., Peppe, A., Stanzione, P., Galati, S., Tropepi, D.,… Mazzone, P. (2007). Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine and subthalamic nuclei in severe Parkinson’s disease. Brain, 130, 15961607. doi:10.1093/brain/awl346
Swedo, S. E., and Leonard, H. L. (1992). Trichotillomania: An obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder? Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 151, 777790. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1461795
Taba, P. (2013). Metals and movement disorders. Curr. Opin. Neurol., 26(4), 435441. doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283629beb
Tagliaferro, P., Kareva, T., Oo, T. F., Yarygina, O., Kholodilov, N., and Burke, R. E. (2015). An early axonopathy in a hLRRK2(R1441G) transgenic model of Parkinson disease. Neurobiol. Dis., 82, 359371. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2015.07.009
Thorsen, A. L., van den Heuvel, O. A., Hansen, B., and Kvale, G. (2015). Neuroimaging of psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic review. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging, 233(3), 306313. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.05.004
Trifilieff, P., Feng, B., Urizar, E., Winiger, V., Ward, R. D., Taylor, K. M…. Javitch, J. A. (2013). Increasing dopamine D2 receptor expression in the adult nucleus accumbens enhances motivation. Mol. Psychiatry, 18(9), 10251033. doi:10.1038/mp.2013.57
van Westen, M., Rietveld, E., Figee, M., and Denys, D. (2015). Clinical outcome and mechanisms of deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Curr. Behav. Neurosci. Rep., 2(2), 4148. doi:10.1007/s40473-015–0036-3
Villalba, R. M., and Smith, Y. (2014). Differential striatal spine pathology in Parkinson’s disease and cocaine addiction: a key role of dopamine? Neuroscience, 251, 220. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.07.011
Volkow, N. D., and Fowler, J. S. (2000). Addiction, a disease of compulsion and drive: involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb. Cortex, 10, 318325. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.07.024
Volkow, N. D., and Morales, M. (2015). The brain on drugs: from reward to addiction. Cell, 162(4), 712725. doi:10.1016 j.cell.2015.07.046
Watanabe, K., Kakeda, S., Yoshimura, R., Abe, O., Ide, S., Hayashi, K.,… Korogi, Y. (2015). Relationship between the catechol-O-methyl transferase Val108/158Met genotype and brain volume in treatment-naive major depressive disorder: Voxel-based morphometry analysis. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging, 233(3), 481487. doi:10.1093/cercor/10.3.318
Winn, P., Brown, V. J., and Inglis, W. L. (1997). On the relationships between the striatum and the pedunculopontine nucleus. Crit. Rev. Neurobiol., 11, 241261. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9336713
Wood, J., and Ahmari, S. E. (2015). A framework for understanding the emerging role of corticolimbic-ventral striatal networks in OCD-associated repetitive behaviors. Front. Syst. Neurosci., 9, 171. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00171
Zebardast, N., Crowley, M. J., Bloch, M. H., Mayes, L. C, Wyk, B. V., Leckman, J. F.,… Swain, J. E. (2013). Brain mechanisms for prepulse inhibition in adults with Tourette syndrome: initial findings. Psychiatry Res., 214, 3341. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2013.05.009
Zhao, M., Momma, S., Delfani, K., Carlén, M., Cassidy, R. M., Johansson, C. B.,… Janson, A. M. (2003). Evidence for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian substantia nigra. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 100(13), 79257930. doi:10.1073/pnas.1131955100